Skip to main content

Full text of "The Monthly Review May to August,1799"

See other formats

This  is  a  digital  copy  of  a  book  that  was  preserved  for  generations  on  library  shelves  before  it  was  carefully  scanned  by  Google  as  part  of  a  project 
to  make  the  world's  books  discoverable  online. 

It  has  survived  long  enough  for  the  copyright  to  expire  and  the  book  to  enter  the  public  domain.  A  public  domain  book  is  one  that  was  never  subject 
to  copyright  or  whose  legal  copyright  term  has  expired.  Whether  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  may  vary  country  to  country.  Public  domain  books 
are  our  gateways  to  the  past,  representing  a  wealth  of  history,  culture  and  knowledge  that's  often  difficult  to  discover. 

Marks,  notations  and  other  marginalia  present  in  the  original  volume  will  appear  in  this  file  -  a  reminder  of  this  book's  long  journey  from  the 
publisher  to  a  library  and  finally  to  you. 

Usage  guidelines 

Google  is  proud  to  partner  with  libraries  to  digitize  public  domain  materials  and  make  them  widely  accessible.  Public  domain  books  belong  to  the 
public  and  we  are  merely  their  custodians.  Nevertheless,  this  work  is  expensive,  so  in  order  to  keep  providing  this  resource,  we  have  taken  steps  to 
prevent  abuse  by  commercial  parties,  including  placing  technical  restrictions  on  automated  querying. 

We  also  ask  that  you: 

+  Make  non-commercial  use  of  the  files  We  designed  Google  Book  Search  for  use  by  individuals,  and  we  request  that  you  use  these  files  for 
personal,  non-commercial  purposes. 

+  Refrain  from  automated  querying  Do  not  send  automated  queries  of  any  sort  to  Google's  system:  If  you  are  conducting  research  on  machine 
translation,  optical  character  recognition  or  other  areas  where  access  to  a  large  amount  of  text  is  helpful,  please  contact  us.  We  encourage  the 
use  of  public  domain  materials  for  these  purposes  and  may  be  able  to  help. 

+  Maintain  attribution  The  Google  "watermark"  you  see  on  each  file  is  essential  for  informing  people  about  this  project  and  helping  them  find 
additional  materials  through  Google  Book  Search.  Please  do  not  remove  it. 

+  Keep  it  legal  Whatever  your  use,  remember  that  you  are  responsible  for  ensuring  that  what  you  are  doing  is  legal.  Do  not  assume  that  just 
because  we  believe  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  the  United  States,  that  the  work  is  also  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  other 
countries.  Whether  a  book  is  still  in  copyright  varies  from  country  to  country,  and  we  can't  offer  guidance  on  whether  any  specific  use  of 
any  specific  book  is  allowed.  Please  do  not  assume  that  a  book's  appearance  in  Google  Book  Search  means  it  can  be  used  in  any  manner 
anywhere  in  the  world.  Copyright  infringement  liability  can  be  quite  severe. 

About  Google  Book  Search 

Google's  mission  is  to  organize  the  world's  information  and  to  make  it  universally  accessible  and  useful.  Google  Book  Search  helps  readers 
discover  the  world's  books  while  helping  authors  and  publishers  reach  new  audiences.  You  can  search  through  the  full  text  of  this  book  on  the  web 

at|http  :  //books  .  google  .  com/ 


Ptf     3CjnT       ^  '      fCjO 



O  R 



From  Mat  to  August,  inclusive^ 


With    an    APPENDIX. 

**  You  sec,  P«^,  Cay,  and  /,  use  our  endcarbars  to  make  folks 
merry  and  wise ;  and  profess  to  have  no  enemies  except  Kjiavcs  and 

SwirT*s  Letter  to  Sir  Ch.  Wooan. 



Printed  by  A.  Stmhan,  Printers  Street ;   for  R.Griffiths;  and 
sold  by  T.  Bccket,  in  Pall  Mail. 



O  F    T  H  E 

Titles,  Authors'  Names,  &c.    of  the  Pub* 
lications  reviewed  in  this  Volume. 

N.  B.  For  REMARKABLE  PASSAGES  in  the  Criticisms  and 
Extracts,  fee  the  I N  D  £  X,  at  the  End  of  the  Volume. 

t^  For  the  Names,  also,  of  the  Authors  of  new  Dissertations, 
or  other  curious  Papers,  published  in  the  Memoirs  and 
Transactions  of  the  Saentiiic  Academies  at  Home  or 
on  the  Continent,  and  also  for  the  Titles  of  those  Dissertations, 
&c.  of  which  Accounts  are  given  in  the  Review, — see  the 
Jniftx,  printed  at  the  End  of  each  Volume. 

ydBBOT^^Flvra  BedfordUntU^  68 

•^^    Aha/U  Franf*i$t,  584 

Alfitigdon^  Earl  of,   Stiictures    on  Mr. 
Fiti,  ^        608 

Aicentuathn,     See  Vocahulary* 
jiJStngHin*%  Speech  on  the  Unioo,         83 
yidtlmd^  of  Wulfingen,  %%% 

AdviceflAed^icaX,  SttH^tie,  Set  Gillespie. 
Africa^  Travels  in,  241 

Aiutter'%  Two  Sermons,  359 

AlUnt  (Ira)  History  of  Vermont,     a6o 
— —  (William)    Minutes  and  OiMerva« 
dons  for  Yeomanry,  350 

Amtrica,  Revolution  in.  Discourses  on, 

American  G  a  tetteer,  46  5  -6 
Anderton'%  (R«)  Poems,  104 
— ^—  (James)  Facts  on  the  Yellow 
Few,  454 
>f0<iir/,  a  Tragedy,  336 
Anecdotes  of  Founders  of  the  French  Re- 
public, Vol.  JI.  238 
Amnalet  de  Chimic,  554 
Ann^u'nUi.  See  Celtic,  See  Pwgens, 
Apostles.  See  Jesse. 
AfflkaticH  of  B«rrue)*s  Memoirs,  181 
Jbahian  Nights*  Entertainments,  new 
Edit.  ^  474 
AfcUrd's  Discoarse  on  Providence,  65 
Afckitteturef  Hydraulic.  S#e  Prony, 
,  EfXP^^'  Remains  of,  585 

Arguments  for  a  Coalition  against  France, 

Aristocrat  f  468 

Aflewlle"^  Accidence  of  the  French  Lan- 
goagc,  4^3.4 

^mf*s  Repository,  451 

Asbdowne"^  Letters  to  Bp.  of  LandafF,  ffi 
Astronomy t  Epitome  of,  21a 

Auckland,   Lord,  Speech  on    the    Irish 
Union,  2x6 

Bacofi'-^Tacon*%  Celtic  Researches,        57} 
Barky  Willow.     See  fVliitt. 
Bofjnage  of  Scotland,  1 1  z 

Barruel  on  Jacobinism,  Vol.  IV.  trans- 
lated, 179 
^— • .  See  AppUetttion, 
Sarthelemy*9  Cbarite  Sc  Polydorus,  334 
BastiUy  English,  Secrets  of,  113 
Battle  of  the  Nile,  a  Descriptive  Poem,  99 
Beaujolini  Travels,  53 j 
Beddoes  on  Consumption,  %'j^ 
Bee,  French,  584, 
Beeke  on  the  Income  •  Tax,  351 
Belsbam's  Two  Historic  Dissertations,  3C4 
Bevill  on  the  Law  of  Homicide,  86 
Siife.     See  Pratt, 

Bills,  law  of,  459 

Bicgrapbiana,  294 

Bird^t  Laws  respecting  Wills,  ite.      457 
■    !■  — *•  respecting  Paiish  Matters,  w* 
BUnard  on  the  Blood.  Vetseli>         45  S 
A  %  Bolhni^m 



lPolhnd\  Epiphany,  a  Poem,  98 

Bonaparte^  Letters,  Part  II.  139 

Boucher' %  Two  Assize  Sermons,  1 1 7 

^V  ■■  Dbcourics  on  che  AoMikaii  de- 
volution, ^5^ 
B9wciC%  Sermon  at  St  Paul's,  1 18 
^ow/m's  St.  Micbiels  Mount,  337 
— **t  Coombc  Ellen,  339 
Brltiih  Nef>esy  173 

Tourists,  335 

Brown  on  Darwi n's  Zoonomia,    1 5 1 . 2 64 
Browfu  on  the  Civil  Law,  40* 

BrU^rtmam't  View  pf  iditioiis  jof  the 
Classics,  ^07 

Cteiorean  Operation.     See  Hull, 
Cambridge,     See  Letter, 
Ctmfhdh%  Plcasuiet  of  Hope,  411 

Carry's  Balnea,  3«;6 

Castle  of  St.  Donates,  89 

*    ■      of  Beeston,  90 

■.■    ■  of  Montval^  447 

Cavalry,     See  JVarnery,  Ytomanrj^  Light 

Celtic  Res^rarches,  573 

Charite  Sc  Pd yd orus,  334 

Cktmicsl  Annals,  554. 

China.     See  far  Braam, 
Ckitty  on  the  Law  of  Bills  of  Exchange,  459 
Cburchf  English.    See  Cove,    See  Letter, 

,  GalUcan.     Stc  Dissertation, 
Cisalpine  Republic,  Account  of,  71 

C7  Biography,  355 

Clarke's  (Dr.)  Medicinet  Praxccs  Compen- 
dium,  456 
■  *s  (Mr.)  Naval  Sermons,  471 
,  Rev.  John,  Account  of,  476 
Classics.  See  BtL'ggtmjnn. 
Quhhe'i  Omnium,  x  1  x 
Coalition  Stc  yirguficKts. 
CW- Viewer,  451 
Coins.  S<.c  CrJcr.  See  Pyp, 
CoUman  on  ihc  Horfe's  Fofit,  383 
Co!eridge\  Fears  in  Sohtude,  43 
Colman'i  Feudal  Times,  230 
Cdnett^s  ^'oy^^tf  27 
Concise  Strleaion  cf  the  Excellencies  of 
Rcvclat;r»n,  347 
Condtr  00  I'lovinciil  Coins,  114 
Cenodr rations  on  N  jcional  ln<iepenclence,9 1 
m  on  Pub.iCi^Aflaira  in  Ire- 
land, 219 
Constantinople,  Travels  to,  549 
Consumption.  See  Beddoes. 
Continent y  Observations  on  the  Stateof,  105 
Coombe  KUen,  a  Poem,  339 
Co6te\  History  of  England,  concluded,  51 
Copyhcliisy  Law  of,  Vol.  1|.  46 1 
Coray^s  Characters  of  Theophrastut,  506 
Coraier'%  French  Bee,  584 
%*CoftEXsroNDXNcc  wf>i  rA«  Re^ 
fntwtrs^      1 1 8-P-i  2C»  240^  36CJ  480 

Cove  on  the  Revenues  of  the  Church,  19^ 
Count  of  Burgundy,  102 

Country  Parsoo^s  Address,  2^7 

Cent>-pt»,     See  Jenner.     Sec  fVoodville, 
Coxe'i  Assize  Sermon,  479 

Crabb's  Introduction  to  German,         462 
Crutwe/r&  New  Gazetteer,  no 

Cullyer'&  Gentleman's  and  Parmer's  Assist- 
ant, 354 
Cumberland  on  Outline,  &c.  451—452. 
Cwrr's  Coal -Viewer,  451 
Cutan^us  Diseases.     See  lyMan. 

Dacitr*^  Medals,  &  Hist,  of  England,  47 T 
D" AU'mbert*&  Posthumous  Woiks,  5c  7 
Bamvin.     Sec  Bro^vn.  ^ 

De  Lolme  or  .Making  Will?,  ?/ 

Demonstratkn  of  the  Necessity  of  an  Union, 

22  I 
Des  Carricres-^P etit  Parnasse  Franrms,/^  6 1 
Desenfjni*  Plan  respecting  the  Fine  Arts, 

Discarded  Secretary,  232 

D^ Israelii  Romances,  »2i 

Dissertation,  Historical,  on  the  GalUcan 
Church,  497 

Din  Carlos,  a  Tragedy,  145 

Drake^i  Literary  Hours,  280 

Drill.     See  Russell, 

Durnford  usd  Ezit — Term  Reports,  458 
DutcA  Embassy.     See  P'an  Braam. 
DuttoHi  Translation  of  Pizarro,         450 
Dyer^i  Address  to  the  People,  87 

East.     See  Durnford, 
Economists,  French.     See  H^akefield, 
Egypt.     See  Sonnini.    See  Grobmann, 
Epidemic.     See  A^/«a. 
EjipLaty,  a  Poem,  9S 

Epitome  of  the  History  of  England,     4"  7 
Equality  of  Mankind,  i  S9 

Essay  on  preserving  Health,  455 

Essays,  Three,  on  Taxation  of  Income, 
&c.  23^ 

— — ,Six,  by  Ludlam,  379 

Etymological  Chart,  462 

Evil  Spirit.     See  Leycester* 
Euripides*     See  For  sen. 
Evjingi  Sermon,  489 

fyrr's  Discarded  Secretary,  232 

Facts  and   Observatlont  relative  to  the 

Philadelphia  Fever,  452 

Farmer.     See  CuUytr,  See  Parkinson. 

Fap-elPi  Union  or  Separation,  2 18 

FavKett  on  Christian  Communion,       94 

*8  Hist,  of  John  Wise,  465 

Frars  in  Solitude,  43 

Feudal  Tuun,  ^  aso 



fVi^r,  Putrid,  Acci>uotof,  346 
of  PbiladdphUy  Facts  relating  to, 

-^—  of  cbe  West  Indies,  Facts  on,  454. 

.     SteM*Leam. 

Tidd  Prracbiog,  Sermon  00,  480 
'Flnt  Aril.     Sfe  Dncnfant, 

Ktrfh  on  Lotd  Thanct^s  Case,  460 

Ftt'sger0ld'%  NeIson*«  Triuaophy  335 

yivra  Bcdjirdiemsitf  68 

Fes:<:r*t  Speech  on  the  Irish  Union,  21$ 

-,  Obsctvations  on,  344 

FcuchecGur*%  French  Translation  of  Ras- 

selas,  14S 

Trance,    Tracts  relating  to,    105,  106, 

Fr^ffrA  Freedom,  Eles>ings  of,  1 15 

Frcnd^s  Piinciples  of  Taxiitiony  207 

GallLau  Church.     Sec  DlitirtatiQH. 
GMkiM*%  Eoition  of  Southgaie*s  Sermons, 

Ga^utteer,     ^et  Crutwell*  %et  Morse, 
GeiiweU(.r''i  Translation  of  the  Noble  Ue, 

<7^/ir— Rash  Vows,  467 

GeografAjf  Syiiem  off  213 

German,  Introduction  to,  462 

Gil  BUt  corrig/,  3  ;  ^ 

Gil'esfieU  Advice  to  Commanders  in  the 

West  Indies,  456 

Glrard  on  the  Resistance  of  Solids,    517 
Cfasse^i  Sermons,  iSa 

Chxfer*%  Leooidas,  new  Edit.  j  00 

Ccabe^i  Gorts  of  Berlingen,  222 

Creek f  Pronunciation  of.     See  H^alLr, 
Greer,  on  the  New  System  of  Morals,  193 
Gr^hmann's  Remains  ot  Egyptian  Archi- 

ceccure,  5S; 

Grave-Hiii,  a  Poem,  419 

CtifUIim^i  Charge  to  the  Grand  Jury,  2S 

Kager^t  Account  of  a  Literary  Imposture, 

Handet'i  Sacred  Orator(oS|  10 1 

Hoilam  on  Insanity,  344 

Hsy^i  Fait  Sermon,  1  j  6 
UMltb.     See  Euay. 

Heiberg'%  Poverty  and  Wealth,  335 

HeJem  Sinclair,  2^9 

Be{hiraf>ky,  Treatise  on^  Z  t^o 

Henry  li.  a  Drama,  445 
Berhildty  Rafu,  and  T«</*',  on  Perkinism, 


Hiltz  (Sir  R.J   Apology  for    Brotherly 
Love,  94,95 

Butcric  Dissertations,  3  54 

JIUi»ry  of  John  Wise,  465 

....^.  of  Peter  111.  491 

•«i«.^     See  AtUtit  C»^»  Zfiume^ 

Ihgartk.     See  Jrelattd' 
Hoiman'%  Votary  of  Wealth,  454 

Ihmtlde,  Law  of,  Sfi 

HooU"%  Works  of  Leeuwenhoek,        40! 
hcrse*g  Foot.     See  Ci^emam, 
Hosplt&tt,  Army.     See  tViilmmt, 
Hughes  Qtk  the  principles  of  JacobHiisiii^ 


Httll  on  the  Csrsarean  Opetadon,  St 

Human  Vicissitudes,  90 

Hunter  on  Vegetable  and  Anisnal  Partus 

lition,  g5 
Hydrauiia*    See  Pr^, 

I  and  J 
Jackson*^  Cautions  to  Women,  ^^     St/t-BarrueL'  See  j^/^cm* 

tictt.     Sec  Hughes. 
Jamaica,  Advice  to  Persons  going  t«^  S6 
yenner't    Farther   Obsexvationa    oa    dtt 

Cow-Pox,  ^ifl 

Jtrningham^s  Peckham  Frolic,  stjc 

Jervis,  Sir  J.,  00  an  Ur.ion,  9* 

yesie  on  the  Learning  of  the  Apostiea, 

lldegerte.  Queen  of  Norutiyy  33^ 

Imfosture,  Literary,  Account  of,       575 
Ir.ihbuld*s  Lovers'  Vows,  jo* 

Inclosing,  Hints  on,  ^i^ 

Incomt,  Tax  on.     See  Essay,     See  Ob^ 

Lidefendcncey^'S  At'iona],  Considerations  on. 


Index  to  Term  Reports, 

Infantry,  Review  of,  ^^ 

Innovation,  »  Poem,  31^ 

fntsnity.     See  Haslam, 

Interest,  Tables  of,  %jj 

ychnscn^i  Rassdas,  in  French,  14S 

lreUnd'%  (John)  Hogarth  illuttrated,  V«l. 

Hi.  3y; 

(W.  H.)  Vortigcrn,  &c.      445 

Ireland,     See  Unicn,    See  Kn,x. 
Irish  Academy.     See  TramaLtv^ns, 
Juries,     Stt  Dytr,     Stt  :).,urity. 

Keith'i  Arlthmetic'ian«  %\x 
King's  Tablci  of  Interest,  %  1 1 
Knox  on  the  Political  Circum<:taoces  of 
Ireland,  aiS 
Koehler't  Translation  of  Warnery  on  Ca- 
valry, 44^ 
K3::iitbui*i  Noble  Lie,  ^y 
•'  Count  of  Burgundy,          los 
».>-  —  ■          Natural  Son,                  ih.  ica 
■-^  —- ,-  Adtlaide  of  Wulfingen,      %ib 
.— Virgin  of  th^  Sun,     i2S,4$d 
-— *— -  Reconciliation,  a  CoRMdy,  129 
■                   lldegerte,  (^of  Noriiay,  33^ 
Pitarro,              341,  44^,  450 

■■I    —  Self-ImmoU;iooy  445 



LanJy  floating.    Sec  IFrighu^ 
handaff.  Bishop  of'.  Letters  to,  93 

Im  PcroMi*%  Voyage,  translated,  63 

JLa  tlace  on  the  System  of  the  Worid,  499 
Lathif  Pronnociation  of.     See  ff^tlker, 
Lsmgi  when  you  can,  23 1 

Lsvff  Civil.     See  Browne, 
Z.a«;'sTwoSennotison  Christianity,  348 
X^wr^fl^r's  Vjfigin  of  the  Sun,  450 

Leeuwenhoek'%  Works,  408 

LttUr  to  the  Church  of  England,  97 

■  to  a  Member  of  the  Senate  of  Cixn- 
bridge,  3^3 

hitteri  from  Lausanne,  88 

■  ■;  ■'  -,  Three,  on  an  Union,  417 
Ltycttter  on  an  Evil  Spitit>  jir 
iJhertimSf  9 1 
Life  of  Voltaire,  525, 
laght'Hont  Drill,  3  5 1 
Ltpuomb  on  a  Putrid  Fever,  346 
Literary  Hoars,  28a 
Lkyd's  (C.)  Lines  on  the  Fast,  9^ 
..  I  ( £. )  System  of  Geography,  2 1 3. 
Loven*  Vows,  102,  104 
L»dlam'%  Essays,  379 
IjrnVa/ BaUads,                                    202 


M*Letn  on  the  Mortality  at  St.  Domingo, 

Margate  C\i\d€f  340 

A^nhalVi  Sermons,  347 

Masioul  on  Painting,  108 

J(&vor*s  British  N epos,  173 

British  Tourists,  355 

Jlftf«r/Vr'8  C rove  Hill,  a  Poem,  419 

Medical  Records,  Vol.  I.  Part  I.  ^64 

■■  Admonitions,  346 

Af*«e«rj  of  McJicine,  454 

■  of  the  Paris  Acidemy,  ancluded, 


of  Pope  Plus  VI.  563 

Mircyi't  Introduction  to  English  Gram-. 

mar,  464 

Mtrtens  on  the  Plague,  78 

Minto,  Lord,  Speech  on  the  Irish  Union, 

MiHset*s  Appendage  to  th»  Toilette,  86 
Mtrais.     See  Green. 

Morning  and  Evening  Prayers,  348 

Moneys  American  Gareticer,  464— -6 
Munkboute^i  Thanksgiving  Sermon,  1 16 
Murrafi  English  Reader,  464 


Natural  Son  f  ici.  104 

J^tfvd/ Sermons,  471 

Necessity  of  destroying  the  French  Re- 

public,  235 

Netm'i  Triumph^  335 

NepeSf  British,  17^ 

Neuman'i  Transh  of  Self-Immolidon,445 
Neutrality  of  I* Tuss'ia^  2^0 

Nkkihon'%  Journal  of  Natural  Philo$>- 

phy>  301 

NieePs  Practical  Planter,  21  x 

A'i/V,  Battle  of,  99 

Nitrous  Va^ur.     Sec  Smytb, 
Noble  Lie,  M  Drama,  97 

Ncebden  and  Sioddart,   Transt.  of  Dun 

Carlos,  143 

Obsertfatiom  on  the  Political  State  of  the 
Cbntinenr,  105 

— -  —  on  Mr.  Foster's  Speech,  344 

Omnium.     Sec  Ciubbe. 

Ol>»enbeim*%  Account  of  the  Cisalpine 
Republic,  71 

Ori.«/tf/ Collections,  Nos.  Ill,  &  IV.  292 

Ofmord—'GU  Bias  corrig/^  3  ^  ^ 

Ouseley^s  Oriental  Collections,  Nos.  III. 
and  IV,  292 

Out /he.    See  Cumberland. 

Ow*«'8  Welsh  Dictionary,  Part  IV.  no 

Painting.     See  Mas  soul, 

Pallett  on  Inclosing,  1 12 

Ptf.Wr  on  Heliograph V,  150 

Paris  Acidcmy,   Memoirs  of,  concluded^ 

Parisb  Matters,  Laws  of,  457 

Park\  Travels  in  Africa,  24 1 

Parkinsen'i  (James)  Medical  Admoni- 
tions, 546 
■  (Richard)  Experienced  Far- 
mer, 373 
Parturhion.  Sec  Hunter, 
Passions,  InHuencec'f,  Treatise  on,  473 
Peacock't  Little  Emigrant,  464 
Peckbatn  Frolic,  231 
P^^ifli^nr,  Experiments  on,  559 
Pcrouie^%  Voyage,  translated,  63 
Peter  \\\.  History  of,  491 
PbiiaJelpbia  Fever.  Sec  Factt, 
Pbil'jS'ifbyf  Natural,  Journal  of,  301 
Physician^  Letters  of,  585 
Pictureifue  Tour  through  Syria,  &c. 
Nos.  II.— VL  586 
P/«i  VI.  Memoirs  of,  563 
Pmarrof  a  Tragedy,  34 1, 449,  450 
Plague.  See  Mertens, 
Planter,  Practical,  2 1 1 
Pleasures  of  Hope,  422 
Pl^mptre^z  Transl.  of  the  Count  of  Bur- 
gundy,                                            102 

— •  of  the  Natural  Son,  ib. 

■  of  the  Virgin  of  the 

Son,  228 

ofPizarro,  440 

Ptm.     See  C§hridgtf  Btlhnd^  Lloyd^ 




Sewar4f     Maurict,   CamfieJif    Semti*- 

PoHual  fAon'itotf  xro 

PoTid^'-^aggk  di  NovtUi^  461 

Ptor  Laws,  Observations  on,  451$ 

Poor,     See  Rfports. 

Pop€**  Rape  of  thr  Lock,  new  Edit,  xoi 

Porsm*%  Edit,  of  the  Hecuba  and  Orestes, 


See  JVakefitU. 

Porter* t  Lovers'  Vows,  104 
P#v<r/j  ard  Wealth,  335 
Putgems on  Nortbera  Antjqtiilic%  495 
Pratf^  Prospectus  of  a  Polyi^lutt  Bible,  9a 
Prgtjers  for  Morning  and  Evening,  348 
Prrtwi/^Sermon,  3^9 
PrMjr's  new  Hydiaulic  Architecture,  4S1 
Pre (/ir«rf6if,  Thoughts  on,  478 
Providence.  Sec  Archard. 
Prussia  J  Neutrality  of.  136 
Pyes  r^«ifincial  Cupper-Coins,  a  39 
(H.  J.)  Aristocrat,  46S 

Ma/u.  See  Jhrho/Jt. 
RandalPs  Letter  to  the  Women,  477 
Rash  yows,  467 
Xtf 52^/^1,  translated  Into  French,  148 
Refowiliation,  a  Conxdy,  229 
Jte//>h"s  Poeois,  448 
Refnrts  of  the  Society  for  the  Poor,  240 
RrveUttcn,  Excellencies  of,  347 
Reynolds''%  Laugh  when  you  can^  232 
Rights  of  Protestants  asserted,  96 
—  of  Discussion,  349 
R'rvers^s  Beauties  of  Saurin»  ,  392 
Rsmancei,  12 1 
RxmfordC%  (Count}  Proposals  for  an  Insti- 
tution, 238 
Rustir%  Instructions  for  Drill,  349 

Seward'i  Biographiina,  9^4 

^  (Miss)  Original  Sonnets,  361 

Stcffieidf  Lord,  his  Speech,  344. 
^^mdUa's  Piaarro,  341 
Smrie*i  Review  of  a  Battalion  of  Infan- 
try* 350 
Smithes  (G  )  Sermon,  358 

(Pr  Jon  the  Sacred  Office,  469 

Snrpb  on  Nit.ous  Vapour,  345 
Solids.     See  Cirard. 
So/kude      See  ZtrKnurmann* 

Sonmm'%  Travels  in  Egypt*  577 

Souihgate^s  Sermons,  70 

Spence's  Helen  Sinclair,  89 

Siaeif  Madame  de,  on  the  Passions,  473 

Sta^nrinus's  Voyages,  translated,  zaS 
Stnddart^     See^  Noebden. 
Syria^  (cc.    Picturesque  Tour  through, 

Nos.  II — VI.  586 

Tale  of  the  Times,  ^^ 
Taxation.     SeeEstafS.  SecFrtnd, 

TajUri  Etynwlogical  Chart,  462 

tettbt  Advice  leLtive  to,  86 

Tbanrt,  Lord,  Case  of,  460' 
Tbecfbrastut,     Sec  Corij. 
Trompsons  Transl.  of  Adelaide  of  Wul- 

fingen,  226 

— —  Transl.  of  Ildegerte,  334 
Thoughts  on  Commm  Prostitution,     478 
Tmei,  Signs  of.     See  S<tt, 
Tide.     See  Herboldt. 

Tcmlms^t  Index  to  Term  Rtports,  87 

Ttyr  of  the  Wye,  1 1  c 

Tourists f  British,  355 
Trjgedy,  Italian.     See  Walker. 
Tramactms  cf  the  Royal.  Irish  Academy, 

Vol.  VL-  15.388 

Travels  of  Two  Frenchmen,  533 

— -^  to  Constantinople,  549 
■    .     Sec  Park.  See  ScnrirA. 

Sacred  Office,  Lectures  on,  469 
&ifrf  Domingo.     See  McLean. 

Saixt  Michael's  Mount,  a  Poem,  337 

5dsirrso»'s  Edit,  of  Relph^s  Poems,  448 

Satptdtrt  on  the  Poor  Laws,  458 

SaariMf  Beauties  of,  392 

SebilUr*%  Don  Carlos,  143 

Schoolmaster ,  Good,  exemplified,  476 

Scctt^  Vindication  of  the  Scriptuies,  213 

—  00  the  Signs  of  the  Times*  2 14 

Secrets  of  the  English  Bastile,  113 

Secmrity  of  Englishmen's  Lives*  458 

Self  Immolation,  445 

SemtimeMal  Poems,  97 
Sermons,'  Collective.        See    Soutbgate^ 
Clauef  Afariba/i,  Clarke,  Smith. 

•f  Sbgle,    XIS---I18,  348,  358, 

Sn  ofQ^gBttiooM,  465 

yan  Braam*s  Account  of  the  Dutch  Em- 
bassy to  China,  33 
Vermont,  History  of,  260 
Pifewofthe  Moral  and  Political  Epide- 
mic, 47; 
yirgm  of  the  Sun,  22S,  4  50 
Union  with  Ireland,   Tracts   relative  to, 

83»9i»9»»»>5— "J*344 
Universal  Restoration,  96 

Vuabu  lary  of  Words,  141 

Voltaire,  Life  of,  52^ 

Vort'tgern,  and  Henry  II.  445 

Votary  of  Wealth,  450 

Voyagts*    See  Colnett,  Perousty  Stavcrinus, 


fVakepeld  (Dan.)  on  two  Positions  of  the 

French  Economists,  2  36 

14  Wakefield 


CO  NT  E  NT  S. 

Wakefield  (Gilb.)    In    Eunp,    Heeuktm 
LonSm  mtptr  ^licstam  Diaiti^if  311, 

WaHer'%  (J-^*)  Memoir  oa  ItaliaoTra- 

■  (John)  Key  to  the  Proouncia- 

lion  of  Greek  aad  Latin,  47 

■  '  ■■  —  (A.)  Epitome  of  Attronomy, 

I  (R)  Memoirs   of  Medicinr, 

Wardenburgt  Letters*  5^5 

H'arrtery  on  Cav.ilry,  444 

Watklns  on  the  Qiie^tion,  &ۥ  46  f 

on  Copyholds,  Vol.  II.  ih. 

ITe/jA  Dlciionary,  Part  IV.  no 

Wtit  Indies.     Sre  GillupUf  yamaka,  Fr« 

W€it"%  Tale  of  the  Times,  90 

WaaUif^  Castle  of  Montval,  447 

IT'Ajf  is  our  Situation  ?  466 

If^/isshs?  4SI 

White  on  the  WiHow  Bark,  S  s 

IFi«V/  change  Old  Lamps  for  Now  ?  346 
Wkye  on  French  Freedom,  1 1 5 

WiUockt'%    Translition   of   Stavorinus''s 
Voyages,  laS 

WtVam  on  Cutmeous  Diseasef,  75 

WHfiami's  Thanksgiving  Sermon,      1 1  ; 

(W.  H.)  on  the  Vcntilatioh    of 

Army  Hospitals,  456 

Wi//j,  '  See  B'trd,     See  De  Lolme. 
WUsons  (R.)  Letter  to  Lord  Loughbo- 
rough»  ^^ 

(C.  H.)  Poverty  and  Wealth,  3^5 

Wisfs  Advice  to  Persons  going  to  Ja- 
maica, *S6 
Wodhult^fi  Eqoalitv  of  Mankind,  1^ 
^-j/Ztfj/on's  Country  Parson'f  Address,  237 
W'men,  yachon.  See  Randall. 
W'>fd'viW%  Reports  on  the  Cow-pox,  414 
Wcr/d,  System  of.  See  La  Flan, 
Wright  on  Floating  Land,  171 
Wye,  Tour  of,                                    1x5 


Ydloto  Fever.     See  Ffver. 
Te^manryy  aimed.  Sec  Tft%ng.  See  Aliin» 
Tmfig\  (Sir  W.)  Instructions  for  Armed 
Yeomanry,  3  30 

^firmr^ffuiflff  on  Solitude,  176 

Zoonomia.     See  Bro'uin. 
Zd»fiii*s  Good  Schoolroister,  476 

ERRATA  in  Vol.  XXIX. 

P.  328.  L  II    read  dcprehcndo*    ^«fs,  See. 

450.  title  of  Art.  1^.  insert  the  name  of  the  bookseller,  Tawdtr^ 
473.  !•  17.  for '  hst  woiks/  read  hu  works. 



For    MAY,     I7SJ9. 

AnT.  I.  Historsca!  Memoir  on  Italian  Tragedy^  from  tlie  earliest 
Period '  to  the  present  Time :  illustrated  with  Specimens  and 
Analyses  of  the  most  eelehrated  Tragedies ;  and  interspersed  with 
occaatonal  Observations  on  the  Italian  Theatres ;  and  Biographical 
Notices  of  the  principal  Tragic  Writers  of  Italy.  By  a  Member 
of  the  Arcadian  Academy  of  Rome.  With  Plates*  4to*  pp.  400* 
iL  IS.  Boards.     Harding.     1799. 

FROM  the  recent  extensive  convulsions  of  states,  in  which 
*•  the  Destroying  Angel**  has  so  pitilessly  "  ridden  on  the 
whirlwind  and  directed  the  stortn^^  we  may  expect  a  chasm  la 
the  details  of  many  events  which  would  be  interesting  to  the 
historian  and  the  scholar ;  and  while  the  general  interests  o£ 
literature  must  in  course  suffer  with  the  grand  principles  o£ 
humanity,  during  such  tremendous  contests  for  power  and  do- 
minion, the  traveller  may  soon  perhaps  in  vain  seek  for  the 
traces  of  antient  magnificence,  and  the  records  of  past  exertions 
in  the  liberal  arts,  it  was  fortunate,  therefore,  for  the  purpose 
of  the  author  of  this  work,  that  he  made  a  voyage  to  Italy 
previously  to  the  irruption  of  the  French  into  that  country  i  * 
which  has  been  followed  by  the  plunder  of  its  cities  and  the 
removal  of  their  most  valuable  contents.  During  his  residence 
there,  he  pointed  his  inquiries  and  researches,  in  a  particular 
manner,  to  the  rise  and  progress  of  the  Italian  Tragic  Drama^ 
written  for  declamation.  This  he  has  considered  sep^ately  froo^ 
the  Meio-drama,  or  Opera ;  which  for  nearly  two  centuries  has 
acquired  a  degree  of  favour  that,  it  must  be  owned,  has  con-^ 
tributed  ;nore  to  the  cultivation  and  refinement  of  music,  in  all 
its  branches,  than  to  nervous  and  robust  poetr|  and  declama- 

This  Arcadian  agademicianj  we  learn  irom  the  signature  to 

Kis  preface,  is  Mr«  Joseph  Cooper  Walkcfj^  s  gentleman  of 

Irela^id,  and  authof  of  ab  historical  account  of  the  Irish  Bards 

Vol.  XXIX.  B  published 

2 '  Walker*/  Historical  Memoir  on  Italian  Tragedy* 

published  about  twelve  veari  ago*  ;  and  he  has  here,  with 
great  diligence  and  good  taste,  procuicd  a  series  of  the  best 
Italian  Tragedies  that  have  been  written  for  public  and  private 
representation,  in  the  dialogue  of  which  Music  had  no  con- 
cern. In  tracing  these  dramas  chronologically,  Mr.  Walker 
has  gtvcYb  translations  of  some  beautiful  scenes,  with  a  cosi- 
l|ief)tsiry  on  the  several  pieces,  and  biographical  anecdotes  con- 
cerning their  authors ;  which  arc  so  curious  and  interesting, 
that  they  must  render  the  book  very  entertaining  to  lovers  of 
general  literature^  as  well  as  to  adepts  in  the  Italian  tongue. 

Previously  to  the  attempt  at  a  regular  tragedy  in  the  Italian 
language,  *  Mysteries  and  Moralities,  performed  either  by  the 
clergy  (says  our  author)  or  under  their  direction,  were  the 
only  dramatic  amusements  with  which  the  people  were  in- 
dulged ;  and  these  rude  exhibitions  (he  adds)  were  generally 
represented  In  dumb  shoio^  with  figures  of  wood  or  tvax,*  In 
this  last  assertion,  we  believe,  the  author  is  deceived  -,  as  we 
know  that  great  numbers  of  these  mysteries  and  moralities, 
which  we  have  seen  collected,  were  written  in  dialogue  and 
spoken  dramatically  in  the  Italian  churches,  at  a  much  earlier 
period  than  the  time  of  Lorenzo  U  Magnifico^  to  which  jNIr.  W. 
refers  the  sacred  pantomimes. 

The  Scfonlsba  of  Galeotto  del  Carctto,  Marquis  of  Savona, 
1501,  was  tlie  first  attempt  at  an  Italian  drama  on  a  secular 
subject;  and  La  Pamfila  of  Antonio  da  Pistoia,  1508,  was 
jhe  second  : — but,  as  the  first  was  written  in  ottava  r'tnja^  and 
the  second  in  tcrza  ritna^  in  a  wild  irregular  manner,  "it  scenis^ 
(according  to  Voltaire)  as  if  the  Sofonisba  of  Trijsino,  1515, 
was  the  first  regular  Tragedy  which  Europe  s^.w  after  so  many 
ages  of  barbarism."  This  tragedy  is  written  in  versl  sclcltl^  or 
blank  verse ;  and  the  fable  is  conducted  in  a  regular  manner, 
on  the  model  of  the  antient  Greeks,  with  cnks,  and  an  attend- 
ant moralizing  chorus.  It  abounds  with  pathos,  and  beautiful 
strokes  of  nature.  Mr.  W.  has  inserted  two  or  three  speci- 
mens, which  will  incline  his  readers  to  wish  for  more. 

Trissino,  the  author  of  this  tragedy,  and  of  the  epic  poem, 
of  Italia  llherata^  in  blank  verse,  of  which  he  was  the  inventor, 
produced  likewise  a  treatise  on  Architecture,  and  acted  as  a 
•tatesman  with  considerable  abilities  under  Leo  X.  He  was 
bom  in  1478,  and  died  in  1550. 

An  old  Italian  poet  has  said  : 

**  E*l  Truslno  gentll,  che  col  sue  canto  I 

Prltka  ifognun  dal  Tebroy  e  dalt  lUlsso^.  J  I 

Gla  trasse  la  Tragedla  alP  onde  ^Arno^  / 

♦  Sec  RcT,  vol.  Ixxvii.  p,  435, 


Walker^/  Historical  Memoir  on  Italian  Tragidj.  J 

wbich  Mr  W.  thus  translates : 

'  Gentle  Tnssino  too,  whose  potent  strain,  i 

From  wand'ring  Tyber  and  Ilissus,  drew 
To  Arno's  hallowed  shadey  the  tragic  muse 
Melpomene  to  weep/ 

We  cannot  think  that  the  translation  of  the  first  line  it 
either  happy  or  accurate :  genti/f  in  Italian,  does  not  imply 
gentle,  but  polished,  elegant,  genteel ;  and  there  deems  a  clash 
of  epithets  between  gentle  and  potent.  Nor  do  wc  very  clearly 
see  why  onde,  a  wave,  or  stream,  is  rendered  shadek 

The  beautiful  ode  to  Love^  iu  this  tragedy,  which  abounds 
with  original  and  jngenipus  thoughts  embroidered  on  a  thread* 
bare  subject,  is  better  translated  \  though  we  deem  the  am* . 
plifications  too  numerous,  and  are  unable  to  reconcile  with 
cither  sense  or  grammar 

'   ■■■■*  A  resistless  glance 
Shedding  soft  delicious  trarue 
Through  the  soul/-, 

The  second  regular  Italian  tragedy  was  Rosmunda,  by  Ru- 
cellai,  nephew  of  Lorenzo  de' Medici,  about  the  year  I5t6. 
The  subject,  which  has  been  .often  treated  since,  was  taken 
from  the  history  ofLombardy,  and  was  first  rendered  dramatic 
by  Ruccliai.  This  tragedy  has  been  praised  by  maily  eminent 
writers,  of  which  number  is  Mr.  Roscoe;  and  from  the  account* 
which  Mr.  Walker  gives  of  it,  and  from  the  fragments  cited, 
it  seems  well  entitled  to  celebrity.  It  is  written  on  the  Greek 
model,  and  has  an  attendant  chorus. 

The  same  author  produced  a  still  better  tragedy,  Oreste : 
but,  though  Maffei  pronounced  \\  to  be  the  best  drama  which 
either  the  ancients  or  the  moderns  ever  brought  on  the  stage,  it 
was  less  esteemed  by  the  Italians  in  general ;  as  it  was  not  aa 
original  production,  like  the  Rosmunda,  but  an  imitation,  con-- 
structed  on  the  fable  and  plan  of  the  Iphigenia  in  Tauris  of 
Euripides.  This  drama  has  consequently  an  attendant  chorus, 
a  h  Grec. 

Three  lines  quoted  byMr.W.  (p.  41)  from  this  tragedy, 
seem  sufficiently  nervous,  robust,  energetic,  and  sonorous,  to ' 
shield  th^  Italian  language  from  the  common  censure  of  too 
great  softness  and  effeminacy.  A  distant  noise  being  heard. by 
the  characters  on  the  stage,  resembling  a  peal  of  thunder, 
mingled  with  cries  of  distress  \  Thoas,  astonished  and  alarmed, 

**  Ma  che  stridore  stuventoso^  e  strano 
Esee  delfondo  ablfso  della  ierra^ 
£  col  rimhombo  i  nottrt  oreccbi  intuona  ?^\ 

B2  The 

4  Walker'/  Htstorieal  Mtnmr  w  Ballan  Tragedy. 

The  noise  and  cries  continue ;  and,  during  the  interrStls  of 
the  pealing  sounds;  the  chorus  exclaim  : 

"  0  ciehf  0  terra^  OJiamma^  0  man^  0  vcnttp 
0  alta  numff  0  podesta  suprema^ 
0  architetto  </<?'  conveui  cmostrif 
Dfh  non  muiaie  i*  or  dine  Jri  cleioj 
JB'  non  patite  si  cotsfonda  in  caoi 
Tanta  e  si  bella  macchina  del  mondo,** 

Mr.  W.  ha0  not  attempted  to  render  these  last  beautiful  lines 
into  English ;  though  it  seems  as  if  an  almost  literal  translation 
would  conrey  to  the  English  reader  some  faint  idea  of  the  sen- 
thnents^  if  not  of  the  language,  of  the  original.  Will  the 
reader  admit  the  following  attempt  ? 

Oh  heavensy  oh  earth,  oh  sea,  oh  winds  and  flame  \ 
Oh  power  supreme,  oh  high,  eternal  God  ! 
Oh  architect  of  this  bright  vaulted  sky. 
Change  not  the  beauteous  order  of  the  heavens  ; 
Nor  let  our  globe's  magmficent  machine 
Again  be  shivered,  and  re-plunged  in  chaos ! 

.  Alamanni,  a  studious  refiner  of  blank  yerse>  wrote  a  tragedy 
about  this  time  (1530)  in  imitation  of  the  Antigone  of  Sopho- 
ckS'i — and  a  didactic  poem  in  the  same  measure,  entitled  La 
Cu/ikkBzioH^,  published  at  Paris,  whither  he  was  a  fugitive,  in 


Mr.  Walker's  account  of  the  next  tragedy  in  the  series  is  so 
curious,  that  we  shall  present  it  to  our  readera. 

*  The  tragic  muse  being  now  roused  in  Italy  found  several  votaries. 
Amongst  the  many  pieces^  »  well  original  as  translations,  which  co- 
vered her  altars,  the  £d^  Re  (G^dipus  tyrannu»)  of  Orsatto  Giusti- 
niano,  a  Vcnetiau  noblcmau,  particularly  recommends  itself  to  our 
notice,  not  only  by  its  intnnsic  merit,  but  from  the  adventitious  or- 
cumstance  of  its  having  been  the  Arst  drama  represented  in  the  famoua 
Olympic  theatre  of  Palladio  at  Vicenza,  where,  says  an  Italian  author, 
it  was  recited  in  1585,  con  sontuotissimo  attar ato*  This  tragedy  be- 
comes attrecttve  aiso  from  another  anecdote  attached  to  its  scenical 
history.  When  it  was  first  exhibited,  the  part  of  (Edipus  was  per- 
formed with  great  ability, — ^by  Luigi  Groto»  commonly  called  II 
Cieco  d'Adria  (the  blind  man  of  Adna)  from  the  circumstance  of 
hia  being  totally  deprived  of  sight ;  a  misfoirtuiie  that  befel  him  on 
the  eighth  day  after  he  was  born.  This  extraordinary  man  was  not 
only  an  actor  of  merit,  but  a  fruitful  (^fertile)  and  successful  writer. 
Hi«  pastoral  oi  Caiutoy  aud  his  comedies  of  ^//^ria,  Emiria^  and  II 
Vesoroy  arc  honourably  •  mentioned  by  Gravina  aud  other  Italian 

This  extraordinary  person,  so  early  deprived  of  sight,  was 
author  of  a  tragedy  entitled  Hadriana ;  which  bears  so  strong  a 
resemblance  to  our  Shakspeare's  Romeo  and  Juliet|  in  its  prin- 

WallcrV  Kutorkal  Mtmoir  m  Julian  Tragedy.  J 

cipal  incidents,  and  in  many  of  the  sentiments,  that  the  Eng- 
lish reader  will  be  much  interested  in  Mr.  Walker's  account 
of  It.  Were  it  not  too  long  for  tlie  limits  of  our  article,  ^€ 
should  gladly  have  transcribed  it* 

After  the  account  of  the  blind  actor  and  bard,  we  find  an 
historical  and  descriptive  relation  of  the  celebrated  Olympic 
theatre  built  by  Palladio  at  Vicenza. 

The  next  tragedy  analyzed  by  Mr.  AV.,  after  that  of  HaJriana, 
is  the  memorable  Canace  and  Macareo  of  Speron  Speroni,  154^; 
which  may  be  said  to  have  been  d — d  into  fame  by  critical 
opposition.  The  wild  horror,  terrific  events,  and  mythologi- 
cal theogony  of  iEschylus,  seem  to  have  occupied  the  mind  of 
•Speron  Speroni  when  he  wrote  this  tragedy  j  which  is  on  so 
disgusting  a  subject,  that  a  modern  audience  would  not  bear  the 
representation.  Indeed  it  was  never  acted  in  Italy.  Speroni 
had,  however,  acquired  great  respect  and  reverence  by  hi« 
Dialogues,  learning,  and  critical  sagacity,  before  he  termi- 
nated his  vital  course  in  15  B8,  at  the  advanced  age  of  four- 

The  Fable  of  Canace  is  a  mythological  texture,  first  drama- 
tised by  the  author,  which  none  but  bigoted  Pagans  could  di- 
gest. jEoIus,  god  of  winds,  had  twins,  a  son  and  a  daughter, 
by  his  consort  Deopeia.  Tliis  divinity,  favoured  by  Juno,  was 
of  course  persecuted  by  Venus,  for  the  storm  with  which  he 
had  opposed  ^.neas,  as  well  as  in  remembrance  of  the 
quarrel  relative  to  the  judgment  of  Paris*,  and  in  order  to  ren- 
der him  and  his  family  miserable,  the  goddess  made  the  twins 
60  criminally  fond  of  each  other,  that  an  incestuous  intercourse 
took  place,  and  a  child  was  tl>e  consequence. 

The  play  opens  with  the  Ghost  of  this  infant,  who  had  been 
murdered  by  order  of  the  grandfather,  and  whose  carcase  had 
been  thrown  to  the  dogs  ♦ :— but,  though  the  ghost  anticipates 
all  the  disgusting  horrors  of  the  piece,  the  plot  is  detailed  ia 
scenes  between  the  following  characters  of  die  drama :  -/Ebhis, 
Deopeia,  Canace  their  daughter,  Macareo  their  son,  a  coun- 
cellor  or  confidential  officer  of  >tate  in  the  court  of  the  bluster-* 
ing  god,  a  nurse,  a  servant,  a  lady  of  the  bedchamber  [camc" 
riera)  to  Deopeia,  and  a  minister  of  justice,  or  executioner. 

We  have  now  before  us  an  edition  of  this  extraordinary 
drama*  of  1566,  without  the  printer's  name  ;  with  the  GiudU 
dof  or  examination  of  the  piece,  dated  1543  ;  *  containing  m2jay 
useful  reflections  on  the  art  of  tragedy,  and  other  poems.' 
JUudi  learnitig  and  knowlege  of  antiquity  are  displayed  in  thi^ 

♦  -Gar,  to  bis  /FZw/  d'jr  ca^i  iV,  has  the  g>|Pft  of  an  Embijo^  or  uii* 

B3  Mr. 

6  Walker*/  Historical  Memoir  on  Italian  Tragedy. 

Mr.  W-  has  now  worked  his  way  to  the  celebrated  novelist, 
Giambattista  Giraldi  Cinthio,  '  to  whose  novels  Shakspcarc 
has  so  many  obligations/  This  author's  fertile  invention  pro- 
dt}ced  nine  tragedies.  Mr.  Walker  has  given  an  account  of 
the  Orbecchff  *  the  best  of  these  productions,'  and  has  selected 
a  passage  from  it,  *  to  shew  Cinthio's  happy  powers  in  dc* 
scribing  scenes  of  horror  :' 

**  Giaee  tulfotitlo  ^i  quest^  aha  torre^ 
In  parte  si  softngn  e  si  riporta^ 
Clje  non  vi  giun^e  niai  raggio  di  sole, 
Un  luogo  destinato  a*  sacrifici^ 
Che  sogUonfarsi  dcf  re  nosiri  alP  onilre 
A  Proserpina  irata,  aljier  Plutune, 
Ove  non  pur  la  Unehrosa   notie. 
Ma  il piu  orrihik  orrore  ha  la  sua  sede  ,•" 

which  Mr.  W.  thus  translates; 

*  Low  in  the  hosom  of  the  lofty  pfic. 
In  gloomy  loneliness  sequestered  deep, 
Un  visited  by  sun-beam,  or  by  star, 
A  place  there  lies  for  dire  oblations  made, 
Which,  to  the  ghosts  of  our  departed  kings. 
To  the^rt/p  queen  of  Hades,  and  her  lord. 
Are  offer*d  duly.     There,  not  only  night. 
But  the  magnificence  of  horrar,  holds 
Her  court  m  dreadful  pomp.' 

Wc  cannot  allow  Mr.  W,  to  be  perfectly  happy  in  his  trans- 
lation of  this  sublime  description  of  the  residence  of  horror. 
Fondo  IS  certainly  not  well  rendered  by  bosom;  nor  irata  by 
pale  :  tenehrosa  tiotte  is  not  fully  expressed  by  night ;  and  magni^ 
ficence  of  horror  seems  ironical.  Might  not  the  first  line  run 
thus  } 

Low  in  a  dungeon  of  this  lofty  pile ; ^ 

nnd  would  not  the  four  following  lines  be  somewhat  more 
faithful  to  the  original  ? 

To  the  dread  queen  of  Hade^,  and  her  lord. 
Are  clTcrM  duly.     There,  not  only  night 
In  ebi)n  darkness  reigns,  but  Horror's  self 
His  court  terrific  holds. 

Giraldi,  or  Cinthio^  a  cognomen,  or  academic  name,  by 
which  he  18  chiefly  known,  died  in  1569. 

Thf?  next  tragic  bard  with  whom  Mr.  W.  makes  us  ac- 
quainted, is  the  famous,  and,  sometimes,  infamous  Pietro  Arctino. 
His  tragedy  of  Horatia  ( the  first  drama  written  on  the  subject 
of  the  Horatii  and.Curatii  that  was  brought  on  the  stage)  19 
highly  commended  by  the  Italians  :  but  tlie  depraved  character 


Walker*/  Historical  Memoir  on  Italian  Tragedy^  ^ 

«f  this  author  makes  the  inhabitants  of  other  countries  expect 
little  good  from  such  a  pen.     He  Hied  in  1 550. 

After  Aretino,  we  have  Lodovico  Dolce,  his  contemporary 
and  friend,  author  o£  two  celebrated  Italian  traijedies  :  Didone^ 
and  Mariamne.  The  particulars  which  Mr,  W.  has  collected 
concerning  the  life  of  this  writer  are  curious,  and  will  probably 
be  new  to  m  my  of  our  readers. 

*  Of  Lodovico  Dolce  little  13  known  that  can  be  related  with 
pleasure.  Born  in  poverty,  he  lived  and  died  in  indigence  ;  and  the 
greater  part  of  his  life  was  embittered  by  literary  warfare.  His  bio- 
graphers speak  with  wonder  of  the  early  maturity  and  universality  of 
his  ffenius ;  and  the  mildness  with  which  he  treats,  in  many  parts  or  hit 

.  works,  his  malijgrnant  adversary,  Girolamo  Rusrclli,  merits  the  praise 
which  thty  bestow  upon  it.  Dolce  died  in  the  sixtieth  year  of  hig 
age,  and  wa$  buried  in  the  church  of  San  Luca,  ia  his  native  city  of 
Venice,  near  his  friend  Arelino,  and  his  adversary  Ruscelli.  Be- 
sides the  tragedies  already  mentioned,  our  author  published  a  tranala* 
tion  of  the  tragedies  of  Seneca,  whose  coldness  we  may  sometimes 
perceive  creeping  through  his  original  dramas.  To  study  Seneca  it 
to  touch  the  torpedo.  In  his  paraphrase  of  the  sixth  satire  of  Juve- 
nal, and  in  the  Epithalamio  di  Catullo,  nelle  nozze  di  Pcleo  et  di 
Thcti,  he  has  preserved  the  spirit  of  his  originals.  The  former  it 
prefaced  with'  a  short  letter  of  delicate  and  elegant  compliment  to 
Titian  the  painter.  In  a  little  volume,  containing  those  two  pieces> 
BOW  lying  before  me,  I  find  a  Dialogo  del  modo  di  tor  moglie,  which 
had  probably  been  read  by  Milton,  as  the  following  eulogy  on  ma- 
trimony may  be  traced  in  the  beautiful  apostrophe  to  wedded  love,  m 
the  fourth  book  of  the  Paradise  Lost :  "  0  malrlmonio  felice  esanio^  s*i'o 
havesu  parole  uguali  a  le  tne  lo(k<,  mat  di  commenda^rti  non  se  ne  vedrehbe 
time  a  la  Vfice  mi  a.  Per  te  e  per  mat  sempre  la  wta  gioiosa  e  licia  :  per  le 
^li*  huomini  si  f anno  sempiterni  e  gloriosi*  Viva  dunque,  "Jtva  il  Afjtri*^ 
monio  ?  e  chi  disidera  di  vivere  e  morire  contento  e  heato  elegga  per  il  n?ero 
d  unico  mo%%o  il  matrimonio,**  Of  the  dramatic  labours  of  our  author, 
II  Capitano  and  La  Hecuba  still  remain  to  be  noticed  ;  but  as  the  for- 
mer is  a  free  translation  from  Plautus,  and  the  latter  a  faithful  vcr- 
thn  of  a  tragedy,  on  the  same  subject,  by  Euripides,  I  shall  not 
iivcH  on  those  pieces.  In  the  dedication  to  the  Hecuba,  Dolce  pa- 
thetically alludes  to  the  misfortunes  of  his  life.     His  Giocasta  I  have 

.  not  seen  ;  hut  I  nave  read   with  pleasure  an  elegant  tribute   to  liis 
genius  and  learning  by  Benedetto  Guidi,  in  a  sonnet,  beginning, 

**  Fra  nulle  da/0,  et  honor ati  ingegni,** 

We  come  now  to  the  celebrated  tragedy  of  Torrisftiondoy  writ- 
ten by  the  admirable  Torquato  Tasso.  Mr.  W.  has  given  a 
spirited  translation  of  the  beautiful  description  of  the  nocturnal 
disquietudes  of  ^/W^,  in  this  drama  ;  which  should  have  been 
inserted  here  if  we  could  have  spared  it  a  niche.— For  informa-j 
tion  concerning  the  life  .as  well  as  the  writings  of  Tasso,  our 
ittthor  uidiciously  refers  hi3  readers  to  Mr.  HooU, 

S  Walkci'/  Hhtorical  Mttmr  on  ItaHm  Tragedy* 

La  Girmonda^  and  B  Tawredo^  two  tragedies  built  on  the 
piles  of  Boccaccio*,  the  coniedy  of  the  jilchimista,  in  1583, 
prior  to  Ben  Jonson'«  Alchymist ;  Bragadirw^  a  tragedy  on  the 
jsubject  of  this  Venetian  GcneraFs  heroism,  who  so  obstinately 
defended  Cyprus  agninst  the  assaults  of  the  Turks,  that,  when 
m  length  it  was  surrendered  on  hoaourable  terms,  they  flayed 
him  alive ;  IsifiUi  on  a  similar  subject  of  Turkish  treachery 
and  Christian  fortitude ;  another  Rosmunday  by  Ant.  Cavale* 
jino,  on  the  same  subject  as  that  of  Ruccllai ;  Telefontej  and 
ihe  first  Merope  that  was  written  in  Italian,  likewise  by  Cava- 
lerino ;  appeared  about  this  time,  and  are  characterised  by  our 

Three  dramas  by  Trapolini  are  also  mentioned  :  but  the  tra- 
gedy of  Acripanda^  by  Ant.  Decio  da  Horte,  a  friend  of  Tassa, 
has  supplied  materials  for  an  interesting  article. — *Thi8  play 
(says  Mr.  W.)  is  opened  by  the  ghost  of  Orsilia,  the  murdered 
'wife  of  the  king  of  Egypt,  who  quits  the  dark  abyss  for  the 
purpose  of  instigating  her  son,  the  king  of  Arabia,  to  avenge 
her  death.*  Mr.W.  gives  a  passage  in  her  *  address  to  light,  on 
first  perceiving  its  chearing  beamy  which  will  probably  remind 
the  reader  of  Milton's  hymn  to  that  glorious  emanation  of  the 
Deity.*  It  is  too  long  for  insertion  here,  but  we  recommend 
this  speech,  and  several  others  from  this  pjay,  to  the  lovers  of 
Italian  literature ;  and  the  translation,  to  those  who  are  able  ta 
compare  it  with  the  original,  whence  they  will  find  much  of 
the  spirit  of  da  Horte  conveyed  into  the  English. 

The  Semiraviide  of  Manfredi,  and  the  Metope  of  Pomponio 
TorcUi,  furnish  Mr.  W.  with  an  opportunity  for  discussion,  of 
which  he  has  availed  liimself  in  an  amusing  manner. 

The  tragedies  of  Italy  from  1500  to  1600  nearly  all  follow 
the  Greek  model,  by  preserving  the  attendant  chorus ;  and 
the  Romans  by  their  sanguinary  horrors  and  catastrophes. 

Section  II. 

We  do  not  very  well  understand  the  following  citation  from 
Gibbon,  given  by  Mr.W.  at  the  beginning  of  this  section,  when 
speaking  of  the  long  adherence  of  the  Italians  to  Gi;eek 
models.  "  Instead  of  exercising  their  own  reason,  the  Italians 
acquiesced  in  that  of  the  antients  :  instead  of  transferring  into 
their  native  tongue  the  taste  and  spirit  of  the  classics,  they 
copied,  with  the  most  aukward  servility,  the  language  and  ideas 
suited  to  an  age  so  different  from  their  own.'*  What  is  "  ac* 
quiescing  in  the  reason  of  the  antients,"  but  transferring  the 
taste  and  spirit  of  the  classics  into  their  own  tongue  i 

The  first  tragedy  written  at  the  beginning  of  the  xviith 
Ceptury  $eeras  to  have  been  TAomyris,  by  Apgcio  Iflgegneri, 


Walker^/  Historical  Memoir  m  Italian  Tragedy.        ^  .9 

1607.  The  merit  of  this  drama  is  discussed  by  Mr.  Walker. 
Ingegneri,  besides  his  abilities  as  a  poet,  was  author  of  a  mas- 
terly discourse  on  dramatic  representations,  in  folio  \  and  of 
a  translation  of  the  first  book  of  Ovid's  Art  of  Love.  He  was 
an  intimate  and  zealous  friend  of  Tasso,  and  editor  of  the  first 
correct  edition  of  GerusaUmme  iiberata, 

Wc  find  no  record  of  any  tragedy  of  great  estimation,  from 
this  period  till  1620,  when  the  Soiimano  of  Count  Prospero 
Bonarelli  of  Ancona  appeared.  This  author  was  the  first  Ita* 
lian  dramatic  poet  who,  in  a  tragedy,  had  the  courage  to  quit 
the  Greek  model,  and  reject  the  chorus..  His  brother,  Gui- 
baldo,  was  author  of  the  celebrated  pastoral  drama  called  Filli 
'4i  Sciro^  of  which  the  admirers  of  Italian  literature  must  pften 
have  heard. 

Here  (p.  i6o)  we  have  an  ample  account  of  Gio.  Battista 
Andreini,  author  of  the  representation  entitled  Adamo^  which 
has  been  supposed  to  have  suggested  to  Milton  his  divine  Pa- 
radise Lost.      In  composing  this  article,  Mr.  W.  has  much 
availed  himself  of  the  ingenuity  and  labours  of  Mr.  Hayley; 
^d  from  this  curious  production,  and  Mr.  Haylcy's  transla^ 
don,  copious  extracts  are  given  ;  as  well  as  froan  an  account  of 
Andreini's  life  and  writings  by  Count  Mazzuchclli.     All  these 
are  very  curious  and  amusing :— but  we  think  that  the  adorer^ 
of  Milton  are  too  ambitious  of  discovering  the  germ  of  ai 
our  great  bard's  conceptions ;  by  which  they  rob  him  of  his 
principal  claims  to  invention,  a  poet's  greatest  glory,  and  al- 
k)w  nothing  to  the  coincidence  of  congenial  minds  meditat- 
ing on  the  same  subject.     These  zealous  defenders  of  Milton 
are  very  angry  with  Dr.  Johnson  for  ridiculing  his  sour  temper 
and  severe  politics  ;  tliough  the  Doctor  has  praised  the  Paradise 
Lost  in  prose  nearly  equal  to  the  verse  of  that  immortal  poem. 
Not  contented  with  ransacking  the  Adamo  of  Andreini  for  simi- 
litudes, the  tragic  scene  of  Adam  and  Eve^  by  Troilo  Lancetta 
fienacence,  is  analysed ;  in  order  to  prove  the  possibility  of 
that  author's  having  first  <  thrown  into  the  mind  of  Milton  the 
idea  of  converting  Adam  into  an  epic  personage/  p.  17 «;  and  Mr. 
Walker  *  takes  leave  to  observe,  that  Atidreini  and  Lancetta  were 
not  the  first  Italian  writers  who  dramatized  the  story  of  Adam 
and  Eve«'     Muratori  tells  us  that,  in  the  year  1304,  the  crear 
tion  of  Adam  and  Eve  was  represented  at  Friuli  in  a  mystery^ 
Milton  is  thought  by  Mr.  Hay  ley  to  have  had  obligations  to  tlie 
Angeicida  of  Erasmo  di  Valvasone ; — and  Mr.  W.,  not  satisfied 
with  a  detection  of  all  these  unacknowleeed  imitations,  (which, 
in  a  writer  of  less  dignity  and  establi^ed  fame  than  Milton, 
VOu}d  perhaps  be  styled  plagiarisms,)  has  given  15  pages  of 

i^  text. 

lo        *  T^alkcr*/  Historical  Memoir  on  IlaUan  Tragedy. 

text,  and  more  than  20  of  additional  notrs  and  appendix^  consist- 
ing of  extracts,  conjectures,  and  correspondence,  on  the  subject. 

The  Al(lna  of  Fulvio  Testi  is  said  by  l\Ir.  Walker  to  have 
given  birth  to  the  opera :  but  this  is  an  erroneous  idea,  if  wc 
may  rely  on  the  authority  of  Dr.  Burtiey,  who,  in  his  History 
of  Music,  seems  minutely  to  have  tr.iced  it  to  a  much  nigher 
period ; — and  what  Mr.  W.  calls  «/>/,  which  were  so  fre- 
quently introduced  in  Testi's  drama,  written  in  1636,  and  re^ 
iitnta  at  Bologna  in  1646,  according  to  the  Drammaturglay 
could  not  have  been  sung  at  so  early  a  period  of  the  Melo- 
drama. Indeed  ^11  that  Mr.  W.  says  on  t;his  subject  seems 
conjectural,  and  supported  by  no  authority.  I  ulvio  Testi  died 
in  1646. 

Artstodetm^  a  tragedy  by  Carlo  dc'  DoUori,  1657,  is  ncjrt 
recorded  ;  and  the  suffrage  of  the  excellent  critic  Signorelli  is 
given  in  favour  of  its  being  a  work  of  superior  merit  to  the 
iolimano  of  Bonarelli ;— which  Apostolo  Zeuo  did  not  allow. 

Foiir  tragedies  of  Cardinal  Delfino  are  biglily  praised  by 
Crescimbeni,  and  by  a  much  better  judge,  MafFci.  In  1694, 
the  Corradtno  of  Caraccio,  a  tragedy,  was  represented  at 
Rome.  These  declamatory  dramas  were  still  written  in  Greek 
,  trammels  of  long  speeches,  and  with  little  attention  to  the  spirit 
of  the  dialogue. 

Section  III. 

Here  wc  are  presented  with  a  history  of  the  origin  and  estab- 
lishment of  the  Academla  deglt  Arcadt  at  Rome  ;  the  poetry 
and  criticism  of  which  were  cultivated  from  May  to  October 
by  its  members,  in  a  grove  or  a  garden,  in  the  manner  of  the 
ar>tient  inhabitants  of  Arcadia  in  Greece.  Not  only  the  na- 
tives of  Italy,  when  at  Rome,  but  Princes  and  illustrious  io^ 
reigners  visiting  that  city,  were  proud  of  being  inrolled  in  tliis 
literary  establishment. 

The  first  tragic  poet,  who  distinguished  liimsclf  at  the  be- 
ginnir>g  of  the  present  century,  was  Pier  Jacopo  Martclli,  wh© 
died  in  1727. 

*  His  Perselide,  If^g^nia  in  Tauri^  and  Akeste^  were  represented 
(says  SignorcUI)  with  unequivocal  applause  by  the  company  of  Ric- 
cohoni  at  Venice,  Verona,  and  Bologna.  Wc  find  not  only  in  these 
tragedies,  (he  continues,)  but  in  his  Prcccloy  Cicerone^  ^  Fallo^  and 
Tiiimln^iy  genuine  tragic  beauiics.  In  the  Venel'ide^  is  particularly 
admired  the  happy  manner  in  which  the  three  principal  characters  are 
marked  :  the  magnanimity  of  Mustapha,  the  pathetic  tenderness  qf 
PcrscHus,  and  the  jeah)iisy  of  power  and  relentless  cruelty  of  Solv- 
mano,  evince  the  glowing  and  energetic  pencil  of  genius.  SIgnior  ■ 
Signorelli  rtcommends  the  Ifi^ama  and  Alcat$  of  this  author,  as  mo- 

WalkcrV  Historical  Memoir  on  Italian  Tragedy.  it 

dels  for  imitation  to  all  young  poets  who  would  wish  to  adapt  the 
feblcs  of  the  Greek  theatre  to  tnc  modem  stage.' 

MartcHi's  tragedies  arc  composed  in  rhyme,  and  in  a  new 
species  of  versification,  since  called  Martelliano^  consisting  en- 
tirely of  Alexandrines  of  14  syllables,  or  two  verses  of  7  syl- 
lables each.  The  Italian  rhymes  being  all  double,  the  junc- 
tion of  two  verses  of  7  syllables  each  makes  their  Alexandrine 
14  syllables  5  though  our  heroic  verse,  and  tliat  of  France, 
contain  but  twelve. 

The  translation  of  Addison's  Cato  into  Italian  by  Salvini  is 
enumerated  among  the  tragedies  of  this  period ;  after  which 
the  tragedies  of  the  learned  Civilian  and  critic,  Gravina,  the 
patron  and  parent  (by  adoption)  of  Mctastasio,  are  slightly 
mentioned.  The  chief  accusation  against  Gravina  is  that  he  is 
too  Grecian  in  the  fable  and  conduct  of  his  dramas.  Though 
they  failed  to  please,  they  did  not  deter  our  countryman  Mason 
from  constructing  his  Elfrida  and  Caractacus  on  the  models  of 
iEschylus,  Sophocles,  and  Euripides  *,  and  though  Mr.  Mason's 
tragedies  excite  more  interest,  and  abound  with  infinitely  more 
exquisite  poetical  beauties,  they  have  also  failed  of  public  favour 
on  the  stage ;  with  all  the  changes  in  the  dialogue,  and  allure- 
ments of  the  music  to  the  songs  and  choruses,  that  have  been 
applied  to  them.  They  will  never  be  admitted  into  the  estab- 
lished Liturgy  of  the  great  parish  church ;  though  in  the  clo- 
set, or  poetical  chapel  of  ease^  they  will  ever  afford  devout 
members  of  the  Greek  church  the  highest  consolation  and 

Mr.  W.  has  given  a  sketch  of  Gravina's  life  from  Dr.  Bur-' 
ney's  Memoirs  of  Mctastasio,  and  an  account  of  that  admirable 
lyric  poet's  Juvenile  Tragedy  of  Glustmoj  from  the  same  bio- 
grapher ;  adding  some  curious,  and  authentic  information  of 
his  own,  vsrhich  he  had  received  from  Italy,  confirming  the  re- 
port of  Metastasio's  lyric  dramas,  or  operas,  being  frequently 
declaimed,  with  success,  as  speaking  tragedies,  without  music. 
Among  the  minor  tragics,  we  have  a  list  of  dramas  written 
by  the  Count  Pansati,  the  Duke  Annibale  Marchese,  and  An- 
tonio Conti,  a  Venetian  nobleman.  *  It  is  a  curious  circum- 
stance, which  does  honour  to  the  nobility  of  Italy,  that  nearly 
all  her  best  tragic  writers  have  been  of  that  class. 

About  the  middle  of  the  present  century,  Sig.  Ant.  Conti, 
who  resided  a  considerable  time  in  England,  produced  four 
tragedieg  :  Giunio  Bruto,  Druso,  Marco  Bruto,  and  Giulio 
Cesare  ;  the  last  twa  from  the  double  plot  of  Shakspeare's  Ju- 
fius  Caesar,  to  which  the  Duke  of  Buckingham,  and  Voltaire, 
had  previously  pointed  out  the  road. 


12  WalkcrV  Historical  Memoir  on  Italian  Tragedy. 

Wc  now  come  to  the  learned  and  justly  celebrated  Marquis 
Maffiei  •,  whose  tragedy  of  Merope  is  not  only  the  chkf  glory  of 
Melpomene  in  Italy,  but  has  served  as  a  model  for  excellent 
dramas  in  almost  every  other  country  in  Europe.  We  have  not 
room  to  follow  Mr.  W.  in  his  examination  of  and  extracts  from 
the  bold  translation  of  this  tragedy  by  Ayre : — but  we  cannot 
help  thinking  that  he  lays  too  great  stress  on  the  merit  of  con- 
structing a  tragedy  without  the  aid  of  iovt ;  and  we  are  more 
inclined  to  think,  with  fioileau,  that  '<  the  delineation  of  that 
passion  is  the  most  certain  road  to  the  heart/'  than  with  our 
Uttthor^  that  its  admission  into  tragedy  is  *  a  baneful  innovation  f 
(p.  139)— though  in  the  next  page  wc  are  told  that  *  refinement 
ever  attends  the  influence  of  the  fair.'— The  production  of  a 
tragedy  wholly  unconnected  with  la  belle  passion  is  tnorc  ad- 
mired for  the  difficulty  of  the  task,  perhaps,  than  for  its  effefts 
on  our  feelings.  At  some  period  of  life,  every  mortal  is  sen* 
sible  of  a  partiaHty  for  an  individual  of  a  different  sex,  and  of  a 
wish  to  appropriate  a  companion :  but  every  one  has  not  lost 
a  child,  a  parent,  a  friend,  or  a  kingdom.  W.hen  this  umver- 
sal  passion  has  taken  possession  of  an  amiable  and  wonhy  heart, 
and  is  thwarted  by  adverse  and  inauspicious  circumstances, 
piJy  and  sympathy  are  excited  in  every  breast  which  has  expe- 
rienced equal  conflicts,  or  is  susceptible  of  similar  sensibility;— 
and  what  Mr.  W.  calls  a  baneful  irwcvation  has  been  practised 
in  our  own  country  to  the  satisfaction  of  every  feeling  heart, 
by  Shakspcare,  Otway,  Rowe,  and  Congteve,  in  dramas 
which  are  not  likely  to  lose  their  favour. 

In  p.  245,  Mr.  W.  seems  to  sing  ^  palinodioy  in  speaking  of 
|l>e  powerful  efl^ects  of  Love  in  Mctastasio,  when  he  wrote  his 
Vidonej  and  in  all  others  when  that  drama  waji  performed ;  ex- 
claiming, *  Such  is  thy  so  potent  art^  O  Love  ? 

The  tragedies  of  Barrufl^aldi,  Lazzarini,  Gasparo  Gozzi, 
Padre  Bianchi,  Count  Savioli,  Alfonso  Varano,  and  Granelli, 
are  next  enumerated,  and  characterized,  with  zeal  for  the  ho- 
nour of  their  country. 

We  then  come  to  Bettinelli ;  who,  having  acquired  consi- 
derable fame  as  a  prose  writer  by  his  Risorgiamento  f  Italia^ 
produced  three  tragedies  of  high  renown :  Gionata^  Demetria 
J*cliorictt'y  and  Serse.  From  this  last  we  have  the  description 
of  a  ghost,  with  the  translation  (p.  265) ;  which,  had  we  room, 
should  be  presented  to  our  readers :  as  the  original  was  so  ad- 
mired at  Rome  in  J  772,  that  the  reviewers  of  that  city  con- 
fessed its  effects,  in  exciting  sorrow  and  perturbation,  to  have 
been  such  as  had  been  produced  by  few  tragedies  which  they 
had  ever  seen  or  read. 


Walker'j  Historical  Memoir  en  Italian  Trage^fy.  13 

The  Abat€  Cesarotti,  an  eminent  Italian  writer  still  livings 
is  justly  celebrated  by  Mr.  W.  for  his  translations  of  some  of 
Voltaire's  tragedies,  of  Ossian^  and  of  Homer,  into  the  Ian- 
[^uage  of  his  country. 

Much  information  and  entertainment  occur  in  subsequent 
articles ;  particularly  in  the  account  of  the  writings  of  Count 
Pepoliy  and  Count  Alfieri,  dramatic  writers  not  yet  numbered 
with  the  dead.  Of  the  productions  of  this  last  voluminous  au- 
thor, we  have  an  ample  list,  with  extracts,  which  the  limits  of 
this  article  (already,  perhaps,  too  much  extended)  will  not  al- 
low us  to  detail ;  and  we  have  before  spoken  of  them,  in  Rev. 
vol.  xxiv.  N.S.  p.  527.  Count  Aliieri,  we  believe,  was  in 
England  about  20  years  ago.  His  tragedy  of  La  Congiura  J/ 
Paxzi  has  very  justly  been  censured  by  Mr.  Roscoe,  in  his  ad- 
mirable life  of  Lorenzo  de'  Medici,  for  the  falsification  of  his- 
tory, in  order  to  blacken  the  character  of  that  great  patron  of 
literature  and  of  every  ingenious  art,  and  to  render  it  subser- 
vient to  the  interests  of  freedom.  "  What  shall  we  think  of 
a  dramatic  performance  in  which  the  Pazzi  are  the  champions 
of  Liberty  f — In  which  superstition  is  called  in  to  the  aid  of 
truth  ? — In  which  the  relations  of  all  the  parties  are  confound- 
ed, and  a  tragic  effect  is  attempted  to  be  produced  by  a  total 
dereliction  of  historical  veracity,  an  assumption  of  falsehood 
for  truth,  and  of  vice  for  virtue  ?**  * 

Mr.  Walker  has  given  the  plans  of  19  tragedies  by  Count  Alfi*  * 
eri,  with  extracts  from  many  of  them :— but  he  places  the  Art-- 
stodtmc  of  the  Abate  Monti  at  the  summit  of  modern  tragedies,, 
and  indeed  with  the  highest  Italian  authority  for  his  opinion* 

In  the  course  of  this  work,  we  have  a  sketch  of  the  history 
of  the  construction  of  Italian  theatres,  from  the  time  of  Palla- 
dio  to  the  present :  also,  additional  notes,  and  an  appendix  of 
more  than  60  pages,  containing  interesting  discussions  and  ex^* 
planations.  Some  of  the  fragments  from  the  tragedies,  which 
the  author  has  analyzed,  will  perhaps  impress  the  lovers  of  Ita- 
lian poetry  with  higher  ideas  of  its  beauty  and  force,  than  thc^ 
more  renowned  writings  of  Dante,  Petrarca,  Ariosto^  and[ 

Though  we  have  found  much  amusement  and  conriderable 
information  on  the  subject  under  discussion  in  this  book,  wCi 
are  obliged  to  own  that  the  style  is  often  inflated ;  and  that  we 
have  been  frequently  offended  by  the  author's  affectation  in  the 
needless  use  of  foreigix  words,  and  in  the  new  application  of  these 

•  Life  of  I^orcnzo  dc'  Medici,  vol.  L  p,  zix.  note  (b). 


14  Walker*/  Hutorical  Mem$ir  on  Italian  Tragedy* 

of  our  native  dialect.  His  parade  of  friends  and  acquaintancTt 
abroad  and  at  home  ;  and  his  profufion  of  compliments^  indis-* 
criminately  bestowed  on  almost  every  author  and  book  that  he 
mentions  5  will  mortify  more  than  flatter  the  persons  concerned. 
We  are  sorry  to  be  obliged  to  specify  these  defects  in  a  work 
of  sufficient  merit  to  cover  small  imperfections  :  but,  as  it  is 
our  duty,  in  the  character  of  critics,  to  indicate  the  several  ex« 
cellencies  of  an  useful  or  amusing  production,  so  it  is  incumbent 
on  us,  for  the  sake  of  the  public  taste,  to  point  out  to  the  au- 
thor's own  correction,  in  a  future  edition  of  the  same  work,  or 
in  writing  another,  such  inaccuracies  as  disgrace  his  style,' or 
would  deform  the  composition  of  any  author.  j 

The  Italian  words  unexplained  when  incorporated  with  Eng- 
lish are  innumerable  ^  as  Villeggiatura^  or  retiring  to  a  villa  or 
country  seat— P^r/er/i,  for  the  purple  or  popedom,  &c. — impart'^ 
ed  from  the  iprtss-- Assisted  at  a  performance,  instead  of  being 
present,  is  a  Gallicism  not  yet  naturalized — Enthralling  atten- 
tion—/^i^  occasion-— m^  my  attention — invite  (for  engage) 
singers  to  visit  them.  P.  227,  in  speaking  of  Gravina,  wken, 
besides  being  learned,  he  is  said  to  be  amiable  2in&frigidj  there 
seems  a  clash  of  epithets.  The  author  somewhat  too  frequently, 
perhaps,  tells  his  readers  that  the  letters  and  books  which  he 
quoteSf  or  mentions,  are  lying  before  him ;  which,  unless  they 
be  very  scarce  and  curious,  is  taken  for  granted.  *  Sig.  Sig- 
norelli,  in  one  of  his  valuable  letters,  with  which  he  favoured 
me'—*  My  learned  and  ingenious  friend  Ccsarotti'— '  The 
friendship  of  the  accomplished  governor  of  Perugia'-«>*  My 
lovely  and  accomplished  friend  the  late  Marchioness  Rondini,' 
&c.  These  are  a  few  specimens  of  the  author's  parade  of  friend- 
ship, and  excess  of  urbanity. 

An  Index,  or  at  least  a  table  of  contents,  is  much  wanted  to 
this  book  ',  and,. perhaps,  for  English  readers,  a  translation  of 
passages  cited  in  prose,  as  well  as  more  frequent  versions  of 
poetical  specimens  given  in  the  course  of  the  work 

As  far  as  paper  and  types  are  concerned,  the  volume  is  beau- 
tjkfully  executed  \  aild  the  plates,  of  which  there  are  many,  arc 
licatly  engraved : —but  on  the  correctness  of  the  press  we  can 
bestow  no  praise  ;— on  the  contrary,  from  the  author  (as  it 
should  seem)  being  in  another  kingdom,  and  perhaps  never 
^cing  the  proofs,  the  Errata  are  innumerable :  for  besides 
tt^se  discovered  by  Mr.  "Walker  on  perusing  the  work  after  the 
press  was  broken  up ;  and  which,  collected,  crowd  a  4to  page 
in  a  small  letter  -,  many  still  remain^  that  have  escaped  de- 

-   Candour,  however,  requires  us  to  add  that  the  faults  of  alt 

kinds  which  we  have  mentioned  arc  but  slight :  while  the  body 

12  of 

Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy  ^  Fol.  FL         15 

of  the  work,  consisting  of  new  and  curious  m;iterials,  is  ex- 
tremely interesting ;  and  will  be  found,  by  those  who  wish  to 
be  acquainted  with  the  Italian  drama  distinct  from  the  opera^ 
not  oxily  amusing  but  instructive.  D^'B     V 

Art.  !!•  The  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy^  Vol.  VI. 
4to.  pp.  600.  il.  15.  Boards.  Dublin,  1797.  Loudoin 

|T  is. related  of  the  Caliph  Haroun  Al  Raschid  that,  while 
^  Europe  was  engaged  in  fruitless  theological  controversies  < 

and  in  destructive  wars,  his  ambassadors  presented  to  Charle- 
magne, among  other  gifts,  a  clock  of  curious  workmanship. 
Of  equal  value,  and  in  somewhat  of  a  similar  conjuncture,  is 
the  present  of  the  volume  before  us.  From  the  midst  of  the 
tttxnults,  the  murders,  and  the  conflagrations  of  Ireland,  its 
Academy  sends  forth  the  fruit  of  its  labours  ;  and  thus  our  at- 
tention is  awhile  diverted  from  scenes  of  confusion  and  guilt: 
for  with  the  successful  cultivation  of  science  we  associate  pleas* 
ing  images,  peaceful  retreats,  and  "  the  soft  obscurities  of  re- 

The  papers  are  divided,  as  heretofore,  under  the  classes  of 
Science,  Polite  Literature,  and  Antiquities.  W4?  shaii 
consider  them  according  to  their  subjects. 


Memoir  on  the  Construction  of  Ships^  By  Sir  George  Shec, 
Bart.  M.R.I.A. 

The  object  of  this  memoir  is  to  suggest  such  improvements 
in  the  construction  of  bhips  as  will  cause  them  to  sail  faster, 
and  will  counteract  their  divSposition  to  make  lee-way.  The 
author  was  first  induced. to  suspect  that  sl\ips  built  in  Europe 
admitted  of  improvement,  by  d}serviug  the  shape  of  vessels 
employed  in  the  river  Ganges,  and  on  the  different  coasts  of  India. 
These  vessels  carry  great  burdens ;  and,  according  to  the  au- 
thor's expression,  great  expansion' is  common  to  them  ally  that  is, 
they  are  more  lonj;  and  broad  relatively  to  their  depth,  than 
our  vessels  are.  During  a  voyage  from  Bengal  to  England,  ths 
suspicion  of  Sir  G.  ^.  was  strengthened  by  remarking  that  the 
ship  Rodney  (in  which  he  w:js  embarked)  sailed  faster  than 
any  other  Indiamen ;  whi  h  he  attributes  to  the  circumstance 
of  her  having  b-ren  originally  intended  for  a  ship  of  much  more 
considerable  burden,  but,  on  account  of  a  temporary  scarcity 
of  timber,  all  her  dimensions  (excc'pt  her  length)  were  abridged. 
The  defects  noticed  in  shi^>s  transporting  merchandice  arc, 
lltf.Their  too  great  depth  j  2dly,  Their  shortness ;  for  a  ship 
m  that 

1 5         Tratuaciiofif  of  the  Roya!  Irish  Academy ^  VoL  VI% 

that  wants  length  (sajrs  he)  is  impeded  by  its  continual  ascent 
and  descent ;  moreover,  the  tendency  of  the  action  of  tlie  up« 
per  sails  of  a  ship  is  not  only  to  propel  horizontally,  but  to 
^kvate  the  stern  and  to  depress  the  head ;  which  eleiration  and- 
Vfepression  must  be  more  resisted,  as  the  distance  between 
the  insertion  of  the  mast  and  of  the  head  and  stem  is  greater, 
cateris  paribus,     sdly.  The  vessels  arc  too  narrow. 

The  remedy  proposed  for  these  defects  is  (as  may  be  easily 
inferred)  to  give  to  the  ships  great  horizontal  expansion  ;  and  for 
thi^  end  the  construction  of  their  hulls  must  be  changed.  The 
bows  and  sides  are  to  be  constructed  very  difFerently,  as  the 
end  to  be  answered-  by  them  is  very  different  \  the  one  is  to 
present  as  few  points  of  resistance  as  possible,  the  other  as 
many ;  the  one  is  to  facilitate  the  ship's  passage,  the  other  is 
to  prevent  her  disposition  to  make  lee-way  :  but,  according  to 
the  present  method  of  construction,  a  very  small  part  of  the 
ship's  side  is  perpendicular  to  the  horizontal  pressure. 

The  author  next  controverts  an  argument  of  seamen  and 
ship-builders,  in  favour  of  the  depth  of  ships,  founded  on  what 
is  technieally  called  <<  a  gripe  of  the  water  below  the  power  of 
the  surge.'* 

The  aherations  proposed  by  Sir  George  Shce  are,  in  a  few 
Words^  increase  of  horizontal  dimensions,  and  a  change  in 
the  form  of  the  bows  and  sides.  In  regard  tafhe  form  of  the 
latter,  they  should  resemble  a  large  lee-board,  used  in  Dutch 
vessels  to  prevent  a  disposition  to  lee-wav. 

Sir  G.  S.  blames  the  construction  of  tne  vessels  employed  in 
carrying  the  mails  from  Dublin  to  Holyhead.  Although  they 
are  expressly  built  for  speed  and  accommodation,  yet  mey  re- 
quire an  absolute  loading  of  ballast  to  prevent  them  from  over- 
setting ;  and  their  draft  of  water  is  such  that,  although  small 
vessels,  they  can  only  float  on  the  Dublin  Bar  at  a  particular 
time  of  tide.  From  their  want  of  length,  and  from  their  ex- 
cessive depth,  they  sail  so  slowly,  that  a  ship  called  the  Pa^ 
vourite,  a  light,  long  vessel,  fitted  out  by  private  individuals, 
has  made  her  passage  to  Holyhead  in  nine  hours ;  when  the' 
two  packets,  which  weighed  anchor  at  the  same  time,  occu- 
pied twelve  hours  in  performing  theirs^ 

These  suggestions  of  the  ingenious  Baronet  are,  we  think", 
deserving  of  notice ;  for  to  England  the  perfection  of  naval 
architecture  is  of  great  moment : — but  mere  theory  can  perhaps 
effect  little.  The }  antients,  who  made  very  considerable 
progress  in  the  art  of  constructing  ships,  seem  to  have  relied 
entirely  on  observation  and  experiment. 

Tfmfiaetiont  tfthe  Royal  Irish  Acaiemj^  V9I.  Ft         i^f 

Mimoir  cn^  the  Climate  rf  Lreiund.  By  the  Rev.  WiHiam  Ha- 
ttihon,  M.R.I.  A. 

The  object  of  thU  memoir  is  to  prove  thit  the  winds,  and 
particularly  the  westerly  gales,  have  of  late  years  blown  ove^ 
Ireland  with  a  violence  unknown  to  former  times.  The  author 
appeals  to  what  he  calls  the  nafUral  regifters  of  the  eiFects  of  the 
winds }  viz.  the  trees  of  the  country,  the  sands  on  the  sea^coast, 
aad  the  tides.  It  is  well  known  that,  formerly,  pines^  and 
particularly  that  species  called  the  Scotch  fir,  grew  on  thtf 
!K»tbcrn  and  western  coasts.  Vast  roots  and  trunks  remain  in 
places  in  which  a  twig  even  of  the  most  hardy  kind  can  now 
with  difficulty  be  reared.  In  the  counties  of  Westmeath  and 
Antrim,  Donegal,  and  on  the  coasts  of  Enishowen  and  Rosses^ 
pints  formerly  arrived  at 'the  age  of  120  years,  and  were  more 
than  a  yard  in  diameter,  and  50  feet  in  height.«^In  regard  to  the 
landSf  ~  these  have  in  many  places  overwhelmed  houses  and 
towns  ;  witness,  the  ruins  at  the  entrance  of  the  river  Bannow 
in  the  barony  of  Forth,  in  the  county  of  Wexford  ;  and  the  de- 
caying state  of  the  mansion-house  of  one  of  the  noble  families 
of  Hamilton,  situated  in  the  peninsula  of  Rossgull,  between  the 
harbours  of  Sheephaven  and  Mulroy,  in  the  county  of  Donegal. 
— Tlie  increase  of  the  tides  is  well  known  to  those  who  have  had 
occasion  to  construct  or  to  repair  embankments.—- A  compen- 
sation for  the  evils  arising  from  the  prevalence  and  fury  of  the 
westerly  winds  is  a  more  even  temperature  than  Ireland  for- 
merly experienced ;  for  the  western  winds  blow  over  the  wa- 
ters of  the  Atlantic,  which  are  less  sensibly  affected  by  the 
variations  of  told  and  heat  than  land  would  be.  From  a  ba- 
lance of  loss  and  gain,  the  author  concludes  that  Ireland  is 
ameliorated  since  the  westerly  winds  have  prevailed.  In  his 
own  language : 

•  To  sum  up  matters,  then,  with  truth  and  brevity— A  density  of 
popuktion,  surpassing  that  of  the  vaunted  millions  of  undepopulated 
France ;  a  copious  export  trade  in  provisions  of  various  kinds,  un- 
equalled by  any  kingdom  whose  inhabitants  are  proportionably  nu» 
merous ;  and  a  staple  manufacture  unrivalled  in  general  use,  in  cer- 
tainty of  produce,  apd  intrinsic  value  ;  are  circumstances  which  have 
not  ndlen  to  the  lot  of  other  nations,  and  bring  with  them  clear  and 
irrefragable  evidence  to  demonstrate  a  salubrious  country,  a  genial 
climate,  and  a  fertile  soil  in  Ireland.' 

The  author  conjectures  that,  as  the  westerly  winds  have 
nged  since  the  destruction  of  forests  in  the  time  of  James  L 
these  forests  broke  and  mitigated  the  fury  of  the  tempests ; 
especially  as  the  limits  of  stormy  currents  may  be  within  100 
yaids  of  the  surface,  since  the  lower  mass  of  air  often  pursues 
^  a  different  course  from  the  upper. 

Rky.  Mat,  x^^p*  C  JSsti^ 


t9  Trafisactt9nt  of  (he  'Royal  Irish  Academy^  VoL  VL 

Essay  on  the  best  Means  of  ascertaining  the  Areas  of  Countries  of 
considerable  Extent.    By  the  Rev.  James  Whitclaw,  M.  R  J.  A. 

Having  shewn  that  the  common  projections  (stereographic, 
conical,  and  circular)  are  unfit  for  mensuration,  this  gentleman 
proposes  a  method  of  determining,  to  a  considerable  degree  of 
accuracy,  the  areas  of  maps  on  the  conical  and  circular  pro* 
jections.  The  method  proposed  i&  briefly  this :  Draw  the  con- 
tour of  the  country,  and  observe  what  quadrilateral  spaces  lie 
within  it  *•  The  quadrilateral  spaces  form  what  is  caUed  the 
integral  area,  and  that  without  it  the  fractional.  The  integral 
area  is  easily  and  accurately  found,  for  the  area  of  a  zone  in- 
eluded  between  two  parallels  h  had  by  multiplying  its  sine  in 
miles  and  decimals  of  a  mile  by  21600  (circumference  of  a 
great  circie  in  such  miles) :  divide  this  product  by  360,  and 
we  have  the  value  of  a  quadrilateral  space.— The  fractional 
area  is  next  computed,  but  by  a  metliod  which  we  cannot  well 
explain  here. 

Three  Schemes  for  donveytng  Intelligence  to  great  Distances^  ly 
Signal^.     By  John  Cooke,  Esq.  M.  R.  LA. 

We  do  not  sec  any  thing  particularly  worthy  of  notice  in 
these  schemes ;  they  may  be  multiplied  ad  infifiitttm. 

Observations  on  the  Po^oer  of  Painting  to  express  mixed  Passions. 
By  the  Rev.  Michael  Kearney,  D.  D.  M.  R.I.  A. 

This  is  a  criticism  on  a  remark  of  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  con- 
cerning the  impractrcability  of  describing  the  expression  of  mixed 
passions.  The  memoir  is  short,  and  the  criticism  is  given  with 
considerable  ingenuity  and  much  modesty ;  yet,  in  our  opinion^ 
it  will  not  overthrow  the  decision  of  the  late  President  of  the 
Royal  Academy. 

In  the  countenance,  doubtless,  may  be  discovered  either 
^permanent  qualities  or  sudden  emotions ;  sweetness  of  temper, 
strength  of  intellect,  joy,  despair,  &c.  The  dignified  form, 
the  character  of  martial  gallantry,  and  the  marks  of  an  amo^ 
rous  temperament,  observable  in  the  statue  of  Paris  by  Eu- 
phranor,  might  justify  the  assertion  that  in  it  could  be  discerned 
the  Judex-  Dearum,  amat or  Helena^  and  interfector  AcbiUis;  what- 
ever indiflation  of  inward  emotion  the  countenance  is  capable 
of  assuming,  the  pencil  of  the  painter  may  imitate :— but  can 
it  express  the  contest  of  different  emotions  ?  Can  the  soul  be 
agitated  by  two  different  passions  at  the  same  instant  ?  If  not, 
the  countenance  can  exhibit,  in  one  instant,  the  indicatioii 

*  Quadrilateral  spaces  are  formed  by  the  parts  of  two  parallels  of 
latitude  distant  from  each  other  oue  degree,  and  of  two  mendians 
didtant  one  ckgrce  of  longitude* 


Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish  Academy^  Vol.VL         19, 

only  of  one  emotion.  These  emotions  and  indications  may 
succeed  each  other  with  wonderful  rapidity,  arid  hence  we  may 
fancy  them  really  blended  and  co-existing.  The  countenance 
of  Coriolanus  changed  during  the  supplication  of  his  mother 
and  his  wife,  from  an  assumed  cold  dignity,  to  that  state 
in  which,  overpowered  by  natural  affection,  "  his  eyes  did 
sweat  compassion."  He  did  not  feel  at  the  same  instant  as  a 
son,  and  as  the  enemy  of  Rome  and  the  avenger  of  his  own 

This  question  is  similar  to  that  in  which  it  is  inquired 
whether  the  mind  can,  at  the  same  instant,  dwell  on  two 
ideas  ? 

jin  Essay  on  the  Art  of  conveying  secret  and  swift  Intelligence* 
By  Richard  LovcU  Edgworih,  Esq.  F.  R.  S.  &  M.  R.  I.  A. 

This  essay  commences  with  a  learned  and  elaborate  account 
of  the  Telegraph  :— but,  before  the  author  requests  our 
attention  to  the  scientific  part  of  his  plan,  he  produces  much 
pleasant  matter.   He  observes  : 

*  But  a  still  more  compendious  method  of  communication  was  sup- 
posed to  exist  in  the  16th  century.  Is  was  reported  that  two  mag- 
netic dials,  witli  the  four-and-twenty  letters  inscribed  on  their  cir- 
cumference, would  by  means  of  self-moving  hands  point  to  the  letters 
which  the  correspondents  meant  to  indicate.  The  jrreat  Bacon  be- 
lieved in  those  sympathetic  dials,  and  the  learned  Sir  Thomas  Browne, 
in  his  Enquiry  concerning  Vulgar  Errors,  gravely  informs  us  that  he 
procured  two  dial  plates,  according  to  directions,  magnetised  the 
needles,  and  repeated  the  experiment  In  form,  but  to  his  infinite  dis- 
appointment, ••  the  needles,  though  but  a  span  removed  from  each 
other,  stood  like  the  pillars  of  Hercules :"  he  then  proceeds  to  con- 
fute the  theory  «•  of  this  excellent  and  (If  the  effect  would  but  fol- 
low) •*  divine  conceit,**  by  shewing  that  magnetic  needles  should  in- 
fluence the  motions  of  each  other,  not  In  the  same,  but  in  contrary 
directions;  had  this  been  the  only  difTicuIty,  it  had  been  easily  ob- 
Tiated  by  reversing  the  order  of  the  letters  in  one  of  the  alphabets. 

*  Doctor  Johnson,  in  his  life  of  Browne,  laughs  at  him.  for  having 
taken  the  pains  to  tr}"-  "  such  a  hopeless  experiment,"  remarking 
"  that  he  might  have  satisfied  himself  by  a  method  less  operosc,  by 
thrusting  two  needles  through  a  cork  and  sttting  them  afloat  in 
two  basons  of  water  ;**  but  Browne,  he  observes,  "  appears  indeed  t© 
have  been  ready  to  pay  labour  for  thith.'* 

*  The  story  of  these  dials  had,  I  believe,  some  foundation,  but,  as 
it  usually  happens  in  popular  stories,  much  fiction  has  been  mingled 
with  some  truth. 

*  If  two  clocks  were  furnished  with  hands,  and  with  dial  plates 
containing  the  alphabet,  the  motion  of  each  of  them  rnight  be  un- 
locked at  a  momentary  flash  or  sounds,  and  they  might  be  stopped 
together  at  any  letter  by  a  second  explosion.  I  am  informed  that  a 
voj  iogcnioas  member  of  this  Academy  has  spoken  of  such  a  con- 

C  2  trivaiice. 

ajo        Trcatsttctions  t^thi  Royal  Irish  Acadtmjf  Vol.  VL 

trivance. — With  proper  precautions^  and  by  substituting  numbevt 
qQI-jrcsponding  with  a  vocabulary  instead  of  an  alphabet,  this  inven- 
tion may  be  perfected.  I  cannot  help  remarking,  that  by  the  expe- 
riment of  Sir  T-  Browne  with  two  distinct  dials,  &c.  a  hint  might 
liave  been  obtained  of  a  practicable  contrivance ;  but  by  Doctor 
Johnson's  cork,  with  two  needles  thrust  through  it,  nothing  could 
be  obtained  but  disappointment.  Vulgar  tradition  and  poetic  alle- 
^ry  are  neitlier  to  be  implicitly  trusted  nor  hastily  despised.  The 
incredulity  of  mankind  in  some  instances  appears  as  surpnsing  as 
•  their  credulity  in  others.  The  disposition  to  ndicule  every  scientific 
project  as  absurd  until  it  has  been  absolutely  brought  to  perfection  ' 
has  been  the  common  topic  of  complaint  among  men  of  inventive 
genius  ;  and  it  is  curious  to  observe  that  poets,  who  suffer  so  much 
themselves  by  the  taunts  of  men  of  the  world,  and  by  the  apathy  of 
the  vulgar,  should  in  their  turn  rev6)|^e  themselves  upon  men  of 
Science,  and  treat  their  speculations  with  disdain.  Ben  Jonson  hat 
attempted  this  in  one  of  his  masques  with  a  degree  of  humour  which 
18  not  always  the  portion  of  those  who  throw  ridicule  on  science* 
Merefool,  tne  clown  of  the  piece,  consults  an  adept,  who  promises  to 
instruct  him  in  all  occult  secrets,  and  to  shew  him  apparitions  of  all 
the  learned  men  of  the  ancients ;  but  every  man  who  is  called  for 
happens  to  be  busy,  from  Pythagoras  ^  who  lus  rashly  run  himself 
upon  an  employment  of  keeping  asses  from  a  field  of  beans,"  t» 
Archimedes,  who  is  meditating  the  invention  of 

•*  A  rare  mouse  trap  with  owls  wings. 
And  a  cat's  foot  to  catch  the  mice  alone.^' 

*  Not  onlj  the  same  taste  for  ridicule,  but  the  same  ideas  we  find 
repeated,  with  a  slight  alteration,  at  different  aeras ;  Aristophanes  and 
Lucian  among  the  ancients,  and  Butler,  Swift,  and  Voltaire,  the  three 
great  modem  masters  of  ridicule,  have  in  various  shapes  the  same  ideas, 
and  are  alike  disposed  to  confound  the  ingenious  and  the  extravagant.! 
The  best  way  0/  parry  in?  the  stroke  of  ridicule  is  to  receive  it  with 
good  humour ;  laugh  with  those  who  kugh,  and  persevere  with  those 
who  labour,  should  be  the  motto  of  men  who  possess  the  powers  of 

<  The  late  Doctor  Johnson,  who  in  his  Rasselas  ridiculed  the  idea 
of  the  art  of  flying,  hved  long  enough  to  sec  the  ascent  of  the  first 
air  balloon*' 

Mr.  £.  accoufitB  teUgraphicaUy  for  the  answer  given  by  the 
Delphtc  Oracle  to  Croesus*    The  story  is  as  follows  r 

*  Cnssus,  after  having  been  duped  by  various  oracles,  began  tc^ 
suspect  their  infaUibility,  and  to  observe  that  th^  made  bad  verses ; 
he  resolved  to  try  their  powers  of  divination  before  he  put  himself  to. 
any  Luther  expence  in  costly  offerings.  At  a  certain  hour,  on  a  par- 
ticular day  and  at  an  appointed  moment,  the  messengers  whoip  he 
had  dispatched  to  the  difterent  oracles  demanded  from  them  <*  What 
was  at  that  instant  the  employment  of  Croesus  V* 

*  All  the  oracles  were  mute,  except  the  Delphic,  which  immedi-! 
ately  answered  the  mesKugers^of  Cronus  in 'these  intpiad  lines. 

•♦  I  know 

Transdetims  rftht  Itojal  Irish  Jcadit^^  Vpt.  FL        tt 

**  I  know  the  space  of  lea-— the  number  of  the  uaA^ 
I  hear  the  silent — mut(  I  understand. 
A  tender  lainb>  joined  with  tortoise  flesh> 
Thy  master,  king  of  Lydia,  now  docs  dress  ; 
The  scent  thereof  doth  in  "my  nostrils  hover. 
From  brazen  pot  do^d  with  brazen  cover." 

«  This  was  precisely  the  strange  employment  which  tTie  kmgfltai 
privately  devised  for  himself.  The  answer  of  the  oracle  astoUnddl 
and  convinced  Crccsus,  and  seems  to  have  had  as  powerful  an  effect 
upon  Sir  Thomas  Browne,  who,  in  his  •*  Enquiry  concerning  VuTgar 
Errors,"  calls  this  the  plainest  of  all  oracles,  and  decmf  it  Uie  clear- 
<st  proof  of  their  supernatural  agency.  Neither  probability  nor  co- 
incidence could  have  produced  this  marvellf)U8  reply ;  it  has  therefore 
ezcited  -.ilike  the  astonishment  of  the  learned  and  of  the  ignorant* 
But  the  wonder  ceases,  and  an  easy  solution  of  the  difficulty  presenta 
itself,  if  we  suppose  that  the  priests  of  the  orade  were  Tele- 

The  contrirance  of  Mr.  Edgcworth  appears  to  us  both  simple 
snd  ingenious.  Drawings  enable  as  to  judge  so  much  better 
of  the  form,  constTUction^  iffc.  of  a  machine,  than  all  descrip^ 
tions  merely  Yerbal,  that  we  shall  not  attempt  any  which  would 
probably  be  unsatisfactory.  The  part  most  difficult  of  com- 
prehension in  the  memoir  is  tliat  concerning  the  Vocabulary : 
but  we  feel  little  inclined  to  make  small  objections  against  an 
essay,  in  the  perusal  of  which  we  have  had  frequent  opportu* 
nitics  of  admiring  the  author's  ingenuity  and  learning. 

On  ibi  Method  of  deiertidnwg  the  Longitude  by  Observations  if 
the  Meridian  Passages  of  the  Moon  and  a  Star^  made  at  iwo 
Places.  By  the  Rev.  Dr.  James  Archibald  Hamilton^  Professor 
of  Astronomy  at  Arme^h. 

This  method  of  determining  the  longitude  is  well  known  td 
astronomert;  The  several  corrections,  which  are  required  to 
give  sufficient  accuracy  to  it,  are  here  explained  fully,  and  witll 
a  considerable  degree  of  perspicuity. 

On  the  Method  of  toting  Radicals  out  of  Eqitationt.  By  D. 
Mooney,  A.  B.  Trin.  CoU.  Dublin. 

The  object  of  this  memoir  is  to  shew  that  the  rule  concern- 
ing the  method  of  taking  radicals  out  of  an  equation,  by  multi« 
ptkatioD,  obtains  generally ;  and  that,  by  simple  tnvolotiont 
quadratic  surds  may  be  taken  out  of  an  equation,  let  the  num* 
her  of  terns  be  what  they  may. 

The  author  takes  an  example,  ^7  +  ^i  =  v^r  +  \/7  +  \^ 
and  shews  that^  by  involution,  the  equation  may  be  rendered 

C  3  Tbe 

12         TrafUacftons  0/tAe  Royal  Irish  Jcadimy,  VoLVL 

The  method  employed  in  the  former  example  likewise  ren- 
ders rational  «  +  v'^  +  y^7  _  v'^—  s/'d  —  v^/  =  o  care 
being  taken  to  place  it  in  such  a  form  that,  after  multiplica- 
tion, there  remits  the  least  number  of  surd  rectangles ;  thus 
a:  +  \/fl  +  s/b.  =  v^r  +  ^d  +  ^/,  when  multiplied  into  it- 
*clf,  gives  a  less  number  of  surd  rectangles  than  when  in  this 
form  x-^^Taz  y^rV  ^  +  ^f —  v^T. 

StippUment  to  Mr.  Edgewrth^s  Essay  on  the  Telegraph. 

A  Description  of  an  Air^Pump  of  a  new  Con/lruction,  Sec.  &c. 
Sy  the  Rev.  James  Little,  cf  Lacken^  in  the  County  of  Mayo. 

In  this  paper  is  contained  a  long  description  of  an  air-pump, 
constructed  on  principles  similar  to  those  of  Mr.  Smeaton  and 
Mr.  Cuthbertson.  It  would  require  plates,  and  a  much  larger 
portion  of  our  work  than  we  can  possibly  allot,  to  give  a  satis- 
factory abstract  of  the  contents  of  thi^  memoir. 

On  the  Application  of  a  converging  Series  to  the  Construction  of 
Logarithms.     By  William  AJlman,  A.  B.  Trin.  Cell.  Dublin. 

'I'he  logarithm  of  the  ratio  of  one  number  to  another  is  ex- 
pressed by  the  Series  ^HL  +  i^  +  i^,  and  where  d 
s  3/i         5/» 

expresses  the  difference  and  /  the  sum  of  the  numbers,  and^ 
the  modulus  of  the  system.  Now,  in  the  practical  application 
of  series,  it  is  desirable,  for  the  sake  of  conveniency  and  dis- 
patch, that  the  series  should  converge  as  quickly  as  possible ; 
the  object,  therefore,  of  the  operations  in  this  memoir,  is  to 
xnake  the  series  above  mentioned  converge  quickly.  The  au- 
thor thus  explains  his  method  of  producing  a  quickness  of  con- 
yprg^ncy : 

'  •  f  It  18  evident,  tiiat  the  les^s  d  is  in  respect  of  /,  the  faster  the  series 
piIL  converge  ;  so  th^t  the  construction  of  the  logarithms  of  prime 
numbers,  will  be  rendered  more  easy  and  expeditious,  by  finding  two 
great  products,  which  shall  have  a  small  difFerencc ;  one  of  which 
pivducts  4iall  he  compo£$;d  entirely  of  factors  whose  logarithms  are 
already  known,  and  the  other  shall  have  in  its  composition,  the 
number  whose  logarithm  is  souglit,  or  some  power  of  that  number ; 
and,  if  it  have  any  othei"  factors,  the  logarithms  of  these  factors 
must  be. prcvfously  known. 

•  '  *  Havmg  found  such  products,  we  mar,  by  the  application  of  the 
above-n^entioned  series,  find  the  logarithm  of  their  ratio  to  each 
other  ;  which  is  the  same  with  the  logarithm  of  the  ratio  of  4he  first 
product  (or  that  which  is  composed  enurely  of  factors  whose  loga* 
rithms  are  known)  divided  by  the  factor  or  compound  of  factors 
whose  logarithms  are  known  (jf  there  be  any  such)  in  the  latter  pro- 
duct>  to  the  prime  number  whose  logarithm  is  sought,  or  some 
jipwcr  of  that  number.   Then,  from  the  logarithm  of  the  antecedent, 


Transactions  of  the  Royal  Irish  AcaSimf^  VoL  Vh        23 

nd  the  logarithm  of  the  ratio»  we  have,  bj  addition  dr  lubtraAtion^ 
the  logariuim  of  the  consequent** 


&w^  Hints  concerning  the  State  0/  Science  at  tic  Revival  of 
LitterSf  grounded  on^aPd^ssagc  of  Danti  in  his  Inferno^  Canto  IV. 
V.  1.30.  By/tbe  Right  Hqnythe  Earl  o/'Charlca^ont,  Prtsidint  j/J" 
the  RojqI  Irish  Academy^  and  F.  R.  B. 

In  the  poem  of  Dante,,  written  about  the  year  1300,  tjxe 
poet- describes  the  Elysium  prepared  for  Pagan  wdrthies,  and 
gives  to  Aristotle  the  first  place  among  the  autient  philp- 
fiophers^  in  the  following  passage : 

'  Poiche'nnalsdi  un  poco  piu  la  ciglia« 
Vidi  '1  Maestro  di  color  che  sanno 
Seder  tra  Filosofka  "Famigha- 
Tutti  ramiran,  tutti-  onor  gli  fanno. 
Ouivi  vid*  10  e  Socrate,  e  Platone, 
Che  'nnansi  agli  altri  pui  presso  gli  stanno. 
<  My  eyes  a  little  raising,  I  descried 

The  sovereign  master  of  all  those  mfho  inow^  i 

«  Sitting  among  the  philosophic  race, 

Admtr'd  by  al),  by  all  rever'd  and  honourM  z 
There  I  beheld  both  Socrates  and  Plato, 
Who  prior  to  the  rest  stand  close  beside  him. 

This  passage  being  a  testimony  of  ^he  reverence  In  whidb 
Aristotle. was  held  in  the  darker  ages,  at  the  first  revival  of. 
letters,  the  noble  Earl  proceeds  to  assign  the  causes  of  this 
teverence  ;  and  to  point  out  the  circumstances  which  gave  man- 
kind a  disposition  and  an  ardour  for  the  subtle,  refined,  and 
disputatious  philosophy  of  the  Stagyrite. 

The  ingenious  remarks  and  displayed  learmng  of  the  noble 
author  claim  attention  and  praise ;  yet  we  must  observe  that 
die  parts  of  the  present  memoir  are  not  sufficiently  connected, 
and  that'  its  object  is  not  sufficiently  determinate.  Tjie  title 
of  the  paper,  however,  may  be  said  to  h&vc  prepared  an  ex« 
cuse  against  any  objection  of  this  nature. 

Reflections  om  the  Choice  of  Subjects  for  Tragedy  among  the 
Greek  Writers.     By  William  Preston,  Esq.  ^L  R.  I.  A. 

The  subj^Bcts  of  the  XSrecian  tragedies  are  tales*  of  horror ; 
Orestes,  pfursued  by  the  Furies ;  the  horrid  Feast  of  Atreus ; 
Oedipus,  incestuous,  blind,  and  mangled;  Hercules  tortured 
bv  bis  ^envenomed  robe ;  Medea,  the  murderess  of  her  own 
€hndrcn»  Isfc,  SucH  were  the  favourite  themes  of  the  Grecian 
Hose.  The  inquiry  in  the  present  essay  is  concerning  the! 
canset  which  led  the  Greek  tragic  writers  to  seek  so  sedulously^ 
jn  liAXorji  for  subjects  of  such  aggravated  honor  ;  and  accord- 
:  *  C  4  ing 

04         f^inda^onrifftii  Rojal  Irish  Academy^  Vol.FL 

kig  to  Mr.  Pi  th^  <au^s  are  to  be  found  in  the  cruelty  m4 
ferocity  which  disgraced  the  Grecian  character.  Most  abuo^ 
dant  proof  (if  an^  indeed  were  wanted)  is  adduced  of  this 
^ru,elty  of  disposition,  from  their  mythology,  from  the  writings 
of  Homer,  and  from  the  faithful  pages  of  Thucydides. 

Towards  the  end  of  his  essay,  which  id  itplete  with  just  tt« 
marks,  Mr.  P.  considers  the  (question  wliy/in  tho  present  timet 
of.  refinement,  representations  of  terrific  subjects  continue  to 
extite  such  jj^redilection.  Though  this  ideli  has  beenfreqiiennly 
disCy^ed,  we  had  marked  some  passages  for  insertion  :  but,  on 
a  second  inspection,  they  seem  too  Idhg  for  our  limits. 

An  Essay  on  the  Variations  of  English  Prpse^frcnt  the  Revolu* 
iion  to  the  present  T^me.  by  Tljpmps  Wallace,  A.B.  and 
M.  R.  I.  A.     To  which  was  adjudgecl  the  Gold  Pri^e  Medal. 

In  the  beginning  of  this  essay,  if  is^  obfervtc)  ^at  the  state 
of  the  language  of  a  people  corresponds  with  the  state  of  their 
polity  and  manners ;  and,  as  ap  example  of  this  observation, 
the  author  points  out  the  corresp.endence  which  has  existed  be- 
tween the  iraproverhent  in  our  language  and  our  political  and 
moral  amelioration.  When  England  was  agitated  by  civil  wars^ 
and  depressed  by  a. feudal  policy,  its  language  was  rude,  anoma- 
lous, and  without  either  precision  or  g^racc.  from  this  de- 
gra.ded  state,  it  was  raised  by  the  Reformatron  ;  then,  questions 
<^  high  concernment  were  agitated,  and  men  began  to  think 
with  greater  precision,  and  to  reason  nriore  mechodlcany';  iii 
Consequence  of  which^*  the  language  rose  from  its  low  state  to 
a  considerable  degree  of  excellence*  It  was,  however,  abun- 
dant in  faults,  until  the  time  of  Addisdn. 

,  •  With  -Addisqo.  ^d  his  contemporaries,'  says  Mr.  Wallace,  *  ori- 
ginated the  first  variation  that  occurred,  subsequent  to  the  Revolu* 
tion,  in  the  composition  of  English  prose.  Though  the  diffuse  style 
6llll  continued  to  prfrail,  it  was  no  longer  the  loc^e,  inaccurate  and 
clumsy  style  by  which  the  compositions  of  his  predecessors  were  dis- 
graced. So  great,  indeed,  was  the  improvement,  and  so  striking  the 
variation  introduced  by  Addison,  that  he  who  cooipares  the  produc- 
tions of  this  elegant  writer  with  those  of  the  best  writers  of  1688,  will 
find  It  difficult  to  avoid  surprise,  how,  with  such  precedents  before 
him,  he  could  have  risen  at  once  to  a  degree  of  excellence  in  style 
which  constitutes  him  a  model  for  imitation.  The  forced  metaphor, 
the  dragglfig  clause,  the  harsh  cadence,  and  the  abrupt  close^  arc  all 
df  them  strangers  to  the  works  of  Addison.  Ip  the  structure  of  his 
sffVUrnces,  though  we  may^  SQme|ixnfli.mcet  marks  of  negligence,  yet 
Vfc  c^ui  seldom  find  the  unity  of  j^senteoce  violated  by  ideas  crowded 
tpocthcr,  or  the  sense  obscured  by  an  improper  connection  of  clauses* 
Though,  like  his  predecessors,  ne  freqiiently  uses  twp  words  to  ex- 
jfress  6iit  idea,  yet,  in  t^is  instance,  be  is  less  faulty  than  they;  and, 
axdoog  th?  Tariatiim^  iiitfD^pecd  b;^  U|D|  wf  B^yst  peckoo  a  inori% 

**  •  .-  ^     •;  strict 

Trautaetkns  ^ihi  Royal  Irish  Academy^  Vol.  Ft.         25 

ftnct  attention  to  tKe  choice  of  words,  and  more  precisfen  in  the  use 
of  tncm. 

*  Of  figuratiTC  language*  Addison  ha«  always  been  acknowledged, 
the  most  happy  model.  He  was,  indeed,  the  first  of  the  English 
prose  writers  who  were  equally  excellent  in  the  choice  and  in  th* 
management  of  their  figures.  Of  thoec  who  preceded  him,  it  ha« 
been  observed  that  they  were  frequently  unhappy  in  both  instances; 
that  their  metaphors  either  were  such  as  teiKled  rather  to  degrade 
their  subject  than  to  give  it  dignity  and  elevation  ;  or  that  when  they 
were  well  chosen,  they  were  spoiled  by  the  manner  in  which  they 
vcrc  conducted,  being  detained  under  the  pen  until  their  spirit  eva- 
porated, or  traced  until  the  likeness  vanished.  Addison  avoided 
both  faults  :  his  metaphors  arc  selected  with  care  and  taste,  or  rather 
seem  to  spring  spontaneously  from  his  subject ;  they  are  exhibited  to 
the  mind  but  lor  a  moment,  that  the  leading  traits  of  similitude  may  be 
observed  while  minute  likenesses  are  disregarded — ^like  those  flashes 
of  electric  fire  which  often  illumine  a  summer's  night,  they  shed  ai 
tivid,  though  a  transient  lustre,  over  the  scene,  and  please  rather  by 
the  briffhtness  with  which  they  gild  the  prospect  than  the  accuracy 
with  which  they  shew  its  beauties. 

•  Should  it  be  doubted,  whether  the  improvement  of  style  which 
took  place  in  the  time  of  Addison — that  variation  which  substituted 
uniform  and  correct  neatness  in  composition,  for  what  was  loose,  in- 
accarute  and  capricious, — be  justly  attributed  to  htm-— the  doubt  -sriH 
vanish  when  it  is  remembered  that  in  no  work  prior  to  his  time  is  an 
equal  degree  of  accuracy  or  neatness  to  be  found,  and  even  among* 
those  periodical  papers  to  ^Mch  the  most  eminent  of  his  cotemporary 
writers  contributed,  the  Clio  of  Addison  stands  emfnently  conspicu- 
ous. It  was,  indeed,  from  the  productions  of  that  classic  and  co- 
pious mind  that  the  public  seems  to  have  caught  the  taste  for  fine 
writing;  which  has  operated  from  that  time  to  the  present,  and  which 
has  given  to  our  language  perhaps  the  greatest  degp^ee  of  elegance 
and  accuracy  of  which  it  is  susceptible — for  if  any  thing  is  yet  to  be- 
added  to  -the  improvement  of  the  English  style,  \i  must  be  more 
nerve  and  muscle,  not  a  nicer  modification  of  form  or  feature. 

-^  tfciatUan  kvta^  nervi 

Deficiunt  ammque  ^ 

.  ^  While  Addison,  was  communicating  to  English  prose  a  degree  of- 
conectness  with  which  it  had  been,  till  his  time,  unacquainted.  Swift 
was  exemplifying  its  precision  and  giving  a  standard  for  its  purity. 
Swift  was  the  first  writer  who  attempted  to  express  his  meaning 
without  subsidiary  words  and  corroborating  phrases.  He  nearly  laid 
aside  the  use  of  synonimes  in  which  even  Addison  had  a  little  in- 
dulged,  and  without  being  very  solicitous  about  the  structure  or  har- 
moay  of  his  periods,  seemed  to  devote  all  his  attention  to  illustrate 
the  force  of  individual  words.  Swift  hewed  the  stones,  and  fitted  tiio 
materialt  for  tbqsc  who  built  after  him ;  Addison  left  the  neatest  and 
flioil  finished  models  of  ornamental  architecture. 

•  Of  the  c.hars^cter  which  is  here  given  of  these  two  wnters  it  ia. 
MiMyccsiBry  ta  give  jffoef  by  quoiisg  passages  from  tbeir  works*  far 


26         Trarua^tifms  bfth^  Royal  Irish  Academy^  Vol.  VL 

two  reasons;  the,. 09c  ky'that  their  works  are  in  the  hands  of  evezy 
body ;  the  other,  that  the  qualities  which  we  attribute  to  their  style 
are  so  obvious  that  it  were  superfluous  to  illustrate  them. 

*  Besides  those  first  reformers  of  the  style  of  1688,  there  were 
others,  contemporary  with  them,  who  contributed  to  promote  the 
work  which  they^did  not  begin.     Bolingbroke  and  Shaftsbury,  like 
Addison,  were  elegant  and  correct,  and  seem  from  him  to  have  de- 
rived their  correctness  and  elegance.     Of  this,  so  far  as  it  concerns 
Shaftsbury,  there  is  a  roost  remarkable  proof*.     HIb  tract  j  entitled 
**  iVn.  Enquiry  concerning  Virtue,"  was  ia  the  hands  of  the  public  in 
1^9,'  in  a  state  very  different  indeed  from  that  in  which  hi;i  lordship 
pV^i^hed,,  in  the  year  1726^.    It  partook  of  all  the  faults  which  were 
jprcvalent  in  the  style  of  that  day>  but  particularly   in  tlie  length  of 
i\.%  periods,  and  the  iuartiticial  connection  of  them.     In  the  editioa 
of  1726  those  errors  were  in  a  great  measure  connected ;  the  sentences 
^re  broken  do\vn>  and  nK>lded  with  much  elegance  into  others  less 
proljx ;  and  sharing  in  some  degree  alt  the  beauties  of  Addison's 
style,  except  those  which  perhaps  his  lordship  could  not  copy,  its 
case  and  simplicity.     Indeed  Shaftsbury,  in  the  form  in  which  we 
now  have  him,  appears  to  be  more  attentive  than  Addison  to  the  har- 
mony of:  his  cadence^  and  the  regular  construction  of  his  sentences ; 
and  certainly  if  he  has  less  .simplicity  has  more  strength.     Boling- 
(nrokc,  too,  parti^pating  in  correctness  with  Addison,   has  some 
lopic$  of  peculiar  praise  ;  he 'has  more  force  than  Addison — and-—; 
what  nuiy  appear  strange,  when  we  consider  how  much  more  vehe^ 
mcpt  and  copious  he  is,  has  more  precision.     The  nature  of  the  sub-, 
jccts  on  which  BoUngbroke  and  Shaftsbii^  wrote  naturally  tended 
to  make,  them  more  attentive  to  precision  th^n  Addison.    These  sub- 
jjccts  were  principally  abstract  morality  and  metaphysics  ~  subjects  of 
vhfch  BO  knowledge  cao  be  attained  but  by  close  and  steady  think- 
ing, .or  communicated  but  by  words  of  definite  and  constant  meaning. 
The  language  of  Addison,  however  elegant  in  itself,  or  however  ad- 
mirably adapted  by  its  easy  flow  to  those  famjliar  topes  whicl^  are 
genendly  the  suln^cts  of  diurnal  essays,  was  too  weak  for  the  weight 
of  abstract  moraTdjsqqisttiqn,  and  too  v^gue  for  the  nicetie|i  of  me^. 
taphysical  distinction.     It  was  fitted  for  nim  whose  object  was  to 
catch  what  Boated  on  the  surface  of  life  %  but  Ft  could  not  serve  him 
vho  was  to  enter  into  the  depths  of  the  human  mind,  to  watch  the 
progress  of  intcUedual  operation,  and  embody  to  the  vulgar  eye  tho^ 
ever  fleeting  forms  under  which  the  passiona  vary.' 

This  essay  reflects  much  credit  on  the  author,  and  seems 
well  worthy  of  that  mark  of  distinction  which  the  Society  has 
conferred  on  it,  Wc  could  wish,  however,  that  Mr.  Wallace 
had  not  followed  the  philosophical  grammar  of  the  old  school. 
We  are  so  far  admirers  of  the  doctrine  caught  in  the  Diversions . 
of  Purley,  that  we  feel  rather  intolerant  in  reading  the  follow- 
ing passage :  *  those  few  but  important  words  which  are  used, 
not  to  designate  things,  but  to  exhibit  the  various  positions  \  of 

*  •  See  BlalPs  Lectures.*       f  See  p.  i^ .  Dxversxons  of  Purley,  &c, 
7  th« 

Colnett'/  Vcyagi  to  the  South  Atlantic.  07 

the  mind  In  thinking,  to  shew  the  relation  which  It  means  to 
establish  between  two  propositions,  or  the  diffci^ent  part$  of 
the  same  proposition,  must  have  been  aukwardl^r  and  often 
improperly  used/     (p.  43.) 

On  the  Poetical  Character  of  Dr.  Goldsmith.  B7  the  Rev. 
Archdeacon  Burrowes,  M.  R.  I.  A« 

This  memoir  is  valuable  and  interesting  5  valuable  for  m]yu:h 
good  criticism  contained  in  it,  and  interesting  because  it  places 
before  us  the  sweet  poetry  of  Goldsmith.  What  was  said  of 
Dennis's  remarks  on  Cato,  that  we  soon  forgot  the  criticism 
and  returned  to  read  the  work,  with  unabated  ardour,  may  be 
applied  with  more  justice  to  any  criticism  on  Goldsmith* 
Siill,  however,  no  poet  is  above  criticism,  and  Mr.  Burrowct 
has  commented  widi  much  judgment  and  taste. 

[Tc  he  continued.']  •    '^^Oii  —  6  # 

Art.  III.  A  Voyage  to  tie  South  Atlantic  and  round  Cape  Hom^  int6 
the  Pacific  Ocean,  for  the  purpose  of  extending  the  Spermaceti 
Whale  Fisheries,  and  other  Objects  of  Commerce,  by  ascertaining 
the  Ports,  Bays,  HaFbours^  and  Anchoring  Birth*,  in  certain 
Islands  and  Coasts  in  those  Seas,  at  which  the  Ships  of  the  Brttiah 
Merchants  mights  be  re6tted.  Undertaken  and,  performed  bj 
Captain  James  Colnett,^  of  the  Royal  Navy.  4to.  pp.  20o» 
With  oine  Charts,  &c.     ih  58*  Boards.     Egerton,  &c.     1798, 

."CROM  the  introduction  to  this  volume,  we  Jearn  that,  pre* 
•*  viousiy  to  the  voyage  here  related,  Cipt.  Colnett  had  been 
engaged  in  various  commercial  undertakings  on  the  west  coast 
of  North 'America,  and  was  one  of  the  greatest  sufferers  by  the 
unwarrantable  conduct  of  the  Spaniards  on  that  coast.  H^ 
had  also,  when  a  youth,  sailed  with  Captain  Cook  in  his  second 
voyage  to  the  South-Sea.  On  these  accounts,  he  was  named  by 
the  Board  of  Admiralty  as  a  proper  person  to  be  employed  in 
the  present  voyage  ;  which  was  planned  in  consequence  of  an 
application  to  the  Board  of  Trade,  from  merchants  concerned 
in  the  South-Sea  fisheries.     In  a  memorial,  they  stated 

•  The  calamitous  situation  of  the  ships*  crews  employed  in  this 
trade,  from  the  scurvy  and  other  diseases,  incident  to  those  who  arc 
obliged  to  keep  the  seas,  from  the  want  of  that  relief  and  refreshment, 
which  is  afforded  by  intermediate  harbours. 

*  The  Spaniards,  it  is  true,  had,  of  late,  admitted  ships  into  their 
ports  for  the  purpose  of  refitting  ;  but,  from  the  latest  accounts  re«. 
cdytAf  this  permission  was  so  restricted  as  to  amount  almost  to  a  pro* 
hibitibn,  in  which  it  was  continually  expected  to  end.  It  became 
iberefore  an  object  of  gre^t  importance  to  obtain  such  a  situation  as 
pur  commerce  required,  independant  of  the  Spfmiards/ 



«t  Cotocft^/  Vcyf^  to  ihe  South  Atlantic^ 

Tfhe  merthaiits  tfceircforc  proposed  to  govcrtrmcnt,  that  an 
officer  should  be  sent  in  one  of  their  ships,  *  in  order  to  dis- 
cover such  a  situatiort."  The  Rattler  sloop  of  war  being  deemed 
a  convenient  vesBtl  for  the  intended  service,  an  offer  wa^ 
ifladc  to  pifrcliase  her  from  government,  with  which  th^  Admi- 
ralty acquiesced  \  and  she  was  fitted  accordingly  for  the  under- 

Captain  Colnctt  Itfft  England  cm  the  4th  of  January  I793f 
and  was  absent  during  twenty-two* months.  He  sailed  round 
Cape  Horn,  and  thence  to  the  northward  in  the  neighbourhodi 
of  the  American  coast,  as  far  as  California.  He  called  at,  and 
examined,  most  of  the  known  islands  in  this  track ;  and  he 
has  given  descriptions  of  them,  with  directions  for  navigators 
who  shall  visit  those  parts.  He  also  searched  for  lands  to 
tj.j  ^/Twhich  situations  have  been  assigned,  but  of  which  the  existence 
IS  not  well  ascertained;  and  particularly,  both  in  the  pas- 
sage out  and  on  th^  return,  but  without  success,  for  Isle 
Grande,  suppo^tx!  to  lie  to  the  eastward  of  the  South  Ame* 
rican  coast,  in  the  latitude  of  45^8. — ^Whatever  information  he 
has  been  able  tQ  obtain,  that  can  be  useful  to  those  who  are 
employed  in  the  southern  whale^fi^ery,  he  Jias  not  neglected 
Co  give  in  this  account. 

We  shall  mention  a  few  of  the  most  remarkable  circum- 
stances which  occur  in  the  narrative  of  the  voyage. — In  the 
passage  from  England  towards  Gsfpe  Horn,  Captain  Colnett 
relates  that 

*  The  autumnal  equinoctial  gale,'  (the  month  of  March,  being  m 
sofutb  latitude,)  *  came  on,  and  held  upwards  of  four  days,  with  frer 

Jucnt  clapt  of  thunder,  accompanied  by  lightening,  hail  and  rain, 
t  -blew  as  hard  as  I  ever  remember,  and>  for  several  hours,  we  could 
pot  venture  to  shew  any  sail.  At  the  same  time  a  whirlwind  or 
typhoon  arose  to  windward,  from  whence  in  one  of  the  squalls,  two  balls 
of  fire,  about  the  sh^e  of  cricket  balls,  fell  on  board.  One  of  them 
^rUck  the  atichor  which  was  housed  on  the  fore- castle,  and  bursting 
iHto  particles,  struck  the  chief  mate  and  one  of  the  seamen,  who  fel 
down  in  excruciating  tortunre.  On  examining  them,  several  holes  ap- 
peared to  have  been  burned  in  their  cloaths,  which  were  of  flannel : 
ami  in  vanous  parts  of  their  bodies  there  were  small  wounds,  as  if 
made  with  an  hot  iron  of  the  size  of  a  sixpenny  piece.  I  imme- 
diately ordered  some  of  the  crew  to  perform  the  operation  of  the 
Otaheiteans,  called  Roro  mee  *,  which  caused  a  considerable  abate- 
ment of  their  paiiis^  but  several  days  elapsed  before  they  wcfe  per* 
fectly  recovered.  The  other  ball  struck  the  funnel  of  the  caboose^ 
inade  an  explosion  equal  to  that  of  a  swivel  gun,  and  burned  sevtral 
holes  in  the  mizen -stay-sail  and  main-sail^  which  wcfe  handed.  At 
the  height  of  the  storm,  the  barometer  was  at  28*.' 

«  *  Roro  mee.  It  consists  in  gratping  the  fleshy  .parts-  of-the-bo^» 
legs,  and  arms,  and  working  it  with  the  fingers.' 

S  This 

Coloett!/  V^ge  to  the  South  Atlanih:  79 

Tius  was  near  to  die  situation  ^iven  to  Isle  Grande ;  where 
likewise  they  saw  siKh  numbers  of  black  whales,  that  tho 
Captain  says,  <  if  half  the  whalers  belonging  to  London  had 
been  with  me,  they  might  have  filled  their  vessels  with  oil/ 

Being  at  the  Gallipngoe  Isles,  about  the  end  of  June,  tlie 
pbces  which  had  lately  cbntained  fresh  water  were  thea 
dried  up. 

<  I  was  very  much  perplexed  (^ys  the  author)  to  form  a  satisfactory 
conjecture,  how  the  small  birds,  which  appeared  to  remain  in  one  spot^ 
supported  themselves  without  water :  but  the  party  on  their  return  in- 
formed me,  that,  having  exhausted  all  their  water,  and  reposing  beneath 
a  prickly  pear-tree,  almost  choaked  with  thirst,  they  observed  an  old 
bird  in  the  act  of  supplying  three  young  ones  with  drink,  by  squeez- 
ing the  berry  of  a  tree  into  their  mouths.  It  was  about  the  size  of 
a  pea,  and  contained  a  watery  juice,  of  an  acid,  but  not  un- 
pleasanty  taste.  The  bark  of  the  tree  produces  a  considerable 
quantity  of  moisture,  and,  on  being  eaten,  allays  the  thirst.  In  ^^ 
seasons,  the  land  tortoise  is  seen  to  gnaw  and  suck  it.  The  leaf  of 
this  tree  is  like  that  of  the  bay  tree,  the  fruit  grows  like  cherries^ 
whilst  the  juice  of  the  bark  dies  the  flesh  a  deep  purple,  and  emita 
a  grateful  odor :  a  quality  in  common  with  the  g^r eater  part  of  the 
trees  and  plants  in  this  island :  though  it  is  soon  lost,  when  the 
branches  arc  separated  from  the  trunks,  or  stems.  The  leaves  of 
these  trees  also  absorb  the  copious  dews,  which  fall  during  the  nighty 
but  in  larger  quantities  at  the  full  and  change  of  thfe  moon  ;  the 
birds  then  pierce  them  with  their  bills,  for  the  moisture  they  retain, 
and  which,  I  believe,  they  also  procure  from  the  various  plants  and 
ever-greens.  But  when  the  dews  fail  in  the  summer  season,  thou« 
lands  of  these  creatures  perish  ;  for,  on  our  return  hither,  we  found 
great  numbers  dead  in  their  nests,  and  some  of  them  almost  fledged.' 

In  these  seas,  being  near  the  American  coast,  they  saw 
numbers  of  turtle  floating  on  the  water,  and  innumerable  flocks 
of  boobies.  *  When  the  appearance  of  the  weather  foretold  a, 
squall,  or  on  the  approach  of  night,  the  turtle  generally  af- 
forded a  place  of  rest  for  one  of  these  birds  on  his  back  ;  and 
though  this  curious  perch  was  usually  an  object  of  contest,  the 
turtle  appears  to  be  perfectly  at  ease  and  unmoved  on  the  oc- 
casion. In  return,  the  bird  generally  eased  the  turtle  of  the 
sucking  fish  and  maggots  that  adhered  to  and  troubled  him/ 

On  the  navigation  round  Cape  Horn;  Captain  Colnett  makes 
the  following  remarks :  *  I  have  doubled  Cape  Horn  in  dif- 
ferent seasons,  but  were  I  to  make  another  voyage  to  this 
part  of  the  globe,  and  could  command  my  time,  I  would  most 
certainly  prefer  the  beginning  of  winter,  or  even  winter  itself, 
with  moon-light  nights  :  for,  in  that  season,  the  winds  begia 
to  vary  to  the  eastward,  as  I  found  them,  and  as  Captain 
(now  Admiral)  Macbride  observed  at  the  Falklandr  Isles.* 
^f  weather  experienced  by  Admiral  Anson's  squadron  is  not 


3a  CohitiCs  Foyage  to  the  South  Atlantic. 

in  favour  of  this  opinion  :  but,  though  we  cannot  agree  wtth 
Capt.  Colnett  in  his  preference,  we  nevertheless  think  that  the 
authority  which  he  has  mentioned, -joined  with  his  own  expe- 
rience,— is  sufficient  encouragement  for  attempting  the. passage 
ia  winter,  whenever  it  may  be  deemed  necessary. 
.  i  C^pt.  Colnett's  attention  to  the  comforts  of  his  people,  par- 
ticularly to  their  provisions,  which  it  was  as  much  his  care  to 
render  palatable  as  wholesome,  deserves  great  praise  ;  and  he 
has  been  successful  in  adding  to  the  instances  before  known, 
of  the  preservation  of  health  in  the  performance  of  long 
voyages*  In  particular,  the  following  passage,  relative  to  his 
treatment  of  that  dreadful  disorder  the  yellow  fever^  merits  con- 
sideration : 

*  The  whole  crew  had  been,  more  or  less,  affected  by  the  yellow 
fever,  from  which  horrid  disorder,  I  was,  however,  so  fortunate,  as 
to  recover  them,  by  adopting  the  method  that  I  saw  practised  by 
the  natives  of  Spanish  America,  when  I  was  a  prisoner  among  them. 
Qn  the  first  symptoms  appearing,  the  fore-part  of  the  head  was  im- 
mediately shaved,  and  the  temples,  and  pole,  washed  with  vinegar 
and  water.  Tlie  whole  body  was  then  immersed  in  warm  water, 
to  give  a  free  course  to  perspiration ;  some  opening  medicine  was 
afterward  administered,  and  every  four  hours,  a  dose  of  ten  grainst 
of  James's  powders.  If  the  patient  was  thirsty,  the  drink  was  weak 
white  wine  and  water,  and  a  sh'ce  of  bread  to  satisfy  an  inclination 
to  eat.  An  increasing  appetite  was  gratified  by  a  small  quantity  of 
90up,  made  from  the  mucilagenous  pahs  of  the  turtle,  with  a  little 
vinegar  in  it.  I  also  gave  the  sick,  sweetmeats  aud  other  articles 
from  my  private  stock,  wliencver  they  expressed  a  distant  wish  for 
any,  which  I  could  supply  them  with.  By  this  mode  of  treatment, 
the  whole  crew  improved  in  their  health  ;  except  the  carpenter,  who, 
though  a  very  stout,  robust  man,  was,  at  one  time,  in  such  a  state 
of  delirium,  and  so  much  reduced,  that  I  gave  him  oyer ;  but  he  at 
length  recovered/ 

An  account  is  given,  in  a  long  note,  of  the  treatment  which 
the  author  received  from  the  Spaniards  in  a  voyage  made  by 
bim  in  the  year  1789,  from  China  to  the  western  coast  of  North 
America.  This  relation  reflects  very  great  discredit  on  the 
Spanish  commanding  officer ;  whose  conduct  appears  to  have 
been  in  a  high  degree  treacherous,  violent,  and  dishonourable. 
Capt.  C.  had  entered  into  partnership  with  other  English  gen- 
tlemen at  Macao,  who  agreed  to  fit  out  a  number  of  V6ssels» 
in  order  to  collect  furs  on  the  American  coast  \  and  it  was  a 
part  of  their  intention  to  have  established  a  factory  at  Nootka 
Sound,  not  knowing  that  this  port  was  then  occupied  by  the 
Spaniards*  The  command  of  this  expedition  was  trusted  to 
Captain  Colnett,  who  sailed  in  a  vessel  called  the  Argonaut. 
Vft  shall  continue  the  relation  in  his  own  words. 


Cohicti^s' Voyage  to  the  South  Atlantic.  3 1 

'  ^  It  IS  nntiecessary  upon  this  occasion,  to  ha^e  recourse  to  any  cx> 
CQiTcnces  in  that  unfortunate  voyage,  prior  to  the  time  whcrt  I  a|>^ 
peared  ofT  Nootka,  viz.  the  third  day  of  July,  1789.     At  nine  m 
the  evening,  whefv  it  was  almost  dark,  we  hailed  a  boat ;    and  the 
persons  in  it  desiring  to  come  on  board,  their  request  was  imme- 
diately granted.    It  proved  to  be  a  Spanish  launch,  with  Don  £i>tevaa 
Martmez»  commodore  of  some  Spanish  ships  of  war,  then  lying  in 
Friendly  Cove :  we  were  visited  at  the  same  time  by  another  Spanish 
launch,  and  the  boat  qf  an  American  ship.     I  had  no- sooner  received 
Don  Martinez  in  my  cabin,  than  he  presented  me  a  letter  from  Mr. 
Hudson,  commander  of  the  Princess  Royal  Sloop,  which  was  under 
my  onlcrs.      The  commodore  then  iiifoiTned  me,  that  the  vesselt 
under  his  command  were  in  great  distress,  from  the  want  of  provisions 
and  other  necessaries  ;    and  requested  me,  in  a  very  urgent  manner, 
to  go  into  port,  in  order>  to  afford  him   the  necessary  supplies.      I 
hesitated,  however,  to  comply  with  this  demand,  as   I  entertained 
very  reasonable  doubts,  of  the  propriety  of  putting  myself  under  the 
command  of  two  Spanish  men  of  war.     Th^  Spaniard  observing  my 
unwillingness  to  comply  with  his  request,  assured  me,  on   his  word 
and  honour,  \\\  the  name  of  the  King  of  Spain,  whose  servant  he  was, 
and  of  the  Viceroy  of  Mexico,  whose   nephew  he  declared   himselJF 
to  be,  that,   if  I  would  go  into  port  and  relieve  his  wants,  I  should 
be  at  liberty  to   sail  wh<^never  I  pleased.     He  also  added,  that  hi^ 
business  at  Nootka  was  for  no  other  purpose,  than  merely  to  prevent 
the  Russians  from  settling  on  that  part  of  the  coast,  and  that  it 
formed  a  leading  principle  of  his  instructions,  as  it  vi'as  his  private 
inclination,  to  pay  all  becoming  respect  and  attention  to  cveiy  other 
nation.     I  am  ready  to  acknowledge  that  the  story  of  his  distresses, 
and  the  letter  of  Mr.  Hudson,  which  appeared  to  be  deserving  of 
credit,  had  very  considerable  weight  with  me :    besides,  I  was  an 
officer  in  his  Britannic  Majesty's  service  ;    and   mi^ht  be,  in  some 
degree,  influenced  by  a  professional  sympathy.     I  therefore  suffered 
myself  to  be  pei*suadtd  to  enter  the  harbour ;    and,    as  it  wa«  a 
calm,  to  let  the  Spanish  boars  as.;ist  in  towing  the  Argonaut  into 
Friendly  Cove  ;  where  we  arrived  by  twelve  at  night,  and  found  an 
American  ship  called  the  Columbia,  riding  at  anchor,  commanded 
by  Mr.  Kendric,  and  a  sliiop  of  the  same  nation,  called  the  Wash^ 
ineton,  commanded  by  Mr.  Gray ;  with  two  Spanish  ships  of  war^ 
called  the  Princessa,  and  Don  Carlos.     The  next  morning,  after  I 
had  ordered  some  provisions  and  stores  for  the  relief  of  Don  Martinez 
to  be  got  ready^   I  went  to  breakfast  with  him,  in  consequence  of 
his  invitation.     After  breakfast  he  accompanied  me  on  board  my 
ship,  the  Argonaut ;  I  gave  him  a  list  of  the  articles  I  intended  to 
fend  him,  with  which  he  appeared  highly  pleased.     I  then  informed 
him  it  was  my  intention  to  go  to  sea  in  the  coutse  of  the  day  :    he 
reph'ed,  he  would  send  his  launch  to  assist  mc  out  of  the  harbour* 
and  that  I  might,  on  the  return  of  the  boat,  send  him  the  promised 
snpplyv     The  launch  not  coming  so  early  as  I  wished,  I  sent  on» 
of  the  mates  for  her,  but  instead  of  bringing  me  the  boat,  I  received 
ta  order  from  Don  Martinez,  to  come  on  board  hii  ship  and  bring 
irith  me  my  papers.     This  order  appeared  strange,  but  I  complied 




3a  CoIncttV  Fo^ge  to  the  South  Atlantit. 

imh  it|  and  went  on  board  ttie  Princessa.  Oa  my  coming  into  hii 
cabin,  he  said  he  wished  to  see  my  papers :  on  my  presenting  them 
to  him,  he  just  glaneed  his  eye  over  them,  and  although  he  did  not 
understand  a  word  of  the  langtiage  in  which  they  were  written,  de- 
dared  they  were  forged,  and  threw  them  disdamfuUy  on  the  table, 
laying  at  the  same  time,  I  should  not  sail  until  he  pleased.  On 
sny  making  some  remonstrances  at  his  breach  of  faith,  and  his  forgct- 
fuiness  of  that  word  and  honour  which  he  had  pledged  to  me,  he 
■rose  in  an  apparent  anger,  and  went  out. 

*  I  now  saw,  but  too  late,  the  duplicity  of  this  Spaniard,  and 
was  conversing  with  the  interpreter  on  the  subject,  when  having  my 
back  towards  the  cabin  door,  I  by  chance  cast  my  eyes  on  a  looking* 
glass,  and  saw  an  armed  party  rusiu'ng  in  behind  me*  I  instantly  put 
my  hand  to  my  hanger,  but  before  I  had  time  to  place  myself  in  a 
posture  of  defence,  a  violent  blow  brought  me  to  the  ground.^  I 
was  then  ordered  into  the  stocks,  and  closely  contined  ;  adfter  which* 
they  seized  my  ship  and  cargo,  imprisoned  my  officers,  and  put  my 
men  in  irons.  Th«y  %cpt  their  boats  likewise  to  sea  and  seized  the 
•loop  Princess  Royal,  and  brought  her  into  poit,  for  trading  on  the 

Wc  shall  not  describe  the  particulars  of  the  hard  usage 
which  Captain  Colnett  and  his  people  endured  in  the  sequel  of 
this  business.  Their  sufferings  were  so  great,  and  the  whole 
was  accompanied  with  so  many  circumstances  of  aggravation^ 
that  it  threw  him  into  a  violent  fever,  attended  with  delirium  % 
and  his  life  was,  for  some  days,  in  great  danger.  Such  treat- 
ment inflicted  on  them,  unprovoked,  and  with  impunity^ 
•  worked  on  the  minds  of  the  sickly  part  of  the  crew,  several 
of  whom  took  it  to  heart  and  died,  and  one  destroyed  himself 
in  despair.*  At  the  end  of  thirteen  months'  captivity,  and  with 
the  loss  of  four  out  of  the  five  vessels  originally  employed  in 
the  undertaking,  Capt.  C.  obtained  the  release  of  himself  and 
surviving  companions  :  but  before  this  was  granted,  the  Spa- 
niards insisted  on  his  signing  a  paper,  expressing  bis  ccmplete 
and  entire  satisfaction  of  their  usage  ^  him  and  his  people  :  tO 
which  the  wretched  state  of  the  crew,  and  their  clamours  to 
depart,  obliged  iiim  to  submit. 

The  unsettled  aspect  of  public  affairs,  when  Capt.  Colnett 
left  England  on  the  voyage  related  in  the  volume  before  us, 
made  him  think  it  probable  that,  during  his  absence,  this 
country  might  be  involved  in  a  dispute  with  Spain.  He  there- 
fore did  not  deem  it  prudent,  while  he  was  in  the  South  Seas^ 
to  venture  into  any  port  on  the  American  coast ;  lest,  as  he  tx-^ 

Jresses  himself,  they  might  again  be  obliged  to  trust  to  the 
mder  inrrcies  of  the  Spaniards. — With  the  narrative,  he  has 
given  charts  and  plans  of  the  islands  and  anchoring-placcs  visited 
during  the  voyage^  from  bis  own  surveys. 

Van  Braam  V  Accoimt  ofthi  Dutch  Embassy  io  China.      3  j 

In  the  introduction,  Capt.  C.  says  that,  in  the  only  vessel 
^hich  remained  to  him  in  his  unfortunate  voyage  to  Nootka, 
liot  caring  to  return  empty  to  China,  he  continued  on  tKe 
American  coast,  and  procured  another  valuable  cargo  of  furs  ; 
vith  which  he  proceeded  to  China  : — but,  a  prohibition  having 
been  laid  by  the  Chinese  on  the  sale  of.  furs,  *  I  did  not,'  says 
he,  *  remain  there,  but  in  a  short  time,  at  the  request  of  the 
gentlemen  who  were  joint  agents  vi^th  me,  set  sail,  and  coasted 
for  a  market  to  the  west  side  of  Japan,  and  east  side  of  Corea/ 
— *  Here  an  encouraging  prospect  'of  a  new  and  valuable  com- 
merce for  my  country  unfolded  itself  before  me,  when  in  a  ' 
typhoon,  in  the  latitude  of  38PN.  on  the  cqast  of  Corca,  I 
lost  my  rudder,  which  obliged  me  to  put  back  into  the  port 
of  Chusan  in  the  northern  parts  of  China.'  He  aids  that  a 
full  account  of  this  voyage,  with  charts  and  drawings,  we^e 
left  by  him  in  England  when  he  departed  on  his  last  expedi- 
tion;  and  that  they  will  *  hereafter,'  he  trusts,  be  presented 
to  the  public.*— When  it  is  considered  how  dangerous  the  at- 
tempt at  a  communication  with  Japan  for  so  long  a  time 
been  regarded,  on  account  of  the  general  belief  of  the  hostile 
disposition  of  the  Japanese  towards  Europeans ;  and  that  ships  of 
considerable  force,  which  have  passed  near  to  their  coast,  hnvc 
thought  it  unsafe  to  stop,  or  to  search  for  a  port  5  we  cannot 
but  admire  the  spirit  manifested  in  undertaking,  with  only  a 
single  trading  vessel,  an  enterprise  which  his  been  esteemed 
so  hazardous  ;  and  we  are  glad,  on  this  occasion,  to  express 
our  wishes  that  the  curiosity  of  the  public  may  be  soon  gra- 

Art.  rV.     M.  Van  Braam'j  Account  of  the  Embassy  from  the  Dutch 
East  India  Company y  to  the  Emperor  of  Chin jy  In  1794  and  1795. 

.  {^Article  concluded  from  the  Rev.  for  March  y  /►.  249.] 

'The  continuation  of  our  account  of  these  volumes  having 
^    been  accidentally  interrupted  in  the  last  month,  we  now 
reeume  our  selection  of  such  particulars  as  appear  to  us  most 
interesting  and  curious. 

One  morning,  when  M.  Van  Braam  was  repairing  to  the 
Emperor's  court,  he  had  the  misfortune  of  being  overturned 
into  a  ditch  ;  which,  however,  bcin;;  frozen  over,  he  received 
•  IK>  hurt.     The    Mandarins,    who    conducted  liim,  expressed 
much  satisfaction  at  his  escape  ;  for  the  tyraniiy  of  the  Chinese 
.  government  is  such,  that  the  ManHarins  not  only  were  respon- 
sible for  any  disasters  that  miglit  happen  to  their  visitors,  but 
vcrc  even  in   danger  of  losing  their  lives,    if  any  accivlenc 
RfiT,  Mat,  i7y^.      -  D  should 

34      Van  BraamV  Account  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  China. 

shbuld  have  proved  fatal  to  any  one  individual  belonging  td 
the  Embassy. 

The  author  saw  the  elegant  carriage  which  the  King  of 
Great  Britain  sent  to  the  Emperor  of  China  ;  and  opposite  to 
it  was  placed 

*  A  thing,  which  made  a  rcinark«ib!e  contrast  with  this  splendid 
fchicle ;  viz.  a  Chinese  waggon  with  four  whceh  of  equal  htiffht, 
▼cry  clumsy,  painted  grotn  all  over,  and  in  every  rtspect  resembling 
the  waggons  used  in  Holland  for  the  purpose  of  carrying  manurci 
I  confess  this  sight  set  my  imagination  to  work.  Was  this  waggon 
placed  here  with  a  view  of  opposing  the  Idea  of  its  utility  to  that 
of  the  superfluity  of  a  carriage  so  sumptuous,  at  least  according  to 
the  estimation  of  the  Chinese  ?  I  was  thus  giving  way  to  my  conjco- 
tures,  when  I  was  told,  that  the  waggon  is  the  very  same  that  ii 
made  use  of  at  the  annual  ceremony,  when  the  Emperor  pays  a  solenui 
homage  to  agriculture,  in  the  tem.plc  of  the  Earth.* 

The  Foo^tckong-iangi  or  first  Minister  of  China,' wore  a  watcji 
made  by  Arnold^  for  which  having  given  no  more  than  1 75  livres, 
(7I-  15s.  sterling,)  he  thought  that  the  price  of  some  watchc8 
in  the  possession  of  the  Dutch  mechanist  was  too  high,  I( 
would  have  been  easy  for  the  Embassy  to  give  him  a  very  in- 
telligible explanation  of  the  low  price  at  which  he  had  bought 
his  watch :  but  the  fear  of  the  consequences  that  might  have 
attended  it,  in  respect  to  the  transactions  of  the  Mandarins  an^ 
merchants  of  Canton,  and  particularly  the  risk  that  might  be 
run  by  the  former,  prevented  M.  Van  Braam  from  entering 
into  particulars. — The  enormous  impositions,  under  which  the 
^uropean  conimcrcc  at  Canton  labours,  have  often  been  ex-. 
lained  by  supposing  that  the  Chinese  Ministers  of  State  con- 
nive at  them  from  interested  motives.  This  prcsumptfen, 
however,  is  unfounded;  if,  as  the  author  positively  asserts, 
the  Ministeris  never  accept  a  present  from  any  one,  without 
tlie  express  permission  of  the  Emperor. 

For  the  great  antiquity  of  the  Chinese  as  a  nation,  M.  Van 
B.  assigns  a  cause  which  does  honour  to  his  sentiments : 

*  There  is  no  nation  so  servilely  attached  to  the  usages  and  maxim* 
of  its  ancestors  as  the  Chinese.  And  we  shall  cease  to  be  astonished 
at  it,  when  we  know,  that  filial  respect  is  without  bounds  among 
them  ;  that  this  tie  of  nature  stands  in  the  stead  of  legislation,  the 
place  of  which  it  entirely  supplies  ;  and  that  their  great  philosopher, 
Kong-fou-tse,  by  deducing  all  his  principles  of  family  relations  from 
those  between  father  and  son,  found  means  to  acquire  an  authority, 
which  served  in  its  turn  to  strengthen  that  first  natiniil  sentiment, 
that  primary  foundation  of  every  social  system.  And  does  it  not 
teem  as  if  the  Divine  blessing  promised  by  the  commandment,  that 
requires  the  children  of  Israel  to  honour  their  parents,  were  beconie 
the  portion  of  the  Chinese  t  It  is  also  in  the  execution  of  this  sacred 


Van  BraamV  Account  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  China.     35 

hr,  that,  according  to  my  weak  judgment,  \vc  ought  to  seek  the 
ause  of  the  long  duration  of  this  nation,  the  only  one  excepting  the 
Japanese  (subject  also  to  the  strict  observance  of  the  same  precept) 
which  has  preserved  itself  the  tame  from  a  period  which  is  lost  in  the 
most  remote  antiquity/ 

A  common  plaything  for  children,  which  is  to  bfe  found  in 
every  European  fair,  was  shewn  to  M.  Van  B.  by  a  gentleman 
of  rank ;  who  much  admired  it,  and  spoke  in  such  terms  as 
shewed  that  he  thought  himself  the  jposscssor  of  a  wonder. 
From  this  circumstance,  the  author  thinks  it  not  at  all  impro- 
bable that  such  trifles  would  find  a  good  market  in  China,  and 
that  they  would  perhaps  amuse  the  £mperor  himself  as  much 
as  the  most  ingenious  pieces  of  mechanism. 

The  police  of  the  Chinese  metropolis,  though  strict  to  ex- 
cess, is  far  from  being  well  regulated.  Our  traveller  relates 
that  the  Cliinese  servants  of  the  Embassy,  having  one  day  ob- 
tained permission  to  go  into  the  city  for  the  purpose  of  buying 
tome  necessaries,  were  discovered  to  be  strangers  at  Pekin,  and 
were  lodged  in  a  guard-house.  In  vain  did  they  plead  their  being 
part  of  the  retinue  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  :  the  spldicr  accused 
them  of  selling  opium,  and  began  to  search  them.  The  ser- 
vants would  have  been  sent  to  prison  in  chains,  but  for  the 
bribe  of  a  few  dollars,  which,  being  prepared  for  their  intended 
purchases,  were  now  willingly  sacrificed  to  procure  their  li- 
berty. Thus  even  a  Chinese  is  not  perfectly  safe  in  his  own 
country,  when  found  beyond  the  limits  of  his  native  pro- 

It  was  with  much  difficulty  that  the  Embassy  were  per- 
mitted to  have  any  communication  with  the  European  Mis- 
sionaries resident  at  Pekin.  From  this  jealousy,  the  author 
infers  that  the  Mandarins,  from  the  highest  to  the  lowest, 
must  be  conscious  of  great  culpability,  or  they  would  not  have 
thought  it  necessary  to  carry  distrust  to  such  a  length. 

The  manner  in  which  the  Chinese  warm  their  apar^mentg 
is  more  clearly  described  by  M.  Van  B.,  than  we  recollect  to 
have  seen  it  in  other  accounts  : 

*  In  all  China,'  says  he,  *  the  houses  arc  built  upon  the  ground  ; 
I.  c.  without  any  cellar  under  them.  The  apartments  are  paved  with 
flat,  square  bricks ;  a  thing  very  agreeable  in  warm  weather ;  but 
?ery  little  suitable  to  the  severe  season  of  the  year. 

*  To  defend  them  from  the  piercing  cold  wliich  they  experience 
u  the  northern  parts  of  the  Empire,  the  Chinese  have  devised  sub- 
terraneous furnaces  in  every  direction,  under  the  bricks  of  the  floors, 
iiad  under  a  kind  of  platforms  on  which  the  Chinese  sleep.  They 
even  pass  through  the  walls,  which  divide  the  different  rooms,  so 

'  .  t^t  the  heat  diffused  by  the  tubes  produces  in  the  apartments  the 
I  ttmperalure  desired.  The  fire  is  kept  up  night  and  day  in  the  outer 
Y  Da  stove 


3^      Van  BraarhV  Account  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  China. 

rtovc  or  furnace,  without  the  sniuUcst  danger  to  the  buildings,  be- 
cause a  coat  of  bricks  closely  confines  tliat  destructive  element,  and 
opposes  its  disastrous  effects.  If  the  apartments  be  spacious  and 
numerous,  an  increased  number  of  stoves  2Hid  tubes  always  insure  the 
same  result. 

*  It  cannot  be  denied,  that  this  is  an  invention  honourable  to 
Chinese  industry  ;  and  certainly  it  is  no  small  advantage  in  a  severe 
climate,  to  enjoy  in  the  midst  of  winter's  cold  an  agreeable  heat  dif- 
fused through  all  the  apartments.  It  is  \\\  those  places  especially^ 
tvhere  these  outer  stoves  are  wanting,  and  where  there  is  a  necessity 
of  having  recourse  to  the  brasicrs  of  charcoal,  of  which  I  have  spokeu 
elsewhere,  that  the  value  of  this  invention  is  the  most  sensibly 

Those  of  our  readers  who  are  acquainted  with  India  will 
recollect  the  extraordinary  ingenuity  displayed  by  Hindu  ar- 
tisans, in  executing  the  various  branches  of  their  business,  and 
producmg  even  the  finest  workmanship,  by  means  of  a  ttw 
tools ;  which,  to  ail  appearance,  are  the  most  deficient  and 
unmanageable.  In  China,  the  same  observation  may  be 

<  Dunng  our  stay  this  morning,*  says  M.  Van  B.  *  in  the  village 
of  Fan-houfh  I  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing  a  tinker  execute  what 
I  believe  is  unknown  in  Europe.  He  mended  and  soldered  frying-  ■ 
pans  of  cait  iron  that  were  cracked  and  full  of  holes,  and  restored 
them  to  their  primitive  state,  so  that  they  became  as  serviceable  as 
ever.  He  even  took  so  little  pains  to  effect  this,  and  succeeded  so 
speedily,  as  to  excite  my  astonishment.  It  must  indeed  appear  irn* 
possible  to  any  one  who  has  not  been  witness  to  the  process. 

*  All  tlie  apparatus  of  the  workman  consists  in  a  little  box  six- 
teen inches  long,  and  six  wide,  and  eighteen  inches  in  depth,  divided 
into  two  parts.  Tlie  upper  contains  three  drawers  with  the  neces- 
sary ingredients ;  in  the  lower  is  a  bellows,  which,  when  a  fire  is 
wanted,  is  adapted  to  a  farnace  eight  inches  long  and  four  inches 
wide.  The  crucibles  for  melting  tlic  small  pieces  of  iron  intended 
to  serve  as  solder  are  a  little  larger  than  the  bowl  of  a  common  to- 
bacco pipe,  and  of  the  same  earth  of  which  they  are  made  in  Europe  j 
thus  the  whole  business  of  soldering  is  executed. 

*  The  wcikman  receives  the  melted  matter  out  of  the  crucible  upon 
a  piece  of  wet  paper,  approaches  it  to  one  of  the  holes  or  cracks  in 
the  frying-pan,  and  applies  it  there,  while  Lis  assistant  smooths  it  over 
by  scraping  the  surrace,  and  afterwards  rubs  it  with  a  bit  of  wet 
linen.  The  number  of  crucibles  which  have  been  deemed  necessary^ 
are  thus  successively  emptied  in  order  to  stop  up  all  the  holes  witR 
the  melted  iron,  which  consolidates  and  incorporates  itself  with  the 
broken  utensil,  and  which  becomes  as  good  as  new.     The  furnace 

■which  I  <.aw  was  calculated  to  contain  eight  cmciblcs  at  a  time  5  and 
■while  the  fusion  waii  ^Ov.\g  f;:i  was  covered  with  a-  stone  by  way  of 
increasing  the  intencity  ot  the  heat.' 

The  Chinese  sowing-machine  partakes  of  the  simplicity  of 
their  other  instruments ; 

«  It 

Van  BraamV  Account  of  the  Dutch  Emhassy  to  China      37 

•  It  consists  of  two  sticks  or  pieces  of  wood  about  four  feet  long, 
the  lower  extremities  of  which  are  shod  with  a  kind  of  Iron  wedge 
that  serves  to  open  the  furrow.  A  Httlc  above  is  a  squ:ircbox  placed 
between  the  two  sticks,  and  tapering  downwards  in  the  shape  of  a 
funnel.  Behind  this  is  a  plank  put  across  for  the  purpose  of  covering 
up  the  furrow  after  the  seed  lias  fallen  in.  This  instrument  is  put 
in  motion  by  means  of  two  wheels.  Two  Chinese  draw  it,  while  a 
third  who  guides  with  his  two  hands,  first  sows  one  and  then  the 
other  furrow.  I  had  already  conceived  from. the  regularity  with 
vrhich  I  observed  every  thing  growing  m  the  fields,  that  somc'hia- 
chine  was  employed  for  sowing,  and  I  was  not  a  little  pleased  at 
having  an  opportunity  of  seeing  both  the  instrument  and  the  manner 
in  which  it  is  used.' 

It  is  a  favourite  custom  among  the  Chinese  of  elevated  rank 
to  keep  by  them  coflSns,  containing  the  dead  bodies  of  persons 
who  had  been  dear  to  them.  At  Ping-yuen-chen,  in  the  tem- 
porary lodgings  of  the  Embassy,  one  of  the  halis  was  appro- 
priated to  several  coffins  inclosing  dead  bodies.  Some  of 
them  bore  marks  of  great  antiquity.  The  author  was  also  once 
in  a  pagoda  at  Honnn,  opposite  to  Canton,  in  wMch  coffins 
are  likewise  deposited  in  little  rows  or  separate  spaces;  and  he 
was  assured  that  some  of  them  were  more  than  a  century 

*  There  is  a  particular  species  of  wood  in  China  considered  as 
unperishable ;  ot  this  they  make  cglHns,  some  of  which  cost  more 
than  a  hundred  and  fifty  louis  d'ors.  The  Chinese,  let  his  pecuniary 
means  be  ever  so  small,  procures  while  living,  cither  for  himself  or 
for  his  family,  the  best  wood  he  can  buy,  and  keeps  it  with  great 
care  at  the  entrance  of  his.  house,  till  wanted  for  the  last  abode  of 
a  being  who  is  no  more,  but  whose  pride  has  survived  him.'         i 

In  the  province  of  Chanto'ig,  the  s  uliiig  wheel-barrows,  of 
which  we  have  already  taken  notice  in  our  former  article,  were 
again  seen  by  M.  Van  Braam. 

As  the  very  existence  of  a   considerable  part  of  Holland 
depends  on  the  firmness  of  its  dykes,  we  niight  imagine  that 
in  this. particular  it  stood  unrivalled;   yet  the  author  mentions 
a  Chinese  embankment  at  least  as  handsome  as  those  in  Hol- 
land.    The  side  towards  the  water  descended  with  a  great  inr 
dination,  like  the  dykes  made  in  the  United  Provinces  within 
tht  last  forty  years  ;  for  it  should  seem  that  it  had  not  been  ob- 
served^ till  then,  that  the  water  has  less  action   on  a  surface 
much  inclined,  than  on  a  phne  nearly  perpendicular.     The 
Chinese,  however,  proceeded  on  this  princi^)le  from  the  first 
formation  of  their  dams  ; — and  the  inundation  of  their  rivers,  it 
j     tdnst  be  owned,  rendered  strong  embankments  a  matter  of  the 
L     Otinost  consequence,     llie  formidable  Yellow  river,  one  of  the 
I    IBoit  celebrated  on  the  Asiatic  continent,  on  account  of  it^ 
[.    '"  .    P  3  extent 


J  8      Van  BraamV  Account  tf  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  'China, 

txttnt  and  rapidity,  causes  so  much  mischief  when  bverflowkig 
its  banks,  that  double  dams  have  been  thrown  up  on  each  side^ 
^n  inner  and  an  outer  one ;  the  care  of  which  is  entrusted  to 
three  Viceroys  or  Governors  of  Provinces;  who  are  each 
bbligcd  to  reside  in  a  city  adjacent  to  the  portion  of  the  river 
which  tbey  superintend. 

Many  of  our  readers,  we  are  persuaded,  will  be  pleased 
^ith  the  following  observations  : 

*  The  stuff  called  Nam-king^  or  Nan-heen,  vhich  is  manufecXured 
at  a  great  distance  from  the  place  of  that  name,  in  the  district  of 
Tcttg-kiavg-fou  situated  in  the  south-east  of  the  province  of  Kian^ 
nam  and  upon  the  sea-shore,  is  made  of  a  brown  kind  of  cotton,  which 
It  secrtis  can  only  be  grown  in  that  quarter.  The  colour  of  nan- keen 
16  natural,  and  not  subject  to  fade.  As  the  greater  part  of  the  inha- 
bitants of  Europe  and  other  countries  arc.  in  the  persuasion  that  the 
•olour  of  the  stuff  in  question  is  given  it  by  a  dye,  I  am  happy  to 
have  it  in  my  power  to  rectif)'  their  error.  The  opirion  that  I  com- 
bat was  the  cause  of  an  order  being  sent  from  Europe  a  few  years 
ago  to  dye  the'picces  of  nan-kccn  of  a  deeper  colour,  because  of  late 
they  were^rown  paler.  The  true  reason  ot  that  change  is  not  known  ; 
it  was  as  follows  : 

*  Shortly  after  the  Americans  bec^an  to  trade  with  China,  the 
demand  increased  to  nearly  double  the  quantity  it  was  possible  to 
furnish.  To  supply  this  deficiency,  the  manufacturers  mixed  common 
white  cotton  with  the  brown  ;  this  gave  it  a  pale  cast,  which  was  im- 
mediately remarked,  and  for  this  lighter  kind  no  purchaser'could  be 
found,  till  the  other  was  exhausted.  As  the  consumption  is  grown 
less  during  the  last  three  years,  the  mixture  of  cotton  is  no  longer 
accessary,  and  nankeen  is  become  what  it  was  before.  By  keeping 
them  two  or  three  years,  it  even  appeai*s  that  they  have  the  property 
pf  growing  darker.  This  kind  otstuff  must  be  ackhowledged  to  be 
the  strongest  yet  known.  Many  persons  have  found  that  clothes 
made  of  it  will  last  three  or  four  ycaro,  although  for  ever  in  the  wash. 
This  it  is  that  makes  them  the  favourite  wear  for  breeches  and  waist- 
coats both  in  Europe  and  America.  The  white  nankeen  is  of  the 
tame  quality,  and  is  made  of  white  cotton  as  good  as  the  brown,  and 
which  also  grows  in  Kiang-nam,' 

The  quantity  of  rice  annually  imported  into  Pckin  is  truly 
astonishing.  M.  Van  Braam  was  assured  that  the  Emperor 
kept  for  that  purpose  nine  thousand  nine  hundred  and  ninety- 
nine  vessels,  each  capable  of  carrying  somewhat  short  of  one 
hundred  thousand  weight  of  rice.  By  these  means,  more  than 
seven  hundred  and  fifty  millions  of  pounds  (French)  of  that 
grain  are  brought  to  Pckin.  TI:e  majority  of  those  who  scive 
in  the  army,  as  well  as  those  who  belong  to  the*  court,  arc  paid 
with  this  rice  ;— and,  enormous  as  this  quantity  is,  it  does  not 
jcxceed  what  is  usually  wanted.  Yet  rice,  it  should  seem^  is  not 
so  general  an  article  of  food  in  China  as  many  have  asserted  t 

Van  BraamV  Account  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  China.      39 

for  most  of  the  inhabitants  of  Chantonir,  Tcheli,  and  the  more 
western  provinces,  subsist  only  on  millet  *,  pease,  &c.  AU 
the  rice- provinces,  with  the  exception  of  Quangtong,  arc 
bound  to  deliver  their  assessed  quota  in  the  vicinity  of  Kiang-nam,  . 
where  it  is  shipped  on  board  the  Imperial  vessels  before  men- 
tioned. The  bones  of  animals  are  burnt,  and  used  as  manure 
for  the  rice  fields,  which  renders  them  very  fertile. 

Though  the  bloom  of  our  fair  countrywomen  be  so  luxuriant 
and  unfading  as  not  to  require  the  aid  of  rouge y  it  will  at  least 
gratify  their  curiosity,  and  perhaps  not  be  unpleasing  to  our 
graver  readers,  to  be  informv:d  by  M.  Van  Braam  of  a  cosmetic 
which  is  perfectly  innocent  in  its  effects : 

*  The  rouge  used  in  Cliina  is  in  general  better  than  that  of  Europe. 
A  woman  whose  skin  is  tolerably  fair  and  smooth,  and  who  is  not  in 
the  habit  of  laying  on  white,  might  with  this  ronge  imitate  the  fresh 
colour  of  youth,  without  its  being  possible  for  the  action  of  heat  or 
cold  to  discover  tlic  artifice,  even  to  the  most  penetrating  eye  ;  nor 
would  the  habitual  use  of  it  in  this  moderate  way  have  any  bad  effect 
upon  the  skin.  It  is  in  this  manner  that  all  cosmetics  ought  to  be 
used,  ID  order  that  these  secret  arts,  intended  to  make  women  ap- 
pear more  agreeable  ana  fascinating  In  the  eyes  of  their  admirers,  may 
not  be  betrayed  by  a  ridiculous  affectation  ;  and  that  this  practice 
may  not  destroy  the  advantages  of  a  smooth  and  soft  skin.  We 
might  then  consent  to  forgive  the  fair  an  artifice  which  would  be  no 
longer  pernicious,  and  which  would  find  its  excuse  in  the  desire  of 
iacreasing  tlie  passion  of  a  lover,  or  of  moving  the  indifferent  heart.' 

The  Chinese  chief  conductor  of  the  Embassy  had,  from  a 
singular  impulse  of  jealousy,  prohibited  the  women  of  Sou* 
tsf^eou-fouy  who  arc  accounted  the  hanclsomest  of  the  empire, 
from  appearing  in  those  places  through  which  the  strangers 
M'O^Id  pass ;  though  he  did  not  fail  to  purchase  and  carry 
away^with  him  two  pretty  concubines  for  his  own  amusement. 
Here  tJie  author  observes  : 

•  This  trade  in  women  is  a  principal  branch  of  the  commerce  of  the 
city  of  Sou^heou'Jouy  and  tb.e  best  resource  of  many  of  its  inhabitants, 
as  well  as  thos?  of  Hon^-icheoufou,  in  the  province  of  Tchi^llang. 
^ou*tcheou.>fou,  however,  bears  away  the  palm  from  its  rival.  A 
great  number  of  individuals  have  no  other  means  of  existence,  and, 
with  a  view  to  this  traffic,  make  excursions  about  the  country,  in 
order  to  buy  of  the  poor  inhabitants  such  of  their  children  as  promise 
to  be  beautiful. 

•  They  bring  up  these  young  girls  with  the  greatest  care,  dress  them 
elegantly,  teach  them  all  sorts  of  needlework  and  to  play  upon  dif- 

•  We  suppose  this  to  be  the  Hoki/s  Sorghum^  or  Barbadoes  millet, 
which  Sir  G.Staunton  ^vol.  ii.  p.  205.  8vo.  edit.)  mentions  as 
growing  plentifully  in  Chili.  It  is  distinguished  by  the  Chinese 
mder  the  name  of  Kow-leang  or  lofty  com. 

D  4  f^^^ 

40      Van  Braam'i  Account  of  the  "Dutch  Embassy  to  China. 

fercnt  instruments  of  music,  in  order  that  their  charms  and  aCcom-* 
pUshmonts  may  render  them  agreeable  to  the  persons  into  whose,  hands 
thfy  may  chance  to  fall.  Tlie  handsomest  of  them  arc  generally 
^ught  fpr  the  Court  and  Mandarins  of  the  first  class.  One  who 
linites  beauty  with  agreeable  accomplishments  fetches  from  four  hun- 
dred and  fifty  to  seven  hundred  louis  d'ors,  while  there  are  some  who 
sell  for  less  than  a  hundred.  The  nature  of  the  population  in  China 
affords  two  girls  for  a  boy,  a  circumstance  which  admits  of  the  spe- 
culations I  am  speaking  of,  and  renders  them  highly  beneficial. 
Trom  this  general  practice,  as  well  as  from  the  custom  of  giving  a 
price  called  a  dowry  to  the  parents  of  the  girl  whom  a  man  marries,  a 
tustom  prevalent  even  among  the  first  personages  of  the  empire,  it  is 
evident  that  all  the  women  in  China  are  an  article  of  trade.  The 
husband  in  certain  cases,  specified  by  the  law,  has  a  right  to  sell  his 
lawful  wife,  unless  her  family  choose  to  take  her  back  and  restore  thp 
dowry  they  received  at  the  time  of  her  marriage. 

*  There  is  no  country  in  the  world,  In  which  the  women  live  in  a 
greater  state  of  humiliation,  or  are  less  considered,  than  in  China. 
.Those,  whose  husbands  are  of  high  rank,  are  always  confined  ;  those 
of  the  second  class,  are  a  sort  of  upper  servants,  deprived  of  all  liberty; 
while  those  of  the  lower  ^re  partakers  with  the  men  of  the  hardest 
iind  of  labour.  If  the  latter  become  mothers,  it  is  an  additional 
burthen,  since,  wliile  at  work,  they  carry  the  child  tied  upon  the 
back,  at  least  till  it  is  able  to  go  alone.' 

As  the  Chinese  silk  is  deemed  the  best  in  the  known  world, 
any  information  concerning  their  cultivation  of  the  mulberry 
tree,  the  leaves  of  which  afford  food  for  the  silk-worms,  must 
.  be  considered  as  important.  We  lament,  therefore,  that  M« 
Van  Braam  had  no  opportunity  of  ascertaining,  with  scientific 
accuracy,  the  species  (whether  one  or  more)  of  the  mulberry- 
tree  most  or  exclusively  cultivated  in  Che-kiang.  Throughout 
France  and  Italy,  the  plantations  which  we  have  seen  were,  to 
the  best  of  our  recollection,  of  the  Moras  alba ;  which  species 
is  also  said  to  prevail  in  Spain,  the  leaves  of  it  being  deemed 
preferable  for  silkworms  to  those  of  the  Moms  nigra.  Yet  M. 
Van  Braam,  from  rath(  r  loose  authority,  inclines  to  think  that 
the  silk  worms  in  Che-kiang  are  fed  with  the  leaves  of  the  latter. 
This  militates  against  the  more  general  opinion,  Loureiro  states 
the  Chinese  name  of  tlie  Morus  alba  to  be  Xin-pe-xu ;  and 
Sir  G.Staunton  (vol.  iii.  p.  246.)  reports  that  some  of  the 
Chinese  Muibcrry-tiecs  were  said  to  bear  white  and  some  red 
or  black  fruit :  but  thjt  often  they  bore  none.  He  also  (vol.  iii. 
p.  265.)  expresbly  mentions  that  both  species,  the  alba  as  wcU 
as  the  nigra^  grow  in  the  middle  of  China. 

In  a  celebrated-  Chinese  convent  and  temple,  M.  Van  Braam 
saw  five  hundred  images  of  saints,  n^farly  as  large  as  life.  The 
Emperor  Ku:n  Long^  though  then  living  and  on  the  throne, 
was  already  included  in  the  numbers  which  is  a  farther  pr6t>f 


Van  BraamV  Account  of  the  Dutch  Embassy  to  China.      4f 

e£  the  abject  attempt  of  the  Chinese  to  raise  their  monarch 
above  the  level  of  human  kind. 

We  must  now  conclude  our  extracts  with  the  following 

«  Having  an  opportunity  yesterday  of  conversing  with  our  third 
condu«:tor,  a  man  of  experience,  and  a  well  infonncd  literary  charac- 
ter, h*'  said  that  each  province,  and  even  each  city,  has  particular 
works  upon  agriculture,  with  precepts  concerning  every  tUing  neces- 
sary to  ue  observed  by  the  husbandmen  throughout  the  extent  of 
their  district ;  that  these  books  arc  kept  as  sacred  thing.i,  and  depo- 
sited in  the  hands  of  commai;  iu'.ls  or  governors  of  cities,  who  arc 
not  permitted  to  entrust  tiicm  to  any  one  ;  and  that  consequently  it 
IS  ill  vain  to  think  of  procu  ing  them,  because  they  are  tiot  to  be  sold. 
The  mandarin "<  of  the  cities  arc  hound  to  give  to  tlic  individuals 
within  their  district  all  the  information  that  the  latter  niay  ask  for, 
which  seldom  happens,  because  a  knowledge  of  agricuhure,  held  in 
esteem  for  several  centuries,  has  been  ti-ansmitted  from  gcnera- 
ti»)n  to  iTtrncration,  from  father  to  son,  with  every  particular  of  both 
theory  and  practice.  This  has  rendered  the  science  so  general,  that 
it  is  scarcely  possible  for  any  one  to  stand  in  need  of  further  instruc- 

From  a  comparison  of  the  prefixed  list  of  Chinese  towns  and 
places  tlirough  which  the  Embassy  passed,  with  the  author's 
journal,  we  find  that  his  account  is  not  yet  completed.  As 
however,  if  we  be  rightly  informed,  there  is  little  probability  of 
any  additional  volume  being  speedily  published,  we  shall  here 
subjoin  a  few  remarks  on  the  work  in  general. 

I^  is,  doubtless,  a  circumstance  calculated  strongly  to  pre- 
possess  the  reader  in  favour  of  the  present  account,  that  ML 
Van  Braaip,  according  to  his  own  statement,  (vol  ii.  p.  i88.) 
was  for  tlic  space  of  six-and-thirty  years  personally  acquainted 
with  Chin4  ;  and  had  made  frequent  inquiries  of  well  informed 
men  concerning  the  history,  manners,  and  particulars  of  their 
native  land,  before  the  opportunity  of  travelling  through  that 
empire  presented  itself.     He  was  thus  enabled  principally  to  fix 
.his  attention  on  such  objects  as  were  really  curious,  or  imper- 
fectly known  in  Europe ;  and  his  work,  accordingly,  throws 
much  light  on  a  variety  of  very  interesting  subjects.     The  un- 
assuming manner,  also,  in  which  it  is  written,   has  deeply  im- 
pressed on  it  the  stamp  of  authenticity.     An  artless  narrative 
is  the  dress  generally  chosen  by  truth,  and  almost  universallr 
preferred  to  a  laboured  performance.     Even  many  inaccuracies 
■  of  composition  are  overlooked,  if  the  candour  and  veracity  of 
.  the  authjor,  and  the  interest  of  the  subject,  compensate  for 
those  deficiencies:— but  tiiis  indulgence  is  seldom  extended  to 
.icjdiousness.     If  a  writer  does  not  hope  to  amuse  his  readers, 
.  j^e  at  least  should  beware  of  tiring  them  j  and  we  should  re- 

7  fleet 

42     Van  BtwmV  AccoutH  tftbe  Dutch  Embassy  to  Chimr. 

fleet  that  tt  has,  perhaps,  never  been  more  incumbent  on  aQ9 
thors  to  be  concise,  than  at  the  present  period,  which  is  so 
everstocted  with  books.  A  journal,  intended  for  private 
amusement  or  information,  can  stklom  be  too  minute :  but^ 
when  offered  to  the  public  in  its  original  shape,  it  often  be- 
c-omes excessively  irksome  and  uninteresting.  Against  this  in^ 
attention,  M.  Van  Braam  unfortunately  has  not  been  on  his 
guard.  We  are  somewhat  at  a  loss  to  conceive  in  what  man- 
ner the  public  will  be  either  instructed  or  entertained,  by  being 
told  that  he  regaled  the  Mandarins  with  Cape  wine;  that 
he  accompanied  theai  to  the  ladder  of  tlie  ship ;  that  they  saw 
pretty  women,  with  recrct  at  being  debarred  from  them,  &c« 
Details  and  remarks  of  this  kind  are  so  frequent  that,  if  they 
were  removed,  these  two  volumes  might  advantageously  be  re- 
duce<l  to  one  of  a  moderate  size.  In  vol.  i.  the  first  forty 
pages  might  have  been  compressed  into  two.  It  is  possible  that 
the  Dutch  reader  may  be  pleased  with  these  minutise :  but  we 
presume  to  assert  that  the  English  public  would  not  have  re- 
gretted the  omission  of  them.  What  a  voluminous  and  tire- 
some account  of  the  British  Embassy  to  China  must  Sir  G. 
Staunton  have  published,  if  he  had  proceeded  according  to  this 
method,  with  the  different  journals  from  which  he  drew  up  hifc 
narrative ! 

We  here  find  also  some  other  observations  and  expressions 
which  are  not  altogether  calculated  for  the  public  eye.  From  the 
author's  own  description  of  those  wretched  men,  the  Couliesj  we 
cannot  deny  them  our  compassion;  yet  in  vol.  i.  p.  211.  he 
suffers  himself  to  be  so  irritated  as  to  call  them  cursed  CoulieSy 
for  having,   as  he  supposes^  wilfully  broken  a  few  bottles  of 
liquor.     In  general,  the  details  about  good  or  indifferent  fare, 
however  fit  for  private  memorandums,  ought  not  to  have  been 
committed  to  the  press.     That  wine,  spirits,  hot  suppers,  pro- 
tracted rest  in  the  morning,  &c.   must  have  a  particular  relish 
in  long  and  fatiguing  journies,  we  are  fully  aware  :  but  it  may 
justly  be  doubted  whether  the  repeated  mention  of  disappoint- 
ment in  these  particulars  (e.g.  vol.  i.  133.  14,;.  187.)  be  suited 
to  the  gravity  of  a  public  character ;  who  must  be  presumed  to 
keep  his  grand  object  so  much  in  view,  as  neither  to  covet  sensual 
gratifications,  nor  to  lament  the  want  of  them.— At  p.  238. 
vol.  i.  M,  Van  B.  relates  that,   being  asked  by  the  Emperot 
whether  he  understood  Chinese,   he  answered  Poton ;    which, 
in  Chinese,  means  /  do  not  undeniand  it ;  at  wliich  the  Emperor 
laughed  heartily.     The  author  dwells  with  peculiar  compla- 
cency on  this  circumstance,   construing  the  good  humour  ap*- 
parent  on  the  monarch's  countenance  into  a  mark  of  •  the 
liighest  predilection,  and  such  as  is  even  said  no  envoy  ever  ob-^ 

12  tained 

CoIeridgeV  Fears  in  $olstuJf,  43 

tained  before.*  Lest  we  should  be  thought  too  fastidious,  we 
refrain  from  making  an  obvious  remark  on  thb  incident  j 
though  we  could  borrow  our  excuse  from  an  antient  sage : 

ifjia  iKxyoi  l^.v  altiliiv  wpc^  ai  Itcv  wXvjtTiav  dytivai,        EpiCTET, 

When  at  Pekin,  a  letter  was  secretly  brought  to  M.  Van  B. 
from  his  friend  Grammont,  who  testified  an  earnest  desire  to 
give  him  some  important  information.  If,  as  is  very  probable, 
this  book  should  find  its  way  to  Pekin,  might  not  this  circum- 
stance injure  M.  Grammont,  cither  with  his  brethren,  or  even 
with  the  Chinese  government  j  and  would  it  not  have  been 
more  prudent  to  have  suppressed  the  name  of  his /riend,  on  ^uch  , 
an  occasion.  Letters  were  also  privately  conveyed  to  Lord  Mac« 
artney,  when  a  few  miles  from  Pekin,  as  we  learn  from  Sir 
G.  Staunton's  account,  (vol.  ii.  p  197,)  but  the  name  of  the 
writer  is  v«ry  properly  omitted  in  that  publication. 

Of  the  translation  of  these  volumes,  our  readers  may  judge 
from  the  specimens  which  we  have  given^  We  shall  only  ob- 
serve that  it  bears  many  marks  of  haste,  with  a  consequent 
mixture  of  Gallicisms,  Hlllt.. 

Art.  V.  Feari  in  SoUiudtf  written  in  1798,  during  the  Alarm  of 
an  Invasion.  To  which  are  added,  France,  an  Ode  ;  and  Frott 
at  Midnight.  By  S.  T.  Coleridge.  4to.  pp.  23.  is.  6d.  Joha- 
son.     1798. 

TJAD  poetry  always  been  guided  by  reason  and  consecrated 
■"  to  morality,  it  would  have  escaped  the  contemptuous  re- 
proach with  which  it  has  been  loaded  both  by  antient  and 
modern  philosophers.  Had  this  divine  art  been  appropriated  with 
clue  effect  to  divine  subjects,  wisdom  could  not  have  withholdexi 
her  admiration.  It  is  matter  of  serious  regret,  therefore,  that  its 
professors  seem  to  have  been  solicitous  rather  to  please  by  the  ' 
coruscations  of  a  wild  frenzy,  than  by  a  mild  and  steady  ray, 
reflected  from  the  hmp  of  truth.  Poets  have  been  called  wa- 
niaa  s  and  their  writings  frequently  too  well  justify  the  ap- 
plication of  this  degrading  epithet.  Too  long  has  the  modern 
copied  the  antierit  poet,  in  decorating  folly  with  the  elegant 
attractions  of  verse.  It  is  time  to  enthrone  reason  on  the  sum- 
mit of  Parnassus ;  and  to  make  poetry  the  strengthener  as 
well  as  the  enlivener  of  the  intellect ; — tne  energetic  instructor 
M  well  as  the  enchanting  amuser  of  mankind. 

Mr.  Coleridge  seems  solicitous  to  consecrate  his  lyre  to 
truth,  virtue,  and  humanity.  He  makes  no  use  of  an  exploded 
ihougb  elegant  mythologyi  nor  does  he  seek  fame  by  singing 


'44  CoIcridgeV  Fears  in  Solitude. 

of  what  IS  called  Glory,  War  he  reprobates,  and  vice  he 
deplores.  Of  his  country  he  speaks  with  a  patriotic  enthu- 
siasm, and  he  exhorts  to  virtue  with  a  Christian's  ardor.  He 
tells,  as  he  says, 

*  Most  bitter  truth  withcut  bitterness  j* 
and  though,  as  we  learn  from  his  own  confession,  he  has  been 
deemed  the  enemy  of  his  country,  yet,  if  we  may  judge  from 
these  specimens,  no  one  can  be  more  desirous  of  promoting  all 
ihat  is  important  to  its  security  and  felicity. 

He  begins,  in  the  first  poem.  Fears  in  Solltudey  with  describ- 
ing his  rural  retreat,  suited  by  its  stillness  and  beauty  to  the 
contemplative  state  of  his  mind :  but  scarcely  has  he  indulged 
himself  with  the  view  of  the  pleasures  which  it  yields,  than 
his  heart  is  painfully  affected  by  a  recollection  of  the  horrid 
changes  which  the  march  of  armies,  and  the  conflicts  of  war, 
would  introduce  on  *  his  silent  hills.'  His  fears  realize  an 
invasion  to  his  imagination  -,  and  were  the  horrors  of  war  brought 
into  our  island,  he  owns  that  it  would  be.  no  more  than  oiur 
crimes  deserve : 

•  Wc  have  offended,  O  my  conntrymen  ! 
*  We  have  offended  very  gritvously, 

And  have  been  tyrannous.     From  cast  to  west 
A  groan  of  accusation  pierces  heaven  ! 
The  wretched  plead  against  us,  multitudes 
Countless  and  vehement,  the  sons  of  God, 
Our  brethren  !  Like  a  cloud  that  travels  on, 
Stcam'd  up  from  Cairo's  swamps  of  pestilence, 
Ev'n  so,  my  count r)*men  !  have  we  gone  forth 
And  borne  to  distant  tribes  shvery  and  pangs, 
Andy  deadlier  far,  our  vices,  whose  deep  tamt 
With  slow  perdition  murders  the  whole  man. 
His  body  and  his  soul !  Meanwhile,  at  home, 
We  have  been  dnnking  witli  a  riotous  thirst 
Pollutions  from  the  bnraming  cup  of  wealthy 
A  selfish,  lewd,  effeminated  race, 
Contemptuous  of  all  honourable  rule. 
Yet  bartering  freedom,  and  the  poor  man's  life. 
For  gold,  as  at  a  market !    The  sweet  words 
Of  christian  promise^  words  that  even  yet 
Might  stem  destruction,  were  they  wisely  preach'd^ 
Are  muttcr'd  o'er  by  men,  whose  tones  proclaim 
How  flat  and  wearisome  they  feel  their  trade. 
Rank  scoffers  some,  but  most  too  indolent, 
To  deem  them  fahehoods,  or  to  know  their  truth, 
O  blasphemous  !  the  book  of  life  is  made 
A  superstitious  instrument,  on  which 
We  gabble  o'er  the  oaths  we  mean  to  break. 
For  all  must  swear — all,  and  in  every  place. 
College  and  wharf,  council  and  justice-court,       * 

Colcridgd'x  Fears  in  Solitude.  4jf- 

All,  all  must  swear,  the  briber  and  the  brib'dy 
Merchant  and  lawyer,  senator  and  priest, 
The  rich,  the  pcor,  the  old  man,  and  the  young. 
All,  all  make  up  one  scheme  of  perjury. 
That  faith  doth  reel ;    the  very  name  of  God 
Sounds  like  a  juggler's  charm  ;  and  bold  with,  joy. 
Forth  from  his  dark  and  lonely  hiding-place 
(Portentous  sight)  the  owlet  Atheism, 
Sailing  on  obscene  wings  athwart  the  noon. 
Drops  his  blue-fringed  lids,  and  holds  them  close, 
And,  hooting  at  the  glorious  sun  in  heaven. 
Cries  out,  "  where  is  it  ?" 

Thankless  too  for  peace, 
(Peace  long  preserv'd  by  fleets  and  perilous  seas) 
Secure  from  actual  warfare,  we  have  lov'd 
To  swell  the  war-whoop,  passionate  for  war  ! 
Alas  !    for  ages  Ignorant  of  all 
It's  ghastlier  workings  (famine  or  blue  plague. 
Battle,  or  siege,  or  (ligiit  through  wintry  snows) 
We,  thij  whole  people,  have  been  clamorous. 
For  war  and  bloodshed^  animating  sports. 
The  wliich  we  pay  for,  as  «i  thing  to  talk  of. 
Spectators  and^yjt  combatants  !   no  gucbS 
Anticipative  of  a  wrong  unfcit. 
No  ^speculation  on  contingency. 
However  dim  and  vague,  too  Vi-jgue  and  dim 
To  yield  a  justifying  cause  :  and  forth 
( Stuff 'd  out  with  big  preamble,  holy  names. 
And  adjumtions  of  the  God  in  heaven) 
We  send  our  mandates  for  the  certain  death 
Of  thousands  and  ten  thousands  !   Boys  and  girls. 
And  women  that  would  groan  to  sec  a  child 
Pull  off  an  insect's  leg,  all  read  of  war. 
The  best  anuiscment  for  our  morning  meal ! 
The  poor  wretch,  v^ho  has  learnt  his  only  prayerg 
From  curses,  who  knov  s  scarcely  words  enough   ■ 
To  ask  a  blessing  of  his  heavenly  Father, 
Becomes  a.fliient  phraseman,  absolute 
And  technical  in  victories  and  defeats. 
And  all  our  dainty  terms  for  fratricide. 
Terms  which  we  trundle  smootlJy  o'er  our  tongues 
Like  mere  abstractions,  empty  sounds  to  which 
We  join  no  feeling  and  attach  no  form,  ^ 

As  if  the  soldier  died  without  a  wound  ; 
As  if  the  fibres  of  this  godlike  frame 
Were  gor'd  without  a  pang ;  as  if  the  wretch. 
Who  fell  in  battle  doing  bloody  deeds, 
Pass'd  off  to  hea\ien,  traniJated  and  not  kill'd  ; 
A«  tho'  he  had  no  wL^e  to  pine  for  him, 
No  God  to  judge  him  ! — Therefore  evil  days 
Arc  cwning  on  us,  O  my  countrymen  I 



4$  ColeridgeV  Ftars  in  Solitude* 

And  what  if  all- avenging  Providence, 
Strong  and  relributiv^,  should  make  us  knovr 
The  meaning  of  our  words,  force  us  to  feel  • 
The  desolation  and  the  agony 
Of  our  fierce  doings  ?— ' 
There  is  so  much  truth,  with  so  much  serious,  pointed,  and 
suitable  exhortation,  in   these  lines,  that  we  feel  it  a  duty, 
more  for  the  sake  of  the  public  than  of  the  author,  to  solicit 
their  perusal. 

Mr.C.'s  invocation  to  the  Great  Ruler  of  Empires  to  spare  this 
guilty  country,  and  his  address  to  his  countrymen  to  return  to 
virtue  and  to  unite  in  repelling  an  impious  invading  foe,  are 
equally  excellent.  His  description  of  the  French  is  such  as 
must  animate  Britons,  were  the  enemy  to  attempt  an  invasion 
of  us,  to  unite  as  one  man  in  accomplishing  what  the  poet  re- 
quires : 

<  Impious  and  false,  a  light  yet  cruel  race. 
That  laugh  away  all  virtue,  mingling  mirth 
With  deeds  of  murder  ;  and  still  promi&ing 
Freedom,  themselves  too  sensual  to  be  free. 
Poison  life's  amities,  and  cheat  the  heart 
Of  Faith  and  quiet  Hope,  and  all  that  soothes 
And  all  that  lifts  the  spirit !  Stand  we  forth  ; 
Render  them  back  upon  th'  insulted  ocean. 
And  let  them  toss  as  idly  on  it's  waves 
As  the  vile  sea-weeds,  which  some  mountain  blast 
Swept  from  oui-  shores !   And  O  !   may  we  return 
Not  with  a  drunken  triumph,  but  with  fear. 
Repenting  of  the  wrongs,  >\ith  which  we  stung 
So  fierce  a  foe  to  frenzy !' 

From  bodings  of  misery  to  his  country,  he  returns  to  the 
brighter  prospects  of  hope.  While,  with  the  spirit  of  the 
Christian  muse,  he  indulges^ 

*  Love  and  the  thoughts  that  yearn  for  human  kind,* ' 
he  expresses  a  peculiar  attachment  to  his  native  soil : 

•  There  lives  nor  form  nor  feeling  in  my  soul 
Unborrow'd  from  my  country  !    O  divine 
Atid  bcautecus,  tliou  hast  been  my  sole 
And  most  magniricent  temple,  in  the  which 
I  walk  with  awe,  and  z\\\^  my  stately  song«, 
Loving  the  God  th^t  made  me  !' 

In  the  Ode  entitled  *  France^  the  author,  like  a  true  Arca- 
dian shepherd,  adores  * 

•  The  spirit  of  divinest  liberty  ;' 
and  he  in  course  professes  how  much  he  wished,  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  revplution,  {^vithoHt  hloodshed^'l  that  France  might 
break  her  fetters  and  obtain  freedom  ;-^how  he  hung  his  head 


Walker^/  Key  to  the  Pronunciation  of  Greek  and  Latin  Neunti.  4^ 

ind  wept  at  our  interference  ;— and  how,  amid  all  the  horrors 
and  atrocities  attending  the  revolution,  he  cherished  the  hope 
that  these  black  clouds,  which  darkened  the  horizon  of  French 
Kbcrty,  would  disperse,  and  that  France  would  be  happy  in 
herself  and  just  to  surrounding  states.  These  hopes  h« 
now  considers  as  vain.  He  invokes  Freedom  *  to  forgive  these 
idle  dreams,'  and  particularly  reprobates  France  for  her  conduct 
to  Switzerland. 

*  O  France !  that  meekest  hcav'n,  adult'rous,  blind. 
And  patriot  only  in  pernicious  toils  ! 
Are  these  thy  boasts,  champion  of  human  kind  : 
To  mix  with  kings  in  the  low  lust  of  sway. 
Yell  in  the  hunt,  and  share  the  murd'rous  preyx 
T'  insult  the  shrine  of  liberty  with  spoils 
From  freemen  torn  ;  to  tempt  and  to  betray  I* 
A  beautiful  address  to  Liberty  constitutes  the  last  stanza* 
*  Frost  at  Midmght^  is  a  pleasing  picture  of  virtue  and  con* 
tent  in  a  cottage.     The  author's  cradled  babe  seems  to  have 
inspired  him,  and  here  he  dedicates  his  infant  to  solitude  aud 
religious  contemplation. 

Much  as  we  admire  the  poetic  -spirit  of  this  bard,  we  are 
forced  to  censure  some  of  his  lines  as  very  prosaic.  In  his 
choice  of  woids,  also,  he  is  not  always  sufficiently  nice.  The 
last  line 

*  As  thou  would'&t  fly  for  very  eagerness/ 

is  extremely  flat,  and  gives  the  idea  of  an  exhausted  muso^ 
Small  poems,  like  those  before  us,  should  be  highly  finished* 
Neither  coarseness  noV  negligence  should  be  seen  in  cabinet 
pictures.  Hoo^Y' 

Art.  VI.  j1  Key  to  the  classical  Pronunciation  of  Greek  and  I^alin 
Proper  Namety  in  which  the  Words  arc  accented  and  divided  into 
Syllables  exactly  as  they  ougiit  to  be  pronounced  5  with  References 
to  Rules,  which  show  the  Analogy  of  Pronunciation.  To  which 
i«  added,  a  complete  Vocabulary  of  Scripture  Proper  Names,  di- 
vided into  Syllables,  and  accentevl  according  to  Riiies  drawn  from 
Analogy  and  the  best  Usage.  Concluding  with  Observations  on 
the  Greek  and  Latin  Accent  and  Quantity,  with  some  probable 
Conjectures  on  the  Method  of  freeing  them  from  the  Obscurity 
and  Confusion  in  which  they  are  involved,  both  by  the  Ancients 
and  Modems.  By  John  Walker,  Author  of  the  Critical  Pro- 
bouncing  Dictionary,  &c.  &c.  8vo.  pp.  166.  5s.  Boards.  Ro- 
binsons.    1798. 

X^R.  Walker  is  advantPgeoO'^ly  known  both  as  a  teacher  of 
'^'^  elocution  and  as  an  author  on  that  subject.  In  the  co- 
pious title-page  prefixed  to  the  present  performance,  the  rcad- 
fPs  atterftion  vrill  be  attracted  by  a  variety  of  topics  of  a 


48  Walker^/  Kejf  to  the  Pronunciation  of  Greek  and  Latin  Nafhes. ' 

delicate  and  doubtful  nature^  which  have  been  often  discussed^ 
but  he ver  satisfactorily  decided.  In  questioili  of  accent  or 
prosody,  an  appeal  must  be  made,  not  to  reason  only,  but  to  sen- 
timent also  \  and,  as  the  feelings  of  mankind  have  different  de- 
grees of  acutcness,  distinctions  will  be  made  by  the  ear  of  one 
ferson  which  are  altogether  imperceptible  to  that  of^another. 
n  reading  Greek  nnd  Latin,  it  is  acknowlegcd  that  the  Eng- 
lish follow  the  genius  of  their  own  pronunciation,  and  therefore 
continually  violate  the  quantity  of  the  anticnt  languages,  more 
tlian  any  other  nation  in  Europe.  When  the  penultimate  is 
accented,  its  vowel,  though  followed  by  a  single  consonant,  is 
always  long.  Before  two  consonants,  no  vowel  sound  is  ever 
made  long,  except  that  of  the  diphthong  «//-  These  and  in- 
numerable other  solecisms  in  our.pronunci.ition  have  produced 
different  proposals  for  altering  our  present  system  ;  and,  in 
reading  the  learned  languages,  for  adopting  a  foreign,  and  par- 
ticularly the  Italian  model.  Mr.  Walker'^  objections  to  this 
measure  are  worthy  of  attention. 

•  *  In  answer  to  this  plea  for  altci-atfon,  it  may  be  observed ;  that  if 
this  mode  of  pronouncing  Latin  be  that  of  forciVn  nations,  and 
were  really  so  superior  to  our  own,  we  certainly  must  perceive  it  ia 
the  pronunciation  of  foreigners,  when  we  visit  them,  or  they  us  :  » 
but  I  think  I  may  appeal  to  the  fxpericnc«  of  every  one  who  has  had 
an  opportunity  of  making  the  experiment ;  that  so  far  from  a  supe- 
riority on  the  side  of  the  foreign  pronunciation,  it  secnls  much  in- 
ferior to  our  own.  I  am  aware  of  the  power  of  habit,  and  of  iti 
being  able  **  to  make  the  worse  appear  the  better  reason"  on  many 
occasions ;  but  if  the  harmony  of  the  Latin  langua^^e  depended  so 
much  on  a  preservation  of  the  quantity  as  many  pretend,  this  har- 
''  mony  would  surely  overcome  the  bias  we  have  to  our  own  pronuncia- 
tion ;  especially  if  our  own  were  really  so  destructive  of  harmony  as 
it  is  said  to  be.  Till,  therefore,  we  have  a  more  accurate  idea  of  the 
nature  of  quantity,  and  of  that  beautv  and  harmony  of  which  it  is 
said  to  be  the  efficient  in  the  pronunciation  of  Latin,  we  ought  to 
preserve  a  pronunciation  which  has  naturally  sprung  up^  in  our  own 
soil,  and  is  congenial  to  our  native  language.  Besides,  an  alteration 
of  this  kind  would  be  attended  with  so  much  dispute  and  uncertainty 
as  must  make  it  highly  impolitic  to  attempt  It. 

*  The  analogy,  then,  of  our  own  language  being  the  rule  for  pro- 
nouncing the  learned  languages,  we  shall  ha\-e  little  occasion  for  any 
other  directions  for  the  pronunciation  of  the  Greek  and  Latin  proper 
names,  than  such  as  are  given  for  the  pronunciation  of  EngUbh  words. 
The  general  rules  are  followed  almost  \yiihout  exception.  The  firSt 
and  most  obvious  powers  of  the  letters  arc  adopted,  and  there  is 
scarcely  any  difficulty  but  in  the  position  of  the  accent ;  and  as  this 
depends  so  much  on  the  quantity  of  the  vowels,  we  need  only  inspect 
a  dictionary  to  find  the  quantity  of  the  penultimate  vowel,  and  this 
determiiies  the  accent  of  all  the  Latin  words ;  aiid  it  may  be  added 


of  ilmpst  all  Qr^  WQrds  Jlkewise  *.  Now  in  our  pYonuQciatxgtt 
of  Latin  wordst  whjitevcr  be  the  quantity  pf  the  first  syllable  in  H 
word  of  two  syllables,  we  always  plaCe  the  accent  on  it:  but  in  woi4i 
of  more  eyiljiblesy  if  the  penultimate  be  long,  we  place  the  accent  ^ 
that,  and  if  short,  we  accent  the  antepenultimate. 

*  The  Ruleii  of  the  Latin  accentuation  are  comprised  in  adiotfanA 
ttncise  manner  by  ^nctius  within  four  hexameters : 

Jiccentum  In  se  itsi  monosyllaba  di(^tlo  poffit* 
'Exacttit  sedan  atssyllahon  omne  friorem 
Ex  trthtuy  extolRt  frimsm  pMuMima  curia  i 
EAtoUk  seipsam  yuitmdo  tst  pcnuUma  Iqu^Ob 

'  These  rules  I  have  endeavoured  to  express  in  English  veoe  :• 
'  Each  monosyllable  h^s  its  stress  of  course ; 
Words  of  two  jsyllablcs,  the  first  enforce  i 
A  syllable  that's  long,  and  last  but  one, 
Must  :have  the  accent  upon  that  or  none : 
But  if  this  syllable  be  i^hort,  the  stress 
Must  on  the  last  but  two  its  force  express.' 

^  *  The  only  difference  that  seems  to  obtain  between  the  proiitinQi^^ 
^0  of  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages  is,  that  in  the  Latin  //and  4/^  • 
preceded  hy  an  accent,  and  foUowed  by  another  vowel  forming  ap 
improper  diphthong,  are  pronounced  as  in  English,  like  *b  or  jb^,  a^ 
99^y  naiion;  fiertwutOf  persuasionf  &c. ;  and  that  in  the  Greek,  .the 
lime  letters  retain  their  pure  sound,  as  ^^x^wio,  myw^'^^^  v^idrn^ 
M.  >.  This  difference,  however,  with  very  few  exceptions,  ,docs  po^ 
iBi^end  to  proper  names ;  which,  coming  to  us  through,  i|nd  bpng 
mingled  with,  the  Latin,  fall  into  the  general  rule.  In  the«amf? 
manner,  though  in  Greek  .it  was  an  established  maxim,  that  if  tl^ 
htt  syllable  was  long,  the  accent  could  scarcely  ever  be  higher  tjup 
the  penultimate ;  yet  in  our  pronunciation  of  Greek,  and  jparticularly 
of  proper  name^  the  Latin  analogy  of  accent  is  adopted :.  and  though 
the  last  syllable  is  long  in  Demosthenes^  ArlstopbaaeSf  Theramen^,  ^lijL 
lkiph^9  yet  as  the  penultimate  is  short,  the  accent  is  pl^Lped  on  ^ 
SQtepcniiltimate,  exactly  as  if  they  were  Latin.' 

The  most  important  object  of  the  present  work  Is  the  settling 
the  English  quantity  with  which  we  pronounce  Greek  and 
Latin  proper  naiPKs.  Thejse  ^re  points  in  a  state  of  gre^tu^- 
certainty ;  and^  as  Mr.  W.  justly  observes,  they  are  to  bp 
lettled  not  so  n^ijuch  by  ^  deep  knowiege  of  the  dead  language, 
as  by  a  thorough  acquaintance  with  the  analogies  and  general 
usage  of  our  own -tongue.  '      ^ 

We  think  that  Mr.  Walker  has  in  this,  and  jn  his  other 
works,  explained,  in  a  fnore  satisfactory  manner  (han  most  of 
his  predecessor.$,  the  essential  distinctions  between  reading  an4 

*  •  That  is,  in  Uie  general  pronunciation  of  Greek ;  for  let  tljc 
«iitte»  accent  be  placed  where  it  will,  the  guat^ltsti:fi$  acGjei)t,  ^  it 
Mr  be  called,  follows  the  analpf^T  <»f  iJi^  JUi^* 
•  «EV.  Mat  1799^  S  singing. 

50  Walkcr'i  Key  to  the  Pronunciation  ofGreel  and  Latin  Naifuf^ 

ringing.  The  sound  which  composes  the  note  of  speaking  \Sf 
he  observes,  in  continual  motion  ;  the  sound  which  composes 
the  note  of  singing  is  for  a  given  time  at  rest.  To  illustrate 
this  position,  he  has  recourse  to  the  eye,  the  most  distinct  and 
definite  of  all  our  senses.  Musical  notes,  he  says,  may  be 
compared  to  horizontal  lines,  rising  one  above  anotlier^  from 
low  to  high  by  distinct  intervals ;  and  speaking  tones,  on  the 
other  hand,  resemble  oblique  lines  sliding  upward  and  down- 
ward in  uninterrupted  succession. 

•  The  English  accent,  therefore,  is  an  elevition  of  voice ;  whether 
we  consider  it  in  words  pronounced  singly,  or  compared  with  the 
other  words  or  syllables.  Considered  singly,  it  rises  trom  a  lower  to 
a  higher  tone  in  the  question  No  ?  which  may  therefore  be  caDed  the 
acute  accent,  and  falls  from  a  higher  to  a  lower  tone  in  the  answer 
Nof  and  may  therefore  be  called  the  grave.  When  compared  with 
the  preceding  and  succeeding  words  or  syllables,  it  is  louder  and 
higher  than  the  preceding,  and  louder  and  lower  than  the  succeeding 
syllables  in  the  question,  Saiuf act  only  did  he  say  ?  and  both  louder 
and  higher  than  either  the  preceding  or  succeeding  syllables  in  the 
answer — He  said  tatisfactori!y.  Those  who  wish  to  see  this  explained 
niorc  at  large  may  consult  Elements  of  Elocution,  vol.  i.  page  iia  ; 
or  Melody  of  Speaking  Delineated,  page  7. 

*  This  idea  of  accent  is  so  evident  upon  experiment,  as  to  defy 
contradiction  ;  and  yet,  such  is  the  general  ignorance  of  the  modifi- 
cations of  the  voice,  that  we  find  those  who  pretend  to  explain  the 
nature  of  accent  the  most  accurately — when  they  give  us  an  example 
of  the  accent  in  any  particular  word,  suppose  it  always  pronounced 
affirmatively  and  alone  ;  that  is,  as  if  words  were  always  pronounced 
with  one  inflexion  of  voice,  and  as  if  there  were  no  difference,  with 
respect  to  the  nature  of  the  accent,  whether  the  word  is  in  an  affirma^ 
tion  or  a  question,  in  one  part  of  the  sentence  or  in  another ;  when 
nothing  can  be  more  palpable  to  a  correct  ear  than  that  the  ticcentft 
ef  the  word  voluntary  in  the  following  sentences,  are  essentially  dif* 
ferent : 

His  resignation  was  voluntary. 
He  made  a  voluntary  resignation. 

In  both,  the  accent  is  on  the  first  syllable.  In  the  first  sentence,  the 
accented  syllable  is  higher  and  louder  than  the  other  syllables :  and 
in  the  second,  it  is  louder  and  lower  than  the  rest.  The  same  may 
be  observed  of  the  following  question : 

Was  his  resignation  voluntary  or  tnvotuAfary  ? 

where  the  first  syllabic  of  the  word  voluntary  is  louder  and  lower  ths^ 
the  succeeding  syllables ;  and  in  the  word  Involuntary^  it  is  louder  and 
higher.  Those  who  have  not  cars  suffidently  deU^te  to  discern  this 
difference,  ought  never  to  open  their  lips  about  the  acute  or  ,grave 
accent,  as  they  are  pleased  to  call  them ;  let  them  speak  of  accent  as 
it  relates  to  stress  only,  and  not'  £0  elevation  or  dcpressioD  of  voicep 
and  then  thry  may  speak  intclKgibly.* 

-      »3  Thit 

CootcV  Hiiiofj  of  England^^  51 

lUs  key  to  .classical  pronunciation,  we  think,  is  wejlcal-' 
culatcd  for  the  purposes  of  general  utility ;  and  we  particu- 
larly recommend  it  to  those  who  have  occasion  to  speak  or 
rcadinpubUc.  Gil-*. 

Art.  VII.  Dr.  Cootc'/  Iftstory  of  England. 
{Article  concluded  from  the  Rev.  for  March^  p.  288.] 
Tn  our  last  article  respecting  this  work,  we  accompanied  Dr. 
^  Coote  to  the  end  of  the  reign  of  James  I. ;  and  we  now  pro- 
ceed with  him  to  a  period  full  of  .memorable  events.  Charles 
lived  at  a  very  unfortunate  time,  and  had  early  imbibed  unfor* 
tunate  prejudices :  "  he  had  been  brought  up,"  as  he  expressed 
himself,  «  at  the  feet  of  Gamaliel.*'— -The  Commons  began  tb 
feel  their  own  importance,  and  were  unwilling  to  bear  a  stretch, 
perhaps  some  of  them  even  a  continuance,  of  monarchical 
power.  The  king  was  equally  unwilling  to  relinquish  that 
which  he  considered  as  his  birth-right ;  and,  from  the  influence 
which  weak  and  bad  advisers  (we  allude  to  his  Queen  and  the 
Duke  of  Buckingham)  had  on  his  mind,  he  treated  the  oppo- 
sers  of  his  measures  with  indignity  and  contempt,  and  was 
precipitated  into  the  most  unguarded  conduct,  which  termi- 
nated in  his  ruin.— As  the  spirit  of  party  ran  so  high  during  this 
xeign,  it  is  difficult  to  arrive  at  a  precise  knowlege  of  the  occur- 
rences which  led  to  so  important  a  catastrophe  as  the  overthrow 
and  execution  of  the  sovereign ;  almost  every  narrative  receives 
a  colour  from  the  prejudices  of  the  writer ;  and  the  judicious 
reader  must  not  give  implicit  credit  either  to  the  studied  and 
delusive  panegyrfc  of  Hume,  or  to  the  violent  representations 
of  Mrs.  Macaulay.  We  have  often  wished  that  the  candid, 
diligent,  and  impartial  Dn  Henry  had  brought  down  his  His- 
tory to  this  period  :  but  the  present  author  has  not  been  un- 
mindful of  the  difficulty  of  his  task,  and  he  has  surmounted  it 
with  considerable  ability. 

*  We  now  enter  (he  says)  upon  a  reign  pregnant  with  memorable 
iacidents.  We  shall  behold  a  contest  between  a  king  and  his  parlia- 
ment, commenced  by  each  party  under  the  ostensible,  and  perhaps 
the  actual.  Idea  of  merely  preventing  the  encroachments  of  the  other. 
The  generous  spirit  of  liberty  will  appear>  in  many  instances,  degraded 
by  the  pernicious  mixture  of  bigotry  and  faction ;  and  the  proud 
pre-eminence  of  royalty  will  be  seen  to  overleap  the  boundaries  of  the 
constitution,  and  deviate  into  occasional  exertions  of  tyrannic  power. 
In  the  delineation  of  the  turbulent  scenes  of  this  reign,  it  will  be  ex- 
trancly  difficult  for  any  writer  to  secure  a  general  approbation  of  his  • 
labors.  By  a  warm  defence  of  the  proceedings  of  one  party,  he  will 
arouse  the  strong  disgust  of  the  other ;  and,  if  he  should,  in  com- 
piia&ce  vrith  ths  indispensable  duty  of  an  historian,  pursue  the  path9 

£  a  of 

J2  Codte^x  History  of  Ettglani. 

of  unbiassed  moderation^  he  w3l  pcrkaps  be  considered*  t)y  Ac  »4- 
vocatcs  of  the  unfortunate  Charles,  as  lukewarm  in  the  cause  of  injured 
tnajesty,  while  ihe  partisans  of  popular  resistance  may  be  inclined  ta 
jreproach  him  with  want  of  xeal  for  the  glorious  interests  -of  liberty 
and  the  iiuilMaable  rights  ^f -man.  Regardless  of  such  atiacks,  thie 
present  author  will  steadily  aim  at  the  discovery  of  truth  ;  and,  if  \Xm 
full  lustre  should  not  always  illumine  his  page,  the  candid,  he  truatSy 
will  imputetbe  defect  to  the  diftculty  of  de^loping  it  amidst  the  dis* 
cordant  narratives  of , party,  not  -to  the  delusions  of  prejudice,  or  to 
the  contemptible  arts  of  evasion  and  disguise.' 

The  events  of  this  calamitous  xcign  are  detailed  with  mi- 
nuteness, and  the  author  appears  to  write  with  an  ui^prejudiceil 
mind.  iHe  censures  both  the  king  and  the  parliament,  as  the 
conduct  of  each  dcsenred  reprehension.;  and  be  considers  the 
behaviour  of  the  Scots  in  delivering  up  their  royal  prisoner^ 
(who  had -confided  in  their  honour^)  for  the  payment  of 
iheir  arrears,  as  a  base  and  disgraceful  sale  of  bis  person  to  hi3 
inveterate  enemies. 

On  the  subject  of  the  trial  and  execution  of  Charles,  Dr* 
Coote  is  naturally  led  into  a  train  of  political  reflections.  The 
passage  which  contains  them,  though  we  do  not  in  an  un* 
l]ualified  manner  assent  to  its  doctrines,  we  shall  present  to 
our  readers  is  aft  furnishing  a  fair  specimen  of  the  author^ 
jK>wers  of  reasoning,  «nd  the  moderation  of  his  sentiments : 

*  It  bas  been  oiErmed  by 'many  writers,  that  no  community  eaa 
^lossess  the  smallest  right  to  exercise  judicial  cognisance  over  a^mo* 
narch,  as,  according  to  them,  his  power  is  delegated  from  heaven^ 
and  is  superior  to  all  human  inquisition.  Others,  on  less  superstitious 
grounds,  are  incUned  to  deny  the  existence  of  such  a  right,  because 
the  acknowledgment  of  it  would  have  a  bad  effect  on  the  injudtciotis 
populace,  by  encouraging  them  to  that  frequent  and  mdiscriminMe 
'exercise  of  it  which  would  weaken  the  reverenee  due  to  authority^ 
and  lead  to  anarchy  and  liccntionsaeSs.  But,  as 'government  Wss  estab- 
lished for  tlie  general  benefit  of  society,  for  the  projection  of  eimif 
individual,  and  for  the  prevention  of  those  disorders  which  inevitahtf 
attend  a  state  of  nature,  it  necessarily  follows,  that  some  ren^edv 
should  be  allowed  against  the  gross  injustice  and  tyranny  by  which 
the  conduct  of  the  King  or  chief  magistrate  may  be  rendered  sub- 
versive of  the  -ends  of  civil  pob't y.  When  different  families,  in  the  in- 
fancy of  society,  submitted  to  one  head,  for  the  increase  of  order  and 
security,  it  c«vi  hardly  be  supposed  that  they  would  suffer  that  chief  to 
assume  the  privilege  of  tyrannizing  over  tliem  with  impunity-  Though 
the  desire  of  avoiding  the  dangers  of  a  savas^e  life  prompted  them  ta 
resign  a  part  of  that  uncontrolled  liberty  which  they  before  enjoyeii» 
thoy  certainly  had  no  wish  to  sink  into  the  extreme  of  slavery,  but 
4ioped  to  acquire  that  temperate  freedom  in  which  the  life  and  prp. 
^rty  of  eadi  individual  would  be  protected  by  the  terrors  of  legal 
IMimshment,  co-operatiog  with  the  improved  morals  of  a  civilised  com- 
munity.   In  process  of  time,  the  chief>  or  those  who  were  permitted 


Cootc*/  History  of  Engtand.  Si 

tptucceed  him,  might  insensibly  attain  a  greater  height  of  jpowcTt 
which  might  at  length  degenerate  into  tyranny ;  and,  in  this  cascji 
i»hcn  it  became  too  flagrant  to  be  patiently  endured',  that  implied  con- 
tnurt  which,  at  the  first  rise  of  states,  imposed  on  the  sovereign  the 
duty  of  preserving  the  rights  of  the  people,  would  jusl^'fy  in  the  latter 
the  boldness  of  remonstrance,  and,  subsequently,  the  vigor  of  resist* 
ance.     If  a  prince  ahould  be  so  depraved  as  to  pursue  an  incessant 
xareer  of  sanguinary  and  rapaciorus  despotism,  and  should  be  so  incor- 
rigibly as  to  leave  to  his  subjects. no  prospect  of  taming  his  inordinate 
passions,  the  emergency  of  the  case  would  authorise  the  body  of  the 
nation  to  bring  him  to  justice  for  his  repeated  enormities.     Had  Ti-^ 
berius  been  condemned  to  death  by  a  representative  convention  of  the 
Roman  empire,  few  persons,   we  believe,  would  have  lamented  the 
execution  of  such  a  sentence  on  so  infamous  a  tyrant,  or  have  beew 
apprehensive  of  ill'  consequences  from  tiic  establishment  of  a  precedent 
applicahle  only  to  the  most  flagiuous  despots.     Had  Caligula  and 
Domitian,  instead  of  falling  by  the  poignards  of  private  assassins^ 
been  capitally  punished  by  a  national  sentence,  the  world  would  have 
admitted  the  expaiieiicy  of  pubhc  interposition,  and  have  applaudc4 
the  justice  of  the  decree.     But,  in  tlic  case  of  Agis  IV.  king  of  La- 
cedacmon,  whose  chief  offence  was  ai\  attempt  to  stem  the  torrent  of 
luxury  which  had  overborne  the  ancient  fmgality  and  strictness  of 
j^aitaa  manners,  we  feel  a  great  indignation  at  the  conduct  of  the 
Bphori,  who,  having  tried  him  on  a  charge  of  misgovcrnment^  con« 
^mncd  and  pat  him  to  death  ;  a  fate  which  he  did  not  merit.     The 
^mc  remark  in  applicable  to  the  catastrophe  of  Charles,  whose  de- 
linquency was  far  from  being  of  that  magnitude  which  could  justify 
the  severity  exercised  against  him  '^  and,  if  he  had  been  guilty  of  the 
cnost  nefarious  acts  of  oppression  and  cruehy,  no  authority  but  the 
fftneial  will  of  the  nation,  signified  by  a  free  and  full  convention,  could^ 
justly  decree  either  his  deposition  c    i:is  death.     That  rule,  how- 
ever, was-  not  adopted  in  the  proceed<n^/t>  against  this  injured  prince ; 
and,  if  his  fate  bad  ixcn  committed  to  the  decision  of  such  a  couucii^ 
be  would  have  been  restored  to  the  throne  on  certain  limitations,  not 
fiaye  been  brought  to  tlie  block.     Even  of  that  imperfect  parliament* 
ary  assembly  which,  after  his  adherentii  had  been  driven  from  the  le- 
gislature, prosecuted  the  war  against  him  with  such  acrimony,  a  ma- 
jority voted  his  concessions  to  be  sufllcient  grounds  for  a  reconcilia-^ 
tion  with  him  :  how  great,  then,  would  have  bceft  the  appearance  in 
£ivourof  hisrestoratioi),  had.  the  two  houses  remaiitcd  on  a  coisstitu« 
tsonal  basis  I  But  the  leaders  of  the  independents,  finding  it  imprac- 
ticable to  obtain  the  national  concurrence  in  tiieir  bhn^dy  schemes,  re- 
AiU'cd  to  content  themselves  with  the  sanction  ci  thcu  own  partisans^ 
aadof  a  mercenary  army,  a  small  and  cojiiemprible  part  of  the  nation. 
They  therefore  reduced  thclowcr  house,  by  the  terrors  ofthesword^ 
to  a  very  dimiuutive  proportion ;   treated  tlvj  peers  as  mere  ciphers, 
vbo  had  no  right  to  interfere  in  the  goveniment ;   and  thus,  by  the 
jQoet  iaiquitous  usurpation,  assumed  the  whole  power  of  the  state. 
A  court  of  judicature,  erected  by  those  who  had  no  shadow  of  right 
Iqr  which  thcv  could  iustifv  their  proceedings,  would  have  acted  ia 
defiance  of  all  law  and  jusUce^by  presuming  to  arraign  and  condemn 

£3  th^ 

54  CootcV  History  of  England. 

the  meanest  individual ;  and  such  unwarrantable  judgment  cannot 
fairly  be  deemed,  even  by  the  most  jealous  enemies  of  monarchy, 
less  criminal,  when  applied  to  a  sovereign.  Hence  it  must  be  allow- 
ed, even  by  such  as  are  of  opinion  that  Charles  deserved  exemplary 
punishment,  that  his  death  was  in  fact  a  murder,  being  decreed  and 
enforced  by  those  who  had  no  authority  for  the  act,  aud  who,  in  the 
whole  proceeding,  grossly  shocked  the  public  feelings,  and  testified  a 
contemptuous  disregard  of  the  general  sentiments  of  the  people,  in 
each  ot  those  three  kingdoms  which  had  an  equal  interest  in  the  fate 
of  this  oppressed  monarch.  His  death,  therefore,  was  not,  as  some 
have  termed  it,  a  national  crime ;  for  the  turpitude  and  disgrace  of 
it  rest  only  on  the  memories  of  those  ambitious  traitors  and  crafty  in- 
cendiaries who  composed  the  majority  of  the  independent  faction  *.* 

Wc  shall  close  our  account  of  this  reign  with  the  character 
of  the  monarchy  who  fell  a  sacrifice  to  the  turbulence  and 
wickedness  of  a  successful  faction. 

•  As,  in  our  history  of  this  important  reign,  we  have  exceeded  the 
proportional  h'mits  of  our  plan,  the  very  frequent  occasions  on  which 
we  have  described  the  conduct  and  proceedings  of  Charles,  render  it 
unnecessary  to  extend,  to  any  great  length,  our  final  remarks  on  his 
character.  Though  many  portraits  have  been  drawn  of  him,  they 
have,  in  general,  been  delineated  by  the  hand  of  party,  and  have 
therefore  either  been  caricatures,  or  have  exhibited  too  flattering  a 
representation.     Each  of  these  extremes  we  shall  endeavour  to  avoid. 

•  The  accomplishments  which  this  monarch  possessed  were  nume- 
rous and  respectable.  He  had  a  competent  acquaintance  with  the 
bdks  htt'res ;  was  conversant  in  many  of  the  sciences ;  was  a  good 
judge  of  the  polite  arts ;  was  far  from  being  deficient  in  the  know- 
ledge of  the  principal  mechanic  arts ;  excelled  in  argument  and  dispu. 

•  *  In  a  neighbouring  country,  events  have  recently  occurredj 
which  bear  some  resemblance  to  our  present  subject.  Lewis  XVI. 
of  France,  like  the  unfortunate  Charles,  has  been  imprisoned,  tried, 
condemned,  and  executed,  by  the  misguided  zeal  of  his  subjects.  In 
one  respect,  the  rulers  of  the  new  republic  of  France  adopted  a  more 
regular  process  against  their  degraded  prince,  than  the  English  fac- 
tion pursued  with  regard  to  Charles  ;  for  Lewis  was  arraigned  before^ 
£  national  tribunal,  formed  by  that  democratic  convention  in  whose 
hands  the  Gallic  sovereignty  is  now  lodged.  This  appearance  of  re- 
gularity, however,  will  not  atone  for  the  iniquity  of  that  sentence 
which  ordained  his  death.  The  delinquency  of  the  French  victim, 
like  that  of  Charles,  cannot  justly  be  said  to  have  been  of  that  black 
complexion  which,  for  the  prevention  of  turbulence  and  anarchy, 
seems  necessary  as  an  adequate  sanction  to  the  exercise  of  popular  ju- 
risdiction over  the  person  of  a  sovereign.  We  cannot,  therefore,  re- 
frain from  expressing  our  detestation  of  the  frantic  licentiousness  and 
rancorous  inhumanity  of  those  republican  upstarts,  who,  by  the  sa- 
crifice of  a  mild  and  beneficent  monarch,  have  outraged  the  feelings  of 
every  unprejudiced  individual,  and  disgraced  the  French  character  id 
the  eyes  of  every  civilised  and  humane  natiou.^ 

tation  I 

Cootesmstory  of  England.'  fj 

tatron ;  had  a  talent  for  literary  compositioQ  ;  and,  in  shorty  was  qua^ 
li^ed,  by  his  abilities  and  attainments,  to  adorn  and  ennoble  society. 
His  private  virtues,  likewise,  were  eminently  conspicuous^  He  was 
chaste,  temperate>  oeconomical,  devout,  mild,  friendly,  mpdestj  and 

'  With  respect  to  his  sincerity  and  honor,  strong  doubts  haveariseor 
His  enemies  have  represented  him  as  one  in  whose  most  solemn  en- 
gagements no  confidence  could  be  placed ;  but  this  censure  is  pal-  . 
pably  overcharged,  though  we  have  sufficient  grounds  for  affirming 
that  he  did  not  always  scrupulously  adhere  to  the  dictates  of  ?o6a 
faith.     Had  he  moved  in  a  private  sphere,  he  would  probably,  Trora 
his  general  regu]anty  and  strictness  of  deportment,  have  been  distin- 
guished by  an  adherence  to  his  promises  and  declarations ;  but  his 
monarchical  prejudices  sometimes  perverted  the  integrity  of  his  na- 
ture ;  and  he  seemed  to.  think  that  the  rules  of  policy,  and  the  op»  ^ 
position  which  he  met  with  from  his  parliamentaiy  subjects,  furnished 
some  excuse  for  his  occasional  violation  of  his  professions  and  agree- 
ments.    These,  however,  are  not  tlie  sentiments  of  a  man  of  unble* 
•  jnished  honor ;    and,  as  his  repeated  infractions  of  the  petition  of 
right,  which  he  had  so  solemnly  confirmed,  are  sufficient  proofs  of - 
our  assertion,  without  the  mention  of  other  cases  which  might  be 
adduced,  an  easy  refutation  may  be  given  to  a  remark  of  one.  of  the. 
panegyrists  of  Charles,  importing,  that,  for  reproaching  tliis  pnnce  » 
with  a  disregard  of  good  faith,  "  the  most  mahgnant  scrutiny  of  his 
conduct  affords  not  any  reasonable  foundation." 

'  His  political  maxims  were  too  favorable  to  the  ideas  of  the  divine 
Tignt  and  irresistible  authority  of  kings.     Educated  at  the  feet  of 
Gamaliel  (as  he  expressed  himself),  he  imbibed,  in  his  earlier  years, 
those  romantic  and  superstitious  notions  of  the  royal  prerogative  which' 
his  father  was  so  fond  of  inculcating,  and  which  were  not  only  absurd 
in  themselves,  but  were  particularly  disgusting  to  that  bold  and  li- 
beral spint  which  animated  a  great  part  of  the  nation  at  the  time  ef 
his  accession.     Finding  that  the  principles  of  liberty  were  sostrongly^ 
prevalent,  he  would,  u  his  sagacity  and  prudence  had  been  unallayed 
hj  prgudice,  have  studiously  avoided  all  encroachments  on  the  pri-, 
rdeges  of  his  subjects ;  and,  by  thus  entrenching  himself  within  the 
boundanes  of  lawful  prerogative,  he  would  have  had  a  better  oppor- 
tunity of  repressing  the  licentiousness  of  the  advocates  of  freedom, 
than  by  indulging  himself  in  those  exertions  of  power  which  inflamed^ 
the  indignation  of  the  public,  and  stimulated  the  demagogues  to  a* 
wider  range  of  design,  and  a  gpreatcr  boldness  of  enterprise.     But,  * 
being  confirmed  in  his  high  monarchical  notions  by  the  insinuations 
of  ambitious  statesmen  and  ecclesiastical  adulators,  and  by  the  sug« . 
gestions  of  a  catholic  queen,  to  whose  counsels  he  was  too  obsequi* 
ous,  he  neglected  the  rules  of  discretion,  and,  by  incautipus'mea-. 
cures,  opened  the  way  to  those  popular  commotions  which  produced/ 
an  intestine  war,  and  terminated  in  the  destruction  of  his  own  person 
and  the  subversion  of  the  monarchy.  -  [ 

*  In  the  adoption  of  political  measures,  he  was^  sometimes^  tiihid ' 
and  indecisive  \  at  other  tinies,  by  the  prevalence  of  importunate  ad- 
vice, he  was  eager  and  precipitate.    When  he  had  given  way  to  a  rash 

?  f  '  step, 

5*  CMteV  Itisiory  of^nghffi^. 

6t^  %€  vrtiB  (Jirfckly  diesimus  of  retrsictin  j  it ;  and»  etfin  where  Jie 
hid  rtof  deviated  into  a  hasty  imprudence,  but  h^d  res^^hred  on  a 
sdHem'e  m  whicK  spint  was  requi^iite,  he  had  not  a  cfufficient  degree 
of  firmness  and  vJjgor  to  prevent  him  from  yielding  to  the  pertinacity 
of  faction  or  the  clamon  of  the  multitude.  He  was  also  destitute  oF 
th«  iti^iifbMing  adldresis  and  those  eortciliaifory  manrters  v^^ich  might 
hrfvfe  been  dseluHy  employed  in  sootbinjf  the  rSge  of  party,  and  in 
aiding  tlW'rfrdor  of  popular  afcai* 

Having  dweh  so  long  on  the  earlier  periods  of  this  history, 
tke  finrils  of  our  Review  necessariiy  compel  us  to  be  the 
less  eSrcamstandal  in  puf  accoant  of  the  remaining  tohiaieSf 
tlhki^  theff  tttt  replete  wieh  great  and  important  events.— 'We 
mnist  past  over  Use  chrcumstances  vhieh  led  td  the  abdicaftion 
of  James,  and  to  the  revolution  irt  oar  government  onder 
Wiftiam  in.  as  well  as  the  numerous  transaction^  of  his^reign^ 
and  the  still  more  brilliant  occurrences  which  marked  that  of 
his  successor.r  We  cannot,  however,  omit  to  observe  that  the 
irecoont  of  die  Union  wkh  ScotlaiKl  is  fully,  correctly,  wtA 
iatisfoctorily  stated ;  and  that  a  minute  detail  ol  the  disgrace- 
fol  treaty  of  Utrecht  is  also  given.  Lcs^ving  rhe  remaymnf 
e^ewts  of  this  reign,  aftd  the  narrative  be^ifOwed  on  the  ttr6 
sntfteeding  mort3frchs>  we  shall  close  onr  r€maf1c^  awd  extrattf 
with  an  account  of  the  transactions  of  the  present  feign  ;  be- 
cause, in  the  whole  annals  of  our  country,  no  period  is  equally 
remarkable  for  great  and  uncommon  events,  and  none  hts  met 
witb  fewer  impartial  historians. 

Dr.  Cdote  has^.aUoited  two  books  to  the  con^eration  of  the 
riigft  of  his  present  majesty.  In  the  firM,  he  discusses  the 
subject  h6t9i  fire  death  o{  George  II.  to  the  rupture  between 
Citt2it  Brifarrt  iti\A  the  Amcrrc^n  colonies. 

No  Jov^reigrt  ever  mounted  a  throne  with  more  brilliant  pr<J* 
sjMct^  (hart  tnt  reigning  prince  ;  his  subjects  witnessed  his  ac- 
cession with  feelings  of  unmixed  joy  ;  and  they  flattered  them- 
selves that,  being  a  native  of  this  country,  he  would  not  be  influ- 
eidcfd  by  Germanic  attachments,  which  had  borne  too  much 
6iray  over  the  minds  of  his  immediate  predtrctrssors.  Their 
foreign  p  ejvdrees  had  created  disgust;  and  the  people  reasonably 
etfpected  an  alrefafton  of  measufcs,  under  a  pifnce  who  bad 
.  tacfft  bofn  antf  edncated  in  Engbm!. 

"Ihef  dcrermifrattrtn  of  prosecuting  the  war,  commenced  at 
the  Cl6se  of  the  late  reign,  till  an  honourable  and  secure  peace 
could  1^  obtained  for  Creat  Britain  and  her  allies,  wns  satisfac- 
tory to  the  majority  of  the  nation  ^  and  the  brilfiant  successes 
^hioh  crowned  thtir  etertioii«,  in  <dmosr  every  corner  of  the 
S^e,  co»M  not  fail  of  remkring  rhe  kiog  highly  popular.-** 
Qm  rhp^otber  bMd^  A^  retta^i^hiiQitnt  pf  iMtiy  of  the  advatv*- 


CooteV  Histary  •/  Enghnd.  57 

tap*  which  our  arms  had  secured  to  us,  by  the  treaty  of  Parity 
produced  no  small  dissatisfaction.  It  was  remarked  that  the 
affs  of  the  French  were  constantly  attended  with  saccesB,  and 
tBat  we  generally  lost  by  negociution  what  wc  obtained  by 
arms. — The  disgrac^^ml  circumstances  belonging  to  the  treaties 
of  Utrecht  and  Paris  originated  in  the  selfish  condXict  of-  the 
ministers  by  whom  they  were  concluded. — Harley,  Bolingbroke^ 
and  their  Tory  friends,  were  influenced,  in  the  peace  which  they 
accelerated,  by  the  desire  of  continuing  in  office  j  and  they  sur- 
rendered the  interests  of  their  country  to  the  gratification  ot 
their  personal  ambition.  There  is  also  strong  reason  for  belier- 
ing  tUC  the  wish  of  continuing  their  sway  in  the  administration 
indocW  the  Earl  of  Bute,  and  his  party,  to  submit  to  inade* 
quate  and  dishonourable  terms. — On  the  subject  of  thepeacc^ 
Dr.  Coote  thus  expresses  himself : 

*  To  secure  a  parliamentary  approbation  of  the  treaty,  the  mini- 
iterial  arts  of  corruption  were  txercised  with  extraordinary  eager. 
ntsvunder  the  managemenC  of  Fox ;  and  the  minister  looked  forward 
with  hope,  not  however  free  from  anxiety,  to  the  sanction  of  the  Ic- 
gidatwre  for  an  inadequate  peacie.  This  approbation,  perhaps,  he 
Wttuld  not  have  obtained,  if  Pitt,  the  duke  of  Newcastle,  and  other 
persons  who  had  resigned,  or  had  been  dismissed  for  a  want  of  servi- 
lity, had  been  firmly  united  again«t  the  court.  The  strength  of  such 
a  phalanx,  beine  supported  against  the  power  of  the  favorite  by  the 
wice  of  the  people,  might  have  frustrated  the  views  of  the  court,  and 
branded  the  treaty  with  the  ignominy  of  reprobation. 

*  After  the  signature  of  the  preliminaries,  the  parUament  assembled. 
The  kiag's  speech  stated,  that  his  desire  of  relieving  his  people  from 
the  cahmfiities  and  burthens  of  a  complicated  war,  and  of  promoting 
their  commercial  and  general  prosperity,  had  irresistibly  urged  him  to 
c!i^dite  a  pacification  ;  that,  by  the  articles  which  had  been  adjusted^ 
ao  nniBense  territory  was  added  to  the  British  empire,  and  a  good 
fiMMdatioo  was  laid  for  the  extension  of  conunerce ;  that  proper  at« 
tension  had  been  paid  to  the  removal  of  all  grounds  of  future  dispute; 
and  tKat  the  interests  of  the  allies  of  this  nation  had  not  been  neglect- 
ed. Ic  was  also  intimated  in  this  liarangue,  that  it  would  be  advise- 
able  to  proceed  without  delay  to  tlu:  setMement  of  the  new  acquisi* 
tKNis ;  and  a  hope  was  expressed,  that  such  measures  would  be  adopt- 
ed,  as  should  most  effectually  tend  to  the  security  of  those  countries^ 
aod  to  tlic  improvement  of  commerce  and  navigation.  The  subjects 
by  whose  valor  those  conquests  had  been  achieved,  were  recommended 
to  the  gfatitude  of  parliament ;  and  internal  union  was  mentioned  atf 
a  good  preparative  to  the  exercise  of  that  ceeonomy  wiiich,  after  a 
aoies  of  heavy  expences,  became  particularly  necessary. 

*  The  usual  addresses  were  soon  follo^ved  by  debates  on  the  preli- 
aWKirxes.  In  the  upper  house,  the  terms  of  peace  were  condemned 
hf  the  dukes  of  Newcastle  and  Giai'ton,  «arl  Temple,  and  other 
peen,  as  inadcqfaate  to  the  reasonal)le  ex|](ectations  of  the  public^  and 
l»  KayiMrounMc  xm  \)at  enemy  :  but  the  earb  of  Hali&a  and  Mor« 

$  ton, 


58  CootcV  History  of  England. 

ton,  the  lord  chancellor  Henley,  and  lord  Mansfield,  defended  them 
as  honorable  and  advantageous  ;  and  the  earl  of  Bute  highly  applaud- 
'  cd  himself  for  hts  concern  in  such  a  negociation.  An  address  was 
▼otcd  (without  a  4ivision),  declaring  the  satisfaction  of  the  peers  "  at 
the  foundation  laid  by  these  articles  for  a  treaty  of  peace,  which 
would  greatly  redound  to  his  majesty's  honor,  and  the  real  benefit  of 
liis  kingdoms.*' 

*  In  the  house  of  commons,  Charles  Townshcnd  was  one  of  the 
speakers  in  favor  of  the  peace  ;  but  he  rather  contended  for  the  nc- 
cessity  of  putting  an  end  to  the  war  in  the  pitrsent  state  of  the  nation, 
than  for  the  adequacy  of  the  preliminaries  to  the  success  of  the  British 
arms.  The  principal  advocate  for  the  inglorious  convention  was  Fox, 
who  nuuntained,  that,  as  the  encroachments  of  the  French  on  our 
colonies  had  occasioned  the  war,  the  security  of  those  scttlemHrts  na- 
turally formed  the  chief  object  of  the  negotiations  for  peace  ;  that 
the  extent  of  American  dominion  now  ceded  to  Great  Britain  would 
establish  the  power  of  this  kingdom  beyond  the  reach  of  Galh'c  com- 
petition ;  that  the  advantage  thus  gained  was  in  itself  an  indemnifica- 
tion for  the  charges  of  the  war ;  that,  as  we  had  succeeded  in  this 
essential  point,  it  was  reasonable  to  relax  in  other  particulars  ;  that 
the  restitutions  which  had  been  stipulated  were  not  only  calculated 
for  preventing  a  continuance  of  the  war,  but  for  procuring  to  our 
allies  more  favorable  terms  than  they  would  otherwise  have  obtained; 
that  the  dread  of  oppressing  the  people  with  new  burthens  forcibly 
suggested  the  expediency  of  an  immediate  peace  ;  and  that  a  treaty 
much  less  advantageous  than  that  which  was  now  under  parlia- 
mentary consideration,  would  be  preferable  to  the  danger  of  prolong- 
ed hostilities. 

**The  most  distinginshed  opponent  of  Fox,  on  this  occasion,  was 
Pitt,  who,  though  tortured  with  the  gout,  harangued  the  house  for 
several  hours  in  censure  of  the  recent  stipulations,  and  in  vindication 
cf  the  superiority  of  the  terms  on  which  he  had  insisted,  considered 
with  regard  to  the  state  of  affairs  at  the  time  of  his  negotiation.  He 
affirmed,  that,  by  making  too  many  concessions  to  the  French  in 
the  case  of  the  American  fisheries,  and  by  restoring  too  many  of  the 
islands  in  the  West  Indies,  we  enabled  them  to  recover  from  their 
losses,  and  to  excite  renewed  jealousy  as  a  maritime  and  commercial 
power ;  that  the  Senegal  settlement  would  be  insecure  without  the 
possession  of  Gorec  ;  and  that  our  restitutions  to  the  French  in  the 
East  Indies  were  inbtanccs  of  profuse  generosity,  or  of  inconsiderate 
weakness,  as  "  we  retained  nothing,  though  we  had  conquered  every 
thing.**  He  observed,  that  for  Minorca,  which  was  the  only  con- 
quest that  France  had  to  restore,  we  relinquished  our  acquisitions  in 
the  East  and  West  Indies,  and  in  Africa  ;  whereas  Belle-Isle  alone 
ought  to  be  deemed  an  equivalent  for  that  island.  He  mentioned 
Florida  as  a  very  inadequate  return  for  the  Havanna.  Adverting  to 
the  German  war,  he  intimated  his  opinion,  that,  by  furnishing  em- 
ployment for  the  French  in  that  scene  of  operations,  we  had  been 
enabled  to  succeed  in  our  Trans-Atlantic  enterprises  :  "  America  (he 
said)  had  been  conquered  in  Germany."  He  condemned  the  con- 
duct of  the  court  towards  the  king  of  rrus;ua,  as  base  and  treacher- 
ous ; 

CooteV  History  of  England.  59 

ons ;  and,  after  e  variety  of  remarks,  he  protested  against  the  peace 
ms  insecure,  because  it  restored  our  enemies  to  their  former  J)ower, 
and  as  inadequate,  because  the  territories  which  we  retained  out  of 
our  numerous  conquests  were  greatly  disproportionate  to  those  which 
we  furrendered.  Notwithstanding  these  strong  objections,  the  house^ 
by  a  majority  of  254,  sanctioned  an  address  which  represented  the 
prdinifTiaries  as  pregnant  with  honor  and  advantage,  and  entitled  to 
the  hearty  applause  of  the  public. 

•  The  report  of  this  address  from  the  committee  rekindled  the  de- 
bate ;  and  the  speech  of  Legge  was  not  unnoticed.  He  observed^ 
that  the  negotiators  had  not  even  attempted  to  dissolve  the  dangerous 
union  of  the  house  of  Bourbon  ;  that  the  fishery  granted  to  the 
French  would  piove  to  them  a  mine  of  wealth  ;  that  the  restitution 
of  the  settlements  in  the  West  Indies  to  them  and  the  Spaniards, 
Mould  quickly  re-establish  the  commerce  of  both,  and  provide  re- 
sources for  a  new  war ;  and  that,  before  the  British  acquisitions  could 
Be  rendered  valuable,  this  nauon  would  be  subjected  to  the  risque 
and  burthen  of  a  new  course  of  hostilities,  amidst  the  pressure  of  an 
enormous  debt.  After  other  speeches,  the  address  was  confirmed 
by  a  renewed  division,  in  which  the  court  had  a  plurality  of  164 

•This  signal  triumph  of  the  court  may  astonish  the  reader,  when  he- 
considers  tliat  the  peace  was  unpopular  and  dissatisfactory.  '  It  may, 
therefore  be  proper  to  intimate,  that  the  lavish  disbursements  from 
the  treasury,  the  multiplication  of  places  in  the  household  and  of  other 
employments,  and  the  allurements  of  liberal  promises,  had  a  great 
effect  m  softening  the  stubbornness  of  the  members  of  the  senate ;  that 
Pitt  did  not  exert  himself  in  forming  a  party  against  the  peace  ;  that 
the  early  declarations  of  many  persons  of  distinction,  alleging  the  ne- 
cessity of  a  peace,  relaxed  the  firmness  with  which  they  and  their 
friends  would  otherwise  have  opposed  the  obnoxious  articles  now  ad- 
justed ;  that  the  provincial  gentry  were  desirous  of  an  alleviation  of 
their  burthens;  and  that  many  individuals  were  induced  to  acquiesce 
la  the  paciiicatton  by  the  hope  of  regaining  the  royal  favor,  which^ 
by  opposing  the  favoHte  measure  of  the  court,  they  might  have  irre- 
coverably forfeited.  These  were  the  causes  of  the  extraordinary  ma- 
jority of  votes  by  which  the  preliminaries  were  approved.* 

Oar  historian  censures  the  whole  of  Lord  Bute's  conduct  In 
administration,  and  appears  to  impute  to  his  public  influence 
at  onetime,  and  to  his  /^rr^/ influence  afterward,  many  of  the 
unsuccessful  transactions  of  this  reign.  Though  we  by  ro 
means  admire  this  minister's  character,  nor  approve  his  con- 
duct|  we  still  think  that  the  picture  here  drawn  of  him  is  over- 

•  No  minister,*  Dr.  C.  observes,  *  ever  underwent  a  greater  scve- 
.  rity  of  censure  and  sarcasm  than  this  nobleman.     That  tnese  attacks, 

ii  many  respects,  partook  of  abuse  and  calumny,  every  person  of 

Oiodcration  will  be  disposed  to  allow ;  and  it  must,  at  the  same  time^ 

be  admitted,  that  the  portraits  drawn  of  him  by  his  advocates  ex- 

'  ceedcd 


6a  CootcV  History  of  England* 

eeecled  the  bounds  of  truth  *.  His  abiUties  were  not  of  that  nature 
which  uould  have  qualified  him  for  the  chief  direction  of  the  af&irt 
of  a  nation.  His  mind  was  more  adapted  to  petty>  trivial,  and  nar- 
row considerations,  than  to  the  comprehension  of  great  objects.  Hit 
principles  were  adverse  to  the  true  spirit  of  the  constitution,  and  to 
the  maxims  of  genuine  liberty^  He  was  haughty,  yet  mean  ;  obsti- 
aate,  yet  timid  ;  fond  of  profession,  yet  faithless  and  ungenerous. 
His  manners  were  those  of  a  pedant,  raihcr  than  those  of  a  gentle • 
man.  He  aflfected  a  taste  for  science  and  a  love  of  inrtu  ;  but  did 
not  possess  any  great  portion  of  learning  or  knowledge  :  he  was^. 
however,  aa  encouragtr  of  those  attainments  in  others.' 

Oh  tite  expulsion  of  Mr.  Wilkes  from  tlic  H-Quse  of  Com* 
mons,  on  the  question  of  general  Warrants,  on  the  application 
ibr  a  repeal  of  the  test  and  corporation  acts,  and  on  those  ques- 
tions and  measures  which  eventually  separated  the  colonies 
from  Great  Britain,  Dr.  Coote  has  uniformly  espoused  the 
cause  o»^  liberty,  and  has  maintained  liberal  sentiments  with 
moderaiiion  and  good  sense.  On  the  most  important  of  these 
subrjects,.  we  find  the  following  remarks : 

•  The  expeucc  of  protecting  the  American  colonies  being  considered 
by  the  ministry  as  burthensome  to  Great  Britain,  it  was  resolved, 
tnat  the  inhabitants  of  those  flourishing  settlements  should  be  com-^ 
pclled,  by  the  authority  of  parliament,  to  contribute  more  coiKider- 
able  supplies  to  the  relief  of  the  parent  state,  than  had  yet  b«M 
exacted  from  them.  The  only  duties  to  which  they  bsBd  been  hi- 
therto subjected  related  to  impoits  and  export*^:  but  it  was  now  pro- 
posedy  that  internal  taxes  should  be  kvtcd  upon  them,  at  tlK'  dSscre- 
tton  of  tfie  British  legislature.  This  scheme  has  been  generally  altri* 
boted  to  Grenville ;  but  he  probably  received  instructions  on  tlie  sub-- 
ject  from  the  earl  of  Bute,  and,  as  a  iinancier,  completed  %  plaa  which 
the  fevoritc  had  previously  concerted  wicli  those  courtiers  who,  while 
dtey  were  styled  the  friends  of  the  king,  did  not  always  act  as  the 
ftriendb  of  the  peopk,  though  the  true  interests  of  both  arc  undivided. 
When  the  commons,  in  the  hfit  session,  voted  the  exaction  of  new 
commercial  duties  from  the  eobnssts^  it  wa»  intim^ed,  in  a  distinct 
resolution,  that  it  mi^ht  be  proper  to  subject  them  to  stamp^utios. 
Thift  scheme  of  taxation  was  so  far  from  being  approved,  Uiat  loud 
damort  immediately-  arose  ;  and  the  discontent  which  was  produced 
by  the  endeavours  of  the  ministry  (oppressively  exerted)  for  the  pre- 
TentioQ  of  illicit  trade,  was  highly  inflamed  by  the  prospect  of  sererr 
burthens,  imposed  by  legislators  who  were  not  constitutionally  justi- 
fied in  the  exercise  of  such  authority. 

*— — .         " ■■ " —         -■ 1       ■    I I  ■ .  —-  ■■  ^    ■  ■  I  ■■ 

•  *  Of  this  class  is  Dr.  Smollett's  panegyric.  *'  He  was  (says 
that  writer)  a  nobleman  of  such  probity  as  no  temptation  could 
warp  ;.  of  such  spirit  as  no  adversity  could  humble ;  severely  just  \Xk 
aU  his  transactions  ;  learned,  libera),  courteous,  and  candid ;  an  en- 
thusiast in  patriotism  ;  a  noble  example  of  public,  an  amiable  pattenr 
of  domestic  virtue."  It  may,  be  *)bserved,  that  tl«  Doctor  had 
ftmghu  rcsuchs  for  tlms  flattering  his  countryman.' 

*  The 

CooteV  History  ofEttgland*  (}f 

•  The  provincials,  thus  irritated,  anatiously  waited  the  result  of 
the  alarming  intimation  of  the  commons.  It  was  apprehended  br 
Bsaby,  that  they  would  not  submit  to  the  new  scheme  ;  but  this  con- 
■ideratfon  did  not  deter  the  court  from  persisting  in  it.  The  king, 
when  be  had  re^assembled  the  parliament,  did  not  make  express  mea* 
tioh  of  the  affair,  but  alluded  to  it,  by  signifying  his  reliance  on  the 
wisdom  and  lirmness  of  the  two  houses,  in  the  promotion  of  a  due 
•*  respect  to  the  legislative  authority  of  this  kingdom,"  and  in  Uft^ 
establishment  of  such  regulations  as  might  ^'  best  connect  and 
strengthen  every  part  of  his  dominions.'' — 

'  A  :Qeries  of  resolutions,  imposing  a  variety  of  stamp-duties  on  the 
king^a  American  subjects,  were  at  length  proposed  to  the  house  by 
GreoviUe.  The  colonial  petitions  against  the  scheme,  and  the  argu« 
Bieut^  of  the  senators  by  whom  it  was  reprobated,  were  entirely  &. 
regarded ;  and  the  bill  which  contained  the  resolutions  became  a  laar« 

*  In  support  of  this  bill,  Grenville  argued,  that  the  colonists  were 
as  completely  subject  to  the  jurisdiction  of  the  parliament,  as  were 
the  lnhabita!it8  of  Great  Britain  ;  that  their  chartered  rights  did  not 
everopft  them  from  that  authority  ;  that  the  very  nature  of  their  siut- 
ation  implied  a  subjection  to  the  control  of  the  grand  legislative  body 
of  the  empire  ;  that  nothing  could  be  more  reasonable  tlian  the  de« 
auad  of  contributions  from  the  provincials  for  the  exoneration  of  the 
mother-country  from  the  exnence  attendant  on  the  protrction  of  her 
children ;  that  the  sums  which  would  thus  be  raised  would  be  solel^f 
applied  to  the  defence  and  security  of  the  provinces  ;  and  that  the 
new  taxes  were  in  themselves  light  and  equitable.  Charles  Towns* 
hcnd  was  also  an  advocate  for  the  hill  ;  and  he  condemned  the  ingta- 
titude  of  the  colonists,  in  refusing  to  make  returns  of  submission  and 
duty  ficir  the  fostering  care  and  generous  indulgence  of  Great  Bntaioy 
and  in  opposiag  the  just  claims  of  the  legislature,  the  authority  of 
which,  over  every  part  of  the  empire,  could  not  fairly  bo  controverted. 
Licuttnant^neral £on\\ray  (who  had  been  deprived  of  a  post  in  the 
Jioinsebold,  and  of  the  command  of  a  regiment,  for  voting  against  the 
court  in  the  question  of  general  warrants,)  strongly  denied  the  right 
of  the  parliament  to  tax  the  Americans.  They  were  entitled,  ho 
taTd,  to  all  the  privileges  of  Britons ;  one  of  which  involved  an  es- 
cmptipn  from  all  taxes,  except  such  as  should  be  decreed  by  their 
leprescntatrves.  No  impost,  therefore,  could  constitutionally  be  le- 
vied in  the  colonies  without  the  sanction  of  the  assemblies,  except 
^£ot  ^e  -purposes  of  commercial  regulation.  Other  epeahers,  wl^ 
thqr  adyiittcd  the  right,  disputed  the  expediency  of*the  measure,  and 
'«c«omBended  an  acquiescence  in  such  grants  as  the  provincials,  at 
the  desire  of  the  crown,  might  be  disposed  to  make.  By  some  .t)£ 
the  members,  ihe  taxes  in  question  were  affirmed  to  be  unreasonable 
and  oppressive,  without  regard  to  the  authority  which  imposed  them  ; 
and  Colonel  Barre  ventured  to  predict,  that  the  provincials,  who  were 
known  to  be  jealous  of  their  liberties,  would  firmly  and  even  inflcxifaiy 
oppose  die  Tiews  of  the  court. 

^      '  That  this  bill  was  Junconstitational,  and  consequently  unjustifiable, 

4lta  opinion  which  we  are  ready  to  adopt.     The  colonists,  with  an 

cwption  of  the  ^ase  of  commercial  dutics|  might  claim  a  right  of 



62  CootcV  History  of  England. 

Wngr  solely  subject  to  the  pecuniary  demands  of  their  assemblies,  ©n 
the  principle  of  the  close  connection  between  taxation  and  represent- 
ation ;  and  the  denial  of  such  a  right  was  an  instance  of  tyranny  from 
which  a  British  parliament  might  have  been  expected  to  refrain.  The 
provincials  might  justly  have  alleged,  that  if  even  the  enjoyment  of 
parliamentary  representation  did  not  shield  the  community  from  a 
course  of  wanton  pillage,  they  could  have  had  no  security  against  the 
exercise  of  the  most  flagrant  rapacity  and  oppression,  by  senators  who 
would  themselves  be  free  from  the  burthens  which  they  would  im- 

The  concluding  book  of  this  history  reaches  from  the  rupture 
between  Great  Britain  and  the  colonies,  to  the  peace  of  1783  ; 
and  throughout  the  whole  of  it,  the  author  shews  a  marked 
disapprobation  of  the  measures  and  counsels  in  which  the  war 
originated  and  was  conducted  : — but  his  account  of  this  unfor« 
tuiiate  difference  between  the  mother-country  and  her  pror 
vinces  is  not  so  circumstantial^  nor  so  detailed,  as  the  import^ 
anqe  of  the  subject  demanded,  and  the  variety  of  materials  ^d-? 

The  objection  of  being  too  concise  is  also  applicable  to  the 
account  of  the  riots  in  I^ndon  in  1780 ;  which  were  as  dis* 
graceful  to  the  police  of  the  city,  as  they  were  destructive  to 
the  lives  and  properties  of  numerous  individuals. — The  author'^ 
•  short  statement  of  so  remarkable  an  occurrence  is  inadequate 
to  the  purposes  of  information,  and  seems  to  proceed  on  the 
idea  of  the  reader's  previous  acquaintance  with  the  subject. 

The  topic  of  the  American  war,  and,  indeed  the  narrative 
part  of  the  history,  are  concluded  by  very  candid  observations 
on  the  peace  of  1783. 

A  short  view  of  ecclesiastical  affairs,  a  catalogue  (for  it 
scarcely  amounts  to  more)  of  eminent  literary  characters  who 
have  distinguished  the  different  periods  of  our  history,  and  a 
concise  account  of  the  progress  of  the  arts^  will  also  be  found 
in  these  volumes. 

After  the  ample  extracts  which  we  have  made,  and  the  ob- 
servations which  we  have  ventured  to  suggest  on  different  por- 
tions of  the'history,  it  is  scarcely  necessary  to  charaaerise  the 
general  merits  of  the  work.  We  cannot,  however,  conclude 
the  article  without  declaring  tliat,  in  our  opinion.  Dr.  Coote 
deserves  high  rank  among  oiir  historians  for  correctness  and 
impartiality ;  that  his  information  is  accurate  ;  that  his  seuti* 
ments  are  liberal  and  moderate  ;  and  th^t  his  style  is  in  general 
easy,  perspicuous,  and  occasionally  elegant. 

Forty-five  engravings,  chiefly  from  the  hand  of  H^athj  at)d 
five  maps,  decorate  and  illustrate  these  volumes.  ^  ^ 



i  63  ) 

Art.  VIII.  Ji  Voyage  round  tht  IVorH  performed  in  ike  Tecwi 
j^g^ — 1788,  hy-  the  Boussole  and  Astrolabe,  under  the  Com- 
mand of  J.  F.  G.  dc  la  Pcrousc  :  published  by  Order  of  the  Ni* 
tional  Assembly,  under  the  Superintendence  of  L.  A.  Milet* 
Mureau,  Brigadier- General  in  the  Corps  of  Engineers,  &c.  &c« 
Translated  from  the  French.  4to.  2  Vols.  pp.  600  in  each. 
With  a  folio  Atlas  of  Plates  and  Charts*  5I.  5s.  Boards.  Ro- 
binsons, &c.     1799* 

N  the  prefiace  to  the  first  English  edition  of  this  work,  the 

public  were  apprised  that  other  translations  were  in  prepa- 
ration ;  and  indeed  it  was  reasonably  to  be  expected,  that  the 
just  celebrity  of  this  enterprising  but  unfortunate  navigator 
should  encourage  such  competition.  As  we  have  already 
given  an  account  of  the  voyage,  and  of  the  former  translation^ 
in  our  Appendix  to  vol.  xxvi.  p.  517.  and  in  vol.  xxvii. 
p.  292  and  399,  there  remains  little  room  for  remark  ;  except 
to  notice  die  particular  merits  of  the  version -now  offered  to  th^ 

In  each,  it  has  been  endeavoured  to  render  the  copy  faith« 
ful ;  and  (except  some  of  the  plates,  which  were  left  out  in 
the  8vo  edition  already  noticed)  to  omit  nothing  which  the 
original  contained. 

The  present  translation  is  on  a  more  enlarged  scale,  has  oc- 
cupied more  time,  and  has  been  executed  at  greater  expcnce, 
than  the  former.  It  is  handsomely  printed  on  royal  quarto ;  and 
the  separate  volume  of  plates  contains  the  whole  of  the  charts 
and  drawings  that  were  given  in  the  Paris  edition.  The 
charts  are  engraved  by  Neele,  and  the  plates  chiefly  by  Heath. 

We  shall  avail  ourselves  of  this  opportunity,  co  give  our 
readers  the  character  of  M.  de  la  Perouse,  as  drawn  by  the 
French  editor ;  which  we  did  not  quote  in  our  former  account, 
and  now  copy  from  the  volumes  before  us,  as  an  interesting 
addition  to  preceding  extracts,  and  a  specimen  of  the  present 
translator's  abilities : 

•  Hitherto  I  have  considered  La  Pdrouse  only  in  his  military  and 
naval  capacity  ;  but  he  deserves  equally  to  be  known  for  his  personal 

*  qualities :  for  he  was  not  less  fitted  to  gain  the  fricndi-hip  or  respect 
of  men  of  all  countries,  than  to  foresee  and  overcome  every  obstaele 
iHiich  it  is  within  the  power  of  human  wisdom  to  surmount. 

•  With  the  vivacity  common  to  the  people  of  the  South,  he  united 
a  pleasing  wit,  and  an  evenness  of  temper.  The  gentleness  of  his  dis- 
position, and  his  agreeable  gaietv,  rendered  his  company  always  de- 
sired with  avidity :  on  the  other  hand,  his  judgment  having  been  nm« 
tu^bdby  long  experience,  he  joined  to  singular  prudence  that  firmness 
of  character,  which  is  the  lot  of  a  strong  mind,  and  which,  increased 
bj  the  laborious  life  of  a  mariner,  rendered  him  capable  of  attempt- 
hig  the  greatest  entcrprizts,  and  conducting  them  to  success. 

*  From 

^4  I*^  PcrouscV  Fay^  round  the  WcrlJ. 

*  .Frprfthc  combination  of  these  different  qualities,  the  reader,  ob- 
serving his  invincible  patience  under  toils  enjoined  i>y  circumstancfts, 
"the  rigorous  couiwefe  dictated  by  his  foresight,  the  precautionary 
steps  he  took  with  difitrent  people,  wfU  be  little  astonished  at  the 
beneficent  and  ten\perate  yet  circumspect  conduct  of  La  Pcrouse  to« 
wards  them,  at  the  confidence  he  reposed,  and  the  deference  -he  some- 
trmes  paid  to  his  officers,  and  at  the  paternal  care  he  exhibited  towards 
\m  crews.  Nothing  tlcat  could  concern  them,  either  io  preventing 
their  hardships,  or  promoting  their  welfare,  escaped  his  watchfulness 
and  care.  UnwIHing  to  convert  a  scientific  enterprize  into  a  meri 
caotile  speculation,  and  leaving  the  profit  of  all  the  articles  of  trade  to 
the  crew  alone,  he  reserved  for  himself  the  satisfaction  of  having  been 
useful  to  his  country  and  to  science.  Ably  seconded  in  his  cares  fcnr 
the  preservation  of  their  health,  no  navigator  })as  made  so  long  % 
•oyage,  accomplished  such  an  extensive  course,  and  been  exposed  to 
snich  incessant  change  of  climate,  with  such  healthy  crews ;  since,  qp 
Aeir  arrival  at  New  Holland,  after  a  voyage  of  thirty  months  cbm- 
l^ion,  in  which  they  had  sailed  more  than  sixteen  thousand  kaguc^» 
•they  were  in  as  good  health  as  on  their  departure  from  Brest. 

*  Master  of  himself,  and  never  suffering  himself  to"be  carried  awar 
by  tlK  first  impression,  he  was  capable  of  practising,  particularly  in  this 
expedition,  the  precepts  of  a  sound  and  humane  philosophy.  'Were 
7  more  desirous  of  composing  his  eulogy,  necessarily  kolated  and  in- 
complete, than  of  allowing  the  reader  tne  pleasure  of  forming  his  own 

judgment  of  him  from  facts,  with  all  their  concomitant  circumstaaoosy 
and  from  the  whole  of  what  he  has  written,  I  should  quote  a  number 
of  passages  in  his  journal,  the  character  and  turn  of  which,  scrupti* 
iously  preserved  by  mc,  ^itiifully  depict  the  man  :  I  should  exhibit 
Jiim  particularly  careful  to  follow  that  article  of  his  instructions,  deeply 
imprinted  on  his  heart,  by  which  he  was  enjoined  to  avoid  spilling 
a  drop  of  blood ;  adliering  to  it  constantly  during  a  long  voyage, 
with  a  success  owing  to  his  principles  ;  and  when,  in  consequence  of 
an  attack  from  a  barbarous  horde  of  savages,  he  had  lost  his  second 
in  command,  a  naturalist,  and  ten  men  of  the  two  crews,  notwith- 
standing the  powerful  means  of-vengeance  in  his  hands,  and  so  man^ 
«xcusobW  motives  for  employing  them,  restraining  the  rage  of  h«i 
fKopIc,  and  fearing  to  destroy  a  single  innocent  victim  among  thou* 
sands  of  the  guilty. 

*  Not  less  modest  and  equitable  than  he  was  enlightened,  it  ,wiU 
•be  seen  with  what  respect  Lc  mentions  the  immortal  Cook,  and  how 
Jbe  endeavoured  to  do  jii&tice  to  those  great  men  who  had  pursued 
.the  same  career. 

*  Equally  just  towards  all.  La  Perouse,  in  his  journal  and  in  hia 
Jetters,  equitably  dispenses  the  praise  to  which  his  companions  had  a 
daim.  Nor  is  he  less  mindful  of  those  strangers  who  received  him 
with  friendship,  and  afiordt-d  him  assistance,  m  different  parts  of  the 
\U)rld.  If  government,  of  wliich  there  can  be  no  doubt,  wish  to  fulfil 
the  intentions  of  \a  Pcrouse9  it  owes  to  these  a  testimonial  of  the 
public  gratitude. 

*  Justly  esteemed  by  those  English  Mariners  who  had  opportunitift 
of  knowiQj^  him,  they  have  UQCf^uivocallv  t^tified  their  respect  foe 
Ua  ia  thar  writings.* 

ArchardV  Pki/oscphh  Discourse  on  Providence^  6; 

The  most  obvious  difference  between  the  two  editions  o£ 
tills  voyage  is  to  be  found  in  their  size  and  price.  The  vo-» 
tames  berore  us  form  the  handsomer  library-book  for  the  man  of 
fortune ;  and  the  oct;ivo  translation  will  content  the  man  ofj 
moderate  income  and  moderate  desires. 

AiT.  IX.  j1  Philosophic  Discourse  on  Providence  ;  addressed'  to  the 
Modern  Philosophers  of  Great  Britain.  By  the  Rev.  Mr.  Archard, 
Author  of  the  Essay  on  the  French  Nobility y  &c.  8vo.  li* 
Johnson.     1798. 


'  HE  doctrine  of  a  moral  Providence,  says  this  author,  '  is 
the  dicute  of  revelation,  and  not  the  result  of  rational  in» 
vestfgation.  That  faculty,  which  enables  man  to  trace  out  the 
Almighty  by  thinking,  is  insufficient  to  the  discovery  of  x 
moral  Governor  of  thic  world.  This  important  dogma  is  the 
gift  of  heaven.'  Yet  he  maintains,  with  an  apparent  contradic* 
tion,  that  the  anttent  stoics  inculcated  a  system  so  analogous, 
in  many  respects,  to  the  Christian  scheme  of  Providence,  that 
it  would  be  difficult  for  the  most  acute  reasoner  to  discover 
any  essential  difference  between  them. 

'  Both  admit  (he  says)  the  existence  of  an  infinite  series  of  events 
predettincd  from  all  eternity :  both  inculcate  a  cliecrfid  and  unqua*  . 
lified  suhmisiiion  to  the  various  dispensations  of  heaven.  In  these 
their  great  ontlines,  the  two  theories  agree  ;  in  other  respects  they 
differ.  What  is  speculation  only  in  the  one,  is  certainty  in  the  other* 
In  stoicism  we  have  only  the  hypothetical,  though  sublime,  conclusions 
of  philosophy ;  iti  Christianity  we  have  the  infiulible  dictates  of  revela- 
tiofi.  In  the  one,  obedience  is  recommended  from  a  sense  of  fro* 
frieiyi  in  the  other  it  is  enforced  from  the  prospect  of  future  rewards* 
and  punishraetits.  In  a  word,  the  two  theones  appear  similar  in  their 
leading  principles — dissimilar  in  their  sanctions.' 

Whence,  it  may  be  naturally  inquired,  could  this  system 
originate  ?  If  reason  be  inadequate  to  the  discovery  of  a  moral^ 
Provideucct  how  could  so  sublime  a  theory  as  the  system  of 
stoicism  be  formed  i  The  author  imagines  that  it  was  <  first 
soggtfted  by  the  harmony  that  prevails  in  the  natural  nvorld-^ 
a«  all,  even  the  smallest,  of  the  co-existent  parts  of  the  universe^ 
conspire  to  form  one  great  harmonious  whole.  iS^,  says 
Antoninus,  all,  even  apparently  the  most  insignificant,  of  the' 
luteesstve  events  which  follow  one  another,  make  parts,  and 
necessary  parts,  of  that  great  chain  of  causes  and  effects  which 
hjd  no  beginning,  and  which  will  have  no  end*'  Excellent  as 
this  system  seems  to  have  been,  however,  it  was'nothing  else^ 
mj%  die  author/  <  than  a  sublime  and  ingenious  fiction.' 

\     •    \  With  regard  to  moral  suft>limity,  the  two  systems,  that  of  Christ* 

\     wmetf  and  that  of  Stoicisni,  are  nearly  co-ordinate.     Biit  the  Christ- 

Rev.  May,  1799.  F  ian 

66  hx^zxiiS  Philosophic. Discdurse  on  J^foviJkncif 

Ian  has  9  superior  claipi  to  our  approbation ,  on  account  of  its  ^JU!« 
rior  sanctions.     On  this  ground  rests  its  superiority  over  all  human 
•ystems ;  and  on  this  ground,  morally  and  politically  speaking,  it  re- 
commends itself  to  youf  my  friends,  who  should  all,  for  the  sake  of 
peace,  for  the  sake  of  social  harmony ,  in  detestation  of  anarchy,  and  in   ^ 
imitation  of  the  great  examples  of  antiquity,  constantly  assert,  at  all  *' 
times  and  in  all  places — a  pairibus  acceptos  Deos  placet  coU.      Let  this 
Ciceronian  principle  be  your  motto  ;  let  it  be  your  polar  star  as  often  , 
as  you  are  engaged  inter  syhas  Academi  quarere  verum*  . 

Without  discussing  the  origin  of  the  stoical  systcnr,  or 
inquiring  how  far  the  powers  of  reason  might  exert  them- 
selves independently  of  revelation,  and  more  especially  with 
the  assistance  which  they  might  have  derived  from  it  by  means'* 
of  tradition,  we  cannot  forbear  protesting  against  the  unre- 
stricted and  unqualified  conclusions  suggested  by  the  author  in 
the  paragraph  last  cited  *,  and  which  is  more  particularly  de- 
serving of  notice,  because  it  is  more  diffusely  inculcated  in  an- 
other part  of  this  discourse.  We  allow,  with  him,  that  the  be- 
lief of  a  moral  Providence,  whcnccsoever  it  was  derived,  very 
generally  prevailed.  *  This  belief  originating,,  as  some  may 
say,  in  a  false  conception  of  the  Divine  Omnipotence,  and 
fostered  in  after-ages  by  human  policy,  has  spred  itself  with 
the  spreading  of  civil  society,  afid  maintains,  at  this  day,  an 
undisputed  empire  over  the  mind.'  Admitting  this  to  be  the 
case,  that  men  entertain  erroneous  notions  of  the  doctrine  of 
Providence,  or  of  the  reasons  on  which  the  belief  of  it  is 
fbunded,  are  we  prohibited  by  a  rational  and  laudable  policy 
from  a  calm  and  sober  discussion  of  the  subject  ?  Mr.  Archard 
seems  to  intimate  that  a  discussion,  which  extends  itself  to  the 
lower  orders  of  society,  is  dangerous  and  prejudicial. 

.  *  Of  the  various  classes  that  compose  a  community,  the  for  greater 
part,  from  their  very  situation  and  its  attendant  privations,  are  doomed 
to  a  state  of  ignorance  or  moral  imbecility.  These  have  no  principks; 
thej'  have  only  prejtuTtcesy  which  the  wise  will  smile  at,  orlament,  but 
which  the  statesman  must  always  respect.' — *  It  should  seem,  there- 
fore, viewing  man  as  he  really  is  in  society,  that  there  is  a  certain 
link  in  the  social  chain,  beyond  which  speculative  science  is  not  com- 
municable, or  cannot  be  communicated  for  any  good  purpose.  Where 
speculative  science  ends,  the  empire  of  religious  science  begins.,  Truths 
or  propositions  of  this  latter  kmd  are  analogous  with  the  grossnets  of 
vulgar  intellect ;  they  are  palpable  ;  they  are,  as  it  were,  tangible, 
and  iind  their  way  into  the  hearts  and  understandings  of  those  poor 
individuals,  who,  involved  in  even  more  than  Egyptian  darkness, 
must  cither  be  coerced  or  allure  J  to  become  good  citizens,  by  the  servile 
motives  of  future  rewards  and  punishments.  Hence  it  is,  that  reli- 
gious establishments  are  coeval  with  the  formation  of  civil  society, 
and  that  history  has  not  yet  exliibited  to  our  view  a  people  that  had 
ooc  a  popular  religion*    Now  to  cxpo^  the  unreaionableoess  of  such 


ArchardV  Philosophic  Ditcourse  en  Providence.  ^'j 

religions,  when  their  effects  are  good  \  or  to  endeavour  to  weaken  the 
popular  confidence  ;  would  be  doing  an  irreparable  injur)'  to  the  state, 
and  tp  those  poor  individuals :— /o  the  inSviduab^  by  unhinging  their 
confidence  in  that  system,  which  alone  can  administer  consolation 
to  their  unenlightened  and  desponding  minds, — and  to  the  staler  by 
raising  and  diffusing  a  spirit  of  wild  and  unprincipled  independence.* 

To  much  the  same  purpose,  are  the  sentiments  which  occur 
in  the  following  paragraph : 

*  When  the  emperor  Theodosius  proposed  to  the  Roman  senate 
the  substitution  of  Christianity  in  the  place  of  the  religion  of  their 
fathers,  the  proposition  was  negatived,  from  the  consideration,  that 
Rome  had  flourished  twelve  hundred  years  under  the  protection  of 
her  gods,  and  had  enjoyed,  during  that  period,  every  Kind  of  pro- 
sperity. An  answer  this,  which  could  only  have  been  suggested  by 
tic  most  refined  policy,  arising  from  enlarged  views  of  human  nature. 
For  what  is  man  but  the  creature  of  habit,  or  of  early  impressions  ; 
and  if  the  habits,  which  he  has  contracted,  though  9riginating  in  f^lse. 
principles,  have  a  tendency  to  meliorate  the  individual,  and  render 
nim  a  good  member  of  civil  society,  what  legislator,  or  legislative 
body,  can,  without  incurring  the  imputation  of  ignorance  or  impo- 
licy, attempt  to  weaken  or  suspend  tne  influence  of  those  habits,  by 
the  introduction  of  a  new  order  of  things,  which,  at  best,  cdnldonty  ' 
operate  the  same  effects^  but  which,  in  its  progress  towards  stability, 
might  expose  the  state  to  all  the  horrors  of  intestine  war.  For  these 
reasons  Socrates  was  a  Conformist^  the  Roman  Senate  were  ConfprtnistSp 
and  the  initiated  of  all  countries  and  of  all  ages,  have  ever  been  and 
will  be  Conformists.*  , 

The  reader  will  indulge  his  own  inflections  on  this  kind  of 
reasoning.  To  us  it  seems  to  be  adapted  to. obstruct  every 
kind  of  inquiry  and  improvement ;  and  if  mankind  in  former 
ages  had  been  influenced  by  it,  Christianity  could  never  have 
been  introduced  into  the  world : — the  reformation  must  have 
been  stifled  in  its  birth -,*-»and  the  empire  of  ignorance  and 
superstition  must  have  been  universal  and  perpetual.  Wherever 
that  accommodating  spirit  prevails,  which  the  author  seems  to 
us  tp  vindicate  and  recommend,  integrity  can  resist  no  trial^ 
and  can  have  no  suflicient  encouragement  and  support.  Those 
who  haire  suffered,  in  any  period  of  timiJ,  or  in  any  nation  o£ 
the  world,  on  account  of  attachment  to  their  principles,  and 
who  have  been  generally  honoured  both  by  contemporaries  and 
posterity,  have  been  chargeable  with  a  degree  of  folly  which 
would  excite  the  sneer  or  the  anathema  of  the  initiated.  Confor- 
mity  to  the  religion  of  the  state,  whatsoever  it  be,  and  in 
whatever  country  our  lot  is  cast,  is  our  wisdom  and  duty ;  ^nd 
we  are  allowed,  nay  we  are  required,  to  profess  the  national 
faith,'  whatever  may  be  our  private  sentiAients.  If  we  belong 
to  the  aiithofs  class  of  initiated  persons^  we  shall  have  no 

F  2  scruples 

68  Ahhot  ^Flora  Be^criunsU. 

scruples  to  perplex  and  distress  our  minds.  We  sh»ll  be  pre* 
pared  to  make  any  submission,  which  convenience  or  interest 
may  require ;  and  by  degrees  our  supple  consciences  will  raise 
no  obstacles  in  the  way  of  our  conformity  to  any  religious 
system,  however  unscriptural  or  irrational* 

In  any  state  of  society,  it  is  the  duty  of  the  members  of  it  to 
adopt,  tor  their  nK>tto  and  guide,  a  maxim  of  higher  autho- 
rity than  that  of  Cicero  which  the  author  recommends ;  we 
mean,  let  every  man  be  fully  persttaded  in  his  own  mind ;  and  no 
anarchy  nor  disorder  cnn  be  apprehended  from  the  uncontrol- 
led exercise  of  the  understanding  in  the  province  of  religion  j 
nor  even  from  those  alterations  and  improvements  in  national 
creeds  and  forms,  which  the  progress  of  inquiry  and  knowlege 
may  demand,  ^|^ 

AnT.  X.  Flora  BedfordientU ;  comprehending  such  Plants  as  gfow 
wild  in  the  County  of  Bedford,  arranged  according  to  the  System 
of  Linnaeus;  with  occasional  Remarks.  By  Charles  Abbot* 
M.  A.  F.  L.  S.  Vicar  of  Oakley  Raynes  in  Bedfordshire.  '8vo. 
€s«  6d.  Boards.     Robinsons.     1798. 

TjowEYBit  it  may  be  doubted  whether  partial  Flora^  coti* 
^^  taining  an  account  of  those  plants  only  which  grow  in 
a  narrow  district,  can  be  attended  with  much  general  utility, 
we  believe  that  there  are  very  few  botanists  who  will  not  allow 
that  the  natural  history  of  this  country  is  deeply  indebted  to  the 
truly  valuable  Flora  Cantabrigienjis^  published  by  the  learned 
,  but  unfortunate  Mr.  Relhan  \  and  it  we  turn,  our  eyes  for  a 
moment  to  the  books  on  this  subject  which  h(dd  the  highest 
rank  on  the  Continent,  we  shall  find  few  more  esteemed  than 
those  of  which  the  limits  are  bounded  by  a  circle  almost  as 
contracted  as  that  now  before  us«  Bedfordshire,  though  one  of 
the  smallest  amotig  the  English  couuties,  contains  a  wonderful 
diversity  of  soil,  and  necessarily  an  almost  equal  diversity  of 
pkmts;  the  number  described  by  Mr.  Abbot  being  1225, 
whereas  the  Flora  Cantabrijiiensis,  including  its  three  supple- 
ments, compi:ises  only  121 1  *,  a  difierence  which,  though  ia 
itself  trifling,  mav  be  considered  as  very  great,  when  we  reflect 
that  no  part  of  this  kingdom  has  been  so  thoroughly  examaacd 
as  the  latter,  and  that.  Mr.  Abbot  has  taken  gix)und  little 
trodden  by  botanic  feet,  where  he  has  been  almost  entirely  ob^ 
liged  to  rely  **  nso  tnarteP  The  Flora  Bedfor^nsis^  as  it  is 
observed  in  the  preface,  is  not  intended  to  be  a  copy  of  eitbei 
Dir.  Sibthorpe's  or  Mr.  Relhan's  work,  but  to  hold  an  inter- 
mediate place:  nothing  but  the  specific  descriptions  being 
given  to  the  plants,  except  where  the  author  has  hinoself  ob- 

Ahhot'^Flora  Bedfordiemis.  ^ 

serf  ed  any  thing  remarkable.  Though  these  observations  do 
not  occur  sufficiently  often,  they  are  for  the  most  part  very 
neat ;  and  we  were  much  pleased  to  find  them  most  frequent 
in  the  class  Cryptogamia:  particularly  in  the  genus  Agaricus, 
where  some  little  note  is  subjoined  to  almost  ex'cry  species  j 
which  cannot  but  tend  to  throw  considerable  light  on  a  subject 
that,  till  within  a  very  few  years,  has  been  considered  as  a 
disgrace  to  science,*— a  mere 

•*  Pondus  tmrSf  congestaque  eodem 

Non  bene  junctarum  discordta  senuna  rcrumJ*     OviD.  Metam* 

Mr.  Abbot  has  followed  the  example  set  by  some  authors  in 
the  Linnxan  Transactions,  of  occasionally  adopting  our  own 
language  for  natural  history ;  as  a  motive  for  which^  h«  alleges 
his  desire  to  render  his  work  intelligible  to  his  fair  country- 
women. We  join  with  him  most  sincerely  in  a  wish  to  promotCf 
among  the  ladies  of  Britain,  a  taste  for  the  beauties  of  natural 
historjr.f  by  devoting  their  leisure  to  which,  they  would  be 
prompted  to  exercise  their  neglected  talents,  and  to  abstract 
their  minds  from  those  frivolous  amusements,  which  their  im- 
perfect education  often  enables  to  take  a  fast  hold  of  them* 
jPerhaps,  however,  there  is  not  so  much  difference  in  the  diffi- 
culty of  learning  the  two  tongues  ;  for  sitgma^  whether  used 
as  a  Latin  or  English  word,  is  equally  incomprehensible  to  an 
imlett^ed  ear ;  ,and  ovate  appears  to  us  nearly  as  difficult  to 
be  understood  as  ovation. 

The  preface  is  written  in  a  pleasant  style  ;  and  we  were  ex- 
tremely gratified  to  find  that,  M*hile  the  author  acknowlege^ 
kis  obligations  to  those  friends  who  have  assisted  him,  he  does 
not  forget  to  introduce  a  most  aflrctionate  remembrance  of  his 
wife :  to  the  truth  of  which  we  can  add  our  testimony,  as  we 
have  seen  a  few  specimens  expanded  by  Mrs.  Abbot,  and  can 
safely  say  that  we  have  seldom  known  their  rivals  in  beauty, 
jiever  their  superiors. 

The  work  is  neatly  printed,  and  is  ornamented  with  six  plates; 
which  do  not  seem  to  us  well  chosen,  as  four  of  them  have 
already  appeared  in  Mr.  Sowerbv's  English  Botany  and  English 
Fungi,  two  books  with  which  tew  British  botanists  are  unac- 
quainted* The  plants  figured  ViXtyAlcl^milia  vulgaris^  Cafivai/a* 
ria  majalisy  Viola  pa/ujtriSf  Hydnum  imbrigatumy  Pezi%a  cornuc9* 
fimdii^  and  Lyvperdon  carpoboltu  :  but,  though  these  are  for  the 
most  part  rarely  found  wild  in  our  island,  surely  it  is  unpar- 
donable to  figure  plants  so  common  in  every  garden. — It  would 
bsve  been  l^ter  to  have  given  plates  eitner  of  those  which 
the  muthor  first  diKovered  \  or,  at  all  events,  of  some  which 
,fu|fe  not  yet  beep  published  in  this  country. 

F  3  .  Mr. 

70  Southgate'x  Sermons* 

Mr.  Abbot  has  in  very  few  instances  differed  from  Dr.  Wi- 
thering ;  we  mean  with  regard  to  nomenclature :  for  he  has 
not  followed  the  Botanical  Arrangements  in  turning  the  Linnaean 
system  topsy  turvy.— On  the  authority  of  Hoffman,  aided  by 
bis  own  observation,  he  has  made  the  beautiful  variety  of 
Andgallis  Arvensis^  a  species  under  the  name  of  A.  Caruka  : 
and  he  follows  Mr.  Relhan  in  describing  Heracleum  Angustifo^ 
Hum  as  distinct  from  H.  Sphond^Hum ;  in  which  latter  point  we 
suspect  that  he  is  in  an  error ;  as  we  are  acquainted  with  a 
very  accurate  botanist,  who  pointed  out  to  Mr.  Relhan,  near 
Cambridge,  the  leaves  of  both  plants  on  one  stem. 

We  do  not  remember  that  Mr.  Abbot  was  ever  before  known 
to  the  world  as  an  author :  but  we  have  very  frequently  seen  his 
name  as  one  of  the  most  liberal  contributors  to  Mr.  Sowerby's 
•two  publications  before  mentioned ;  and  he  therefore  is  not  a 
stranger  to  English  naturalists.  The  present  work  does  him 
considerable  credit ;  and  we  do  not  hesitate  in  pronouncing  it 
a  valuable  addition  to  the  Botany  of  Great  Britain.        Tmmct 


Art*  XI.  Sermonsy  preached  to  Parochial  Congregations^  by  the  late 
Rev.  Richard  Southgate,  M.  A.  many  Years  Curate  of  St.  Giles's 
in  the  Fields,  and  sometime  Rector  of  Warsop,  Nottinghamshire: 
with  a  Biographical  Preface  by  George  Gaskm,  D.  D.  Rector  of 
St.  Benct  Grace-Church,   London ;     and  of  Stoke- Newington, 

'  Middlesex.  8vo.  2  Vols.  12  s.  Boards.  Leigh  and  Sotheby. 

^T^HE  author  of  these  discourses  appeared,  for  the  greater 
•*  part  of  his  life,  in  the  humble  station  of  a  curate  2  but,  in 
SO  populous  a  parish  as  that  of  St.  Giles,  he  could  not  long  re- 
main in  obscurity.  Indeed,  according  to  the  short  memorial 
anne^ced  to  these  volumes,  his  vigilance  in  attending  to  the 
duties  of  his  ofTice,  his  learning  and  ingcnaity,  his  diffidence 
and  humility,  could  not  fail  of  recommending  him  to  regard, 
and  of  rendering  him  in  some  degree  conspicuous.  His  be« 
hayiour  was  not  that  which  is  termed  merely  decent  -,  it  was 
such  as  displayed  a  heart  under  the  powerful  influence  of  reli- 
gious and  virtuous  principles.  His  income  was  but  slender 
during  the  former  years  of  his  life : — yet  he  was  able  to  indulge 
a  taste  for  books,  medals,  and  coins ;  and  for  fossils,  shells, 
and  other  natural  curiosities.  The  manifestation  of  this  taste 
gained  the  notice  of  the  Directors  of  the  British  Museum ;  and 
in  November  1784,  on  the  death  of  Dr.  GifFord,  he  was  ap« 
pointed  assistant  librarian,  <  an  office  (says  Dr.  Gaskin) 
JFor  which,  he  was  eminently  qualified.'  About  this  time  also 
he  beca»e  a  fellovy  of  the  Antiquarian  and  Linnaean  Societies, 
15  .  and 

pppcnheimV  Account  of  the  Cisalpine  Republic.  7 1 

and  was  constituted  rector  of  Warsop,  a  valuable  benefice : 
yet  he  was  so  attached  to  his  curacy  that  he  would  not  relin- 
quish it,  and  satisfied  himself  with  passing  some  part  of  everj 
summer  at  his  parish  in  the  country.  He  died  in  the  66tn 
year  of  his  nge,  at  the  British  Museum,  25th  January  1795* 
His  collections  of  books,  coins,  &c.  were  sold  at  an  auction 
•  which  continued  one-and-twenty  days.' 

Respecting  the  discourses,  perhaps  some  judgment  may  be 
ibrmed  from  the  following  paragraph,  extracted  from  the  edi- 
tor's account : 

*  They  arc  the  productions  of  a  man,  whose  mind  was  well  furnished 
and  highly  cultivated  ;  whose  learning  was  extensive  and  accurate, 
particularly  in  classics,  history,  and  theology  ;  whose  principles  were 
lormed  strictly  on  the  orthodox  views  of  the  Church  of  England, 
whether  we  contemplate  her  primitive  episcopal  constitution,  or  her 
creed  ;  whose  high  aim  was  to  promote  uie  glory  of  God,  the  know- 
led^re  of  Christ  crucified  for  the  salvation  of  penitent  sinners,  and  the 
spiritual  edification  of  Christians  :  whose  ministr\'  was  cxerdscd  with 
gravity,  zeal,  and  perseverance  ;  whole  poh'tics  were  such  as  the  Bible 
inculcates,  and  the  primitive  Christians  gloried  in  ;  whose  temper  was 
mild  and  amiable  ;  and  the  tenor  of  whose  Hfc  adorned  the  doctrine 
of  God,  our  Saviour.' 

The  first  of  these  volumes  contains  twenty-five, '  and  the  se- 
cond twenty-six  sermons.  Though  posthumous,  and  not  in- 
tended for  the  press,  the  style  is  on  the  whole  correct ;  some- 
times declamatory,  at  others  argumentative*  If  we  cannot  in 
every  instance  concur  entirely  in  the  author's  sentiments,  wc 
inust  approve  the  sincerity  \vith  which  they  appear  to  be  ad- 
vanced; and.must  applaud  the  spirit  of  candour  and  benevolence 
which  he  manifests  towards  those  who  differ  from  hiiti,  and 
from  the  establishment  with  which  he  was  immediately  con- 
nected. The  sermons  have  not  unfrequently  reminded  us  of 
old,  and  what  are  called  puritanical  writings,  both  within  and 
without  the  English  pale,  though  appearing  in  a  modern  and 
more  suitable  dress ;  and  many  parts  of  them  deserve  our  sin- 
cere approbation.  From  the  judgment  which  we  can  form^ 
the  parish  of  St.  Giles  sustained  a  great  loss  in  the  removal  of 
such  a  minister  as  Mr.  Southgate ;— we  can  only  express  our 
hope-that  the  vacancy  is  well  supplied.  B'i- 

Art.  -XII.  A  Geographical  and  Satistical  Account  of  the  Cisalpine  Re» 
pvhlkt  ond  Maritime  Austria.  With  a  Map,  describing  the  Parti- 
tion of  the  Venetian  Territory,  and  the  New  Limits  of  the  Cisal- 
pine RepubHc.  Translated  from  the  German  ;  by  W.  Oppenhein^ 
M.  D;     8vo.    pp.  570.     7s.  6d.  Boards.     Robinsons.     I7S)3.  . 

IN  a  very  early  stage  of  the  present  war,  wc  remarked  its 
nccetsary  tendency  to  break  up  Europe  into  large  masses^ 
F  4  and 


7^  Oppcnhcim*j  Account  of  the  Clsalpim  B^epuhttc. 

•nd  to  aggrandize  the  greater  at  th^  expcncc  of  the  smaller 
Powers  of  the  Continent.  By  this  process,  the  relative  conse- 
quence of  Great  Britain  is  continually  din^inished ;  because 
*^cr  insular  form  and  geographical  position  render  all  European 
Acquisition  to  her  impracticable.  A  general  peace  has  therefore, 
at  every  moment  of  the  war,  been  her  perpetual  interest ;  and 
must  continue  to  be  so,  though  the  whole  force  of  Austria  be 
again  directed  against  France,  to  be  again  bought  off  by  a  new 
partition  of  Switzerland,  of  Italy,  or  of  Turkey,  Ever  since 
the  introduction  of  the  partitioning  policy,  the  tendency  of 
each  state  to  aggrandizement  seems  to  ]jave  grown  in  the  $:^me 
proportion  as  its  magnitude :  as  the  dropping  of  one  satellite 
on  the  body  of  Saturn  would  increase  its  power  of  attracting 
the  remaining  moons.  It  is  probable,  therefore,  that  all  the  petty 
.  atates  will  ere  long  be  annexed  to  one  or  another  of  the  great 
States  *,  and  that  country  will  absorb  the  largest  number,  which 
interposes  the  fewest  delays  between  its  successive  accroach* 
ments  *•  France  and  Austria  seem  to  have  most  inclination  for 
alertness  in  the  task  of  seizure,  and  to  have  most  augmented 
their  positive  strength  by  the  incorporation  of  contiguous  domi* 

The  object  of  the  work  before  us  is  to  descnbe  statistically, 
l^s  well  what  the  Emperor  has  lost  as  what  he  has  gained  in 
Italy  and  Dalmatia  by  the  treaty  of  Campo  Formio :  *  a  treaty 
(says  the  author)  which  may  on  several  accounts  be  con- 
sidered as  highly  advantageous  to  the  Emperor  -,  for  if  we 
compare  the  territories  which  Austria  has  ceded  and  acquired, 
\cre  shall  find  that  that  monarchy  gdins  a  superficial  extent  of 
eighty-eight  German  square  milcF.*— *  A  further  aggrandize* 
ment  (he  adds)  may  be  expected  by  the  Emperor  as  well  as  the 
Cisalpine  republic^  which  shall  be  noticed  at  a  proper  oppor- 

The  author  thus  describes  the  extent  and  population  of  the 
Cisalpine  Republic  : 

♦  The  Cisalpine  Republic  was  created  by  the  French  Repnblic^ 
)n  the  year  1796;  it  was  firmly  established,  in  consequence  of  the 
peace  of  Cairtpo  Formio,  in  1797;  and  was  acknowledged  br  his 
.  ^lajcsty  the  Emperor,  the  Kings  of  Sardinia,  Spain,  Swrsserfand^ 
-  Hthc  Pope,  &c.  It  comprehends,  beside  th^  whole  of  Austrian  Lorn* 
barily,  and  part  of  the  former  Republic  of  Veriicc,  the  territories  of 
the  Duke  Of  Modcna,  the  Papal  provinces  of  f  errara,  Bologna,  and 
jRoma|rna ;  and  so  critically  are  the  encircled  states  of  the  Dtilie  of 
-Parma  situated,  that  the  Republic  intends  already  to  aggrandise  it- 

.    *  This  word,  though  not  commonly  used,  will  be  found  in  John- 
son's Diccioaarji  and  more  exactly  express^  our  meaning  here  than 


OppenheimV  Account  of  the  Cisalpine  Republic*  7j 

ficlf  at  the  <xpence  o£  thla  and  other  tottering  poweii  in  its  neigh- 

*  The  whole  territorial  dinncnsions  of  the  Cisalpine  Repubhc  coo- 
tain  39567  square  miksy  and  3  4479384  souls^  viz. 

The  Duchy  of  Milan 
The  Duchy  of  Mantu 
principaUties  Castiglione  and 

The  Duchy  of  Mantua,  with  (3.)  the 

Square  Miles. 

4.  The  acquired  proYinccs  formerly  be- 

longing to  the  Repubhc  of  Venicey 
viz.  the  Bergamcsctt,  the  Bresciano," 
and  the  tenitoriet  of  Verona  and 
RodigOy  situated  on  the  riv^ht  bank 
of  the  Adi^e,  the  White  Can*.!,  the 
Tartaro,  tiic  canal  Polisella,  and 
the  Po 

5.  The  Duchy  of  Modena,    with  the 

principalities  of  Massa  and  Carrara 

6.  The  lands  obtained  from  the  Duke 

of  Parma,  the  Duchy  of  Guastillo, 
Sabionetta,  and  Bozzdla 

7.  ThcthreclegationSyFerrara,  Bologna^ 

and  Romagna,  formerly  Papal 
S.  Tlie  terntones  of  the  Orisons,  belong- 
ing to  Worms,  Cleves,  aud  the  Val- 
^    The  four  (commonly  termed)  Italian 





43 » 







Total  3,567  S'447.o«4 

•  Agre«ablc^  to  this  account,  a  square  mile  will  contain  966  in}ia- 
bitants.  Comparing  this  with  the  enumeration  collected  by  order  of 
ibc  government  in  1791 — 94,  from  the  different  parish-lists,  with 
the  account  of  anthors  of  veracity,  and  with  the  account  (Sect.  X) 
collected  by  the  present  legislature,  no  one  will  doubt  the  exactness 
of  our  account.  On  the  other  hand,  tht  ridiculous  asgertions  of  the 
siewspapers,  with  respect  to  the  population  of  the  modern  Republic^ 
and  tlic  supposed  loss  of  the  Au«!tnan  Monarchy,  wil!  appear  most 
faring.  Ihe  number  3*239,572  of  inhabitants  will,  itxlced,  be 
deficient  in  207,812  ;  but  this  is  owing  to  the  Swiss  terntorict 
(N(u  Vill,  IX,  Sect.  II),  comprehtndinp-  203,000  souls,  wliich  ter- 
ritories were  annexed  to  the  Republic  after  the  division  of  it  into 
departments,  if  the  latter  number  be  added  to  the  above-mentioned 
3»«39»57i>  the  number  3,442^1.72  of  souls  will  be  obtained,  and  our 
Mxount  will  be  overrated  by  4812  persons  only,  who  are  included 
smong  the  18,000  of  some  districts  belonging  to  ^fo.  VI,  which  tlie 
Republic  took  possession  of  subsequent  to  its  division.  The  certauitT 
of  our  account,  however,  will  become  stronger  by  compsring  it 
minutely  with  the  account  of  the  Republic.    I'or  examples  we  give 


74  OppenhcimV  Account  ofih^  Cisalpine  Republic. 

ta  Milan  (No.  I)  1^116,892  souls,  and  m  the  acroiint  of  the  Repub- 
lic, its  seven  departments,  namely,  Adda,  V^crbano,  Tcsino,  Lario, 
Dellc  Montague,  Olone,  and  Upper  Po,  contain  1,179,410  inba- 
bkants  ;  again,  we  give  to  Mantua  (No.  II  and  III)  207,331  souls, 
and  in  the  account  of  the  Republic,  the  departments  made  out  of  it 
hare  only  123^649  pcxbons,  because  some  districts  have  been  annexed 
partly -to-  the  department  of  the  Upper  Po,  and  partly  to  the  depart- 
ment of  the  Benaco.  All  these  inhabitant.^,  at  present,  are  sensible 
of  no  distinction  with  respect  to  orders,  all  are  citizens  of  the  RepubUc^ 
and  mav,  according  to  the  tenor  of  the  constitution,  vote  in  the  elec- 
tions ot  the  representatives  of  the  people,  and  are  themselyef  eligi- 
ble ;  whereas  formerly  the  nobility  only,  and  a  few  inhabitants  of 
the  cities,  were  capable  of  holding  the  public  functions.' 

The  extent  and  population  of  Maritime  Austria  are  t|ius  par« 

*  In  virtue  of  the  treaty  of  peace  of  Campo  Formio,  the  limits  of 
^laritime  Austria  commence  on  the  west  side  of  the  Lago  di  Garda, 
near  the  confines  of  the  Tyrol,  with  the  little  river  which  passe* 
Gardolo,  and  passing  obliquely  through  the  lake,  they  extend  on  the 
cast  to  Lascise,  from  hence  across  to  St.  Giocomo  ;  from  this  place 
they  run  through  a  space  of  territory,  18,000  feet  in  length,  along 
the  left  banks  of  the  Adige,  to  Porto  Legnano,  then  to  the  left  of 
the  White  Canal,  the  river  Tartaro,  aiid  the  Canal  of  Folisella, 
reaching  the  Po,  the  left  bank  of  which,  as  far  as  the  Adriatic  Sea, 
cpnstitutes  the  boundaries  of  Maritime  Austria.  According  to  this 
account  then,  the  new  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Tyrol, 
Carinthia,  Crain,  or  Carniola ;  on  the  east  by  Carinthia,  Camiola, 
Croatia,  Bosnia,  and  Albania ;  on  the  south,  throughout  its  whole 
extent,  by  the  Gulph  of  Venice,  the  Po,  the  canal  Polisella,  the 
White  Canal,  and  the  river  Tartaro  ;  on  the  west  by  the  Ci&alpinc 

*  The  portion  of  territory  which  Austria  has  acquired,  compre- 
hending the  lacunes  and  islands  of  the  former  Republic  of  Venice, 
contains  a  superficial  content  of  865  German  square  miles  *  ;  viz.  of 
the  continent,  and  the  lacunes  and  isles  625,  of  Dalmatia  and  Al- 
bania 240  square  miles ;  which  territories  have,  according  to  the 
most  recent  enumeration  made  by  the  French,  3,1 10,000  inhabitants  ; 
namely,  2,860,000  souls  on  the  continent,  &c.  250,000  in  Albania 
mnd  Dalmatia  :  so  that  every  square  mile  contains  3,595  inhabitants, 
which  co\]Stitutcs  a  very  considerable  population ;  and  although  it 
does  not,  by  far,  equal  the  populousness  of  the  Netherlands,  yet 
will,  under  the  Austrian  dominion,  certainly  attain  that  proportion. 
The  following  may  serve  as  a  comparison  with  other  States.  Id 
Germany,  a  square  mile  contains  on  an  average  2,190  souls.  . 

German  fq.  miles.    Inhabitants* 
In  France  -  -  .  i         -        2)500. 

England  -  -  -  .  i         .         1,780. 

Holland  -  -  '  -  1        -        3>776- 

•  *  A  geographical  degree  contains  fifteen  German  miles.  ^ 


Willan  ofi  Cuiafuous  Diseases.  7J 

German  fq.  miles,    inhabitants^ 

Belgium        -  •  -  .  I        .        4,127. 

Lombard/  -  -  -  -  1         -        6,cxx). 

AuBtrian  hereditary  dominions  -  i         -         i  ,05a. 

Bohemia  -  •  -  -  i         -        2»357* 

Hungary  and  Transylvania  -  -         i         -     .   1,246* 

GaUicia  and  Lodomcria  -  -  i         •   *     2,100. 

*  All  the  inhabitants  of  Maritime  Austria  consist  of,  i.  The 
ancient  original  nobility,  of  the  nobility  created  since  1290,  and  cS 
the  nobility  who  purchased  their  titles  since  the  war  of  Candia. 
2.  The  CUtadinanxa^  or  the  infenor  nobility,  and  the  most  respectable 
families  of  the  citizens.  3.  The  clergy,  at  thv  head  of  whom  is  the 
patriarch,  who  is  entirely  independent  of  the  Pope,  and  styles  him- 
«<:lf  A^.  A^.  Miserattone  Divina  Patriarcha  Venetlarum  Dalmatlsque 
Primal  $  is  titled  Excellen%a  Reverendissima^  and  must  always  be  a 
Venetian  patrician.  4.  The  common  citizens  and  tradesmen ;  which 
class,  together  with  5.  The  peasants,  is  the  most  numerous.  6.  The 
different  foreigners  resident  in  the  country,  and  of  German  Pro- 
testants, Greeks,.  Arminians,  Jews,  and  Turks.*  1 

The  description  of  Venice  occupies  a  disproportioncd  extent. 
Several  masterpieces  of  the  Venetian  painters  and  statuaries  no 
longer  remain  to  be  enumerated  among  the  curiosities  of  the 
town  :  for  they  have  been  sent  te  that  lumber-room  of  plunder^ 
>vhich  the  Parisians  exhibit  as  a  glory: — but  the  immovable 
benefits  of  the  architect  remain,  and  still  endear  such  names 
as  Sansovino  and  Calladlo  to  the  recoilectioti  of  the  ioha* 

/  In  general,  tli^s  work  gives  mych  information  carefully  col- 
lectedj  conveniently  arranged,  and  suiTicitntly  compressed*  A 
fimall  but  neat  map  illustrates  the  geographical  instruction. 
The  translation  is  composed  in  good,  but  not  elegant,  English.  —      1 

: . ^ '—  *^' 

AiiT."  XIII.      Description    and   Treatment    of    Cutaneous    Diseases  * 
'    Order  I.    Papulous  Eruptions  on  the  Skin.     By  Robert  Willan, 
M.  D.  F.  A.  S.-  With  coloured  Plates.  4to.  pp.  no.  15s.  sewed. 
.    Johnson.    1798. 

*TpHE  imperfection  of  verbal  descriptions,  in  conveying  the 

*  distinctions  of  cutaneous  eruptions,  has  long  been  felt  and 
lamented  by  the  faculty.  Dr.  Wiilnn  therefore  is  entitled  to 
grcsrt  commendation,  for  the  zeal  and  industry  which  he  has 
'exerted  in  order  to  delineate  the  varieties  of  those  diseases,  and 
to  impart  to  the  eye  what  cannot  be  communicated  by  the 
choicest  expressions.  His  plates  are  executed  with  elegance, 
while  they  give  a  correct  idea  of  the  morbid  appearances ;  and 
they  will  be  consulted  with  particular  satisfaction,  by  those 
ivho  have  endeavoured  in  vain  to  acquire  a  knowlege  of  the 
diseases  of  the  skin  from  former  publications. — We  cannot  be 


^6  Willan  on  Cutaneous  Dlseasa^ 

expected  to  present  a  complete  view  of  this  work,  the  dcfiui- 
iions  in  which  consist  of  figures  :  but  there  is  great  store  of 
curious  and  useful  research  in  the  text,  by  which  we  shall  pro- 
fit. Dr.  Willan,  among  much  other  reading,  has  carefully  in- 
vestigated the  writings  of  tlic  Arabian  physicians,  who  cuhi- 
vated  this  branch  of  ii^eclici*Te  with  more  accuracy  than  cither 
the  Greek  or  Latin  physicians,  and  whose  labours  have  long 
been  neglected  \  and  he  has  drawn  from  them  many  things 
worthy  of  remark. — The  work  is  intended  to  consist  of  Seven 
Orders,  which  are  to  be  published  separately.  The  present 
number  contains  the  order  of  Papulous  Eruptions  \  the  remain* 
ing  orders  are,  Scales,  Rashes,  Vesicles,  Pustules,  TubeickSf 
and  Maculx. 

The  PapiiU  are  divided  by  Dr.  Willan  into  three  species ; 
Strophulus^  Lichen^  and  Prurigo. 

The  Strophulus  is  a  disease  peculiar  to  infants,  and  known 
among  nurses  by  the  name  of  the  Gmn,  in  this  country;  he  di* 
vides  it  into  the  Strophulus  IntertinctuSy  or  Red  Gum  ;  Stropbu'* 
Jus  Albidus^  or  White  Gum ;  Strophulus  Confertus^  the  Tooth 
'Rash,  or  Rank  Red  Gum  ;  Strophulus  Volat'tcus\  and  Strophulus 
Candidtis.    These  varieties  are  illustrated  by  the  prints. 

In  the  first,  Dr.  Willan  observes,  the  child's  skin  somewhat 
resembles  a  piece  of  red  printed  linen  ;  and  hentc  this  eruption 
was  formerly  denominated  the  Red  Gown^  a  term  still  re- 
tained in  several  counties  of  England,  and  which  mav  be  founcl 
in  old  dictionaries.  Medical  writers  have  changed  the  original 
word  for  one  of  a  similar  sound,  but  not  more  significant.  He 
thinks  that  this  eruption,  and  the  aphthous  ulcerations  common 
in  children,  alternate  with  each  other ;  those  infants  who  have 
^  .p  the  papulous  eruption  on  the  skin  being  less  liable  to  aphtha: ; 
j* '  and  the  skin  being .  generally  pale,  and  free  from  eruption, 
when  aphthx  take  place  in  any  considerable  degree.  He .  ob- 
serves, also,  that  it  is  dangerous  to  repel  this  disease  from  the 
surface,  by  the  application  of  cold  water,  or  cold  air.  With 
regard  to  the  treatment,  ablution  with  warm  Water,  the  warm 
bath  in  case  of  a  repulsion  of  the  eruption,  and  blistering,  are 
the  remedies  recommended. 

The  Strophulus  Ccnfertus  appears  during  dentition  ;  and,  dc« 
pending  on  the  irritation  excited  in  the  gums,  it  does  not  become 
a  separate  object  of  practice.  Dr.  Willan  cautions  practition* 
crs  against  ordering  the  child  to  be  weaned  on  the  occurrence 
of  this  eruption,  as  it  docs  not  imply  disease  in  the  mother^  or 

in  the  Strophulus  Folaticus,  an  emetic,  or  sonie  laxative  me- 
dicine, is  advised^  to  be  followed^by  the  use  of  the  Peruvian 

4  The 

Wlllan  on  Cutaneous  Diseases.  77 

The  Strophulus  Candidus  affects  infants  about  a  year  oH,  and 
commonly  succeeds  some  of  the  acute  diseases  to  which  they 
arc  liable.     The  author  has  observed  it  after  recovery  from  a. 
catarrhal  fever,   and  after  inflammations  of   the   bowels   or 

The  second  division  of  Papula^  the  Lichen,  is  defined  to 
be  «  An  extensive  eruption  of  papulae,  affecting  adults,  con- 
nected with  internal  disorder,  usually  terminating  in  scurf, 
Recurrent,  not  contagious.'  It  is  subdivided  into  the  Lichen 
simplex^  Z,.  agrius,  L.  pilaris^  L.  tividus^  and  L.  tropicus.  For 
tile  history  and  particular  distinctions  of  these  disorders,  we 
must  refer  our  readers  to  the  work  itself. 

The  author  informs  us  that  he  has  seen  disagreeable  aymp- 
tamt  produced,  in  consequence  of  repelling  eruptions  of  this 
nature  by  sulphureous  or  mercurial  ointments,  or  astringent. 

In  the  Lichen  agrius^  Dr.  Willan  advises  a  few  doses  of  ca» 
lomel,  as  a  purgative  \  and  afterward,  for  some  weeks.  t;he 
vitriolic  acid  three  times  in  a  day,  given  in  the  infusion  of 
roses,  or  in  a  decoction  of  Peruvian  bark.  As  at^  external  apv« 
plication,  he  mentions  the  unguent um  rosatum  of  the  old  Phar- 
macopaeia,  or  the  rose  pomatum  sold  by  perfumers. 

Under  this  head,  we  meet  with  an  interesting  account  of 
^c  prickly  !?eat  of  the  West  Indies,  extracted  from  dUFerentp 

The  third  division.  Prurigo,  is  distinguished  Into  three 
varieties ;  Prurigo  mitis,  P.  formicanSf  and  P,  senilis.  The 
first,  according  to  the  author,  when  neglected,  often  changes 
its  fofm,  and  terminates  in  the  itch.  In  its  early  stages,  the 
cure  consists  in  frequent  bathing,  or  wajshing  the  skin  with 
tepid  w*ater. 

The  Prurigo  formicans  is  described  as  beijjg  generally  a 
symptom  of  ill  health :  but  it  is  soq^etimes  produced  by  drinking 
a  small  quantity  of  some  Spanish  white  wine. — After  having 
tried  many  remedies  ineffectually  for  the  cure  of  this  kind  of 
crnption.  Dr.  Willan  found  that  fixed  alkali  answered  better 
than  the  rest.  He  gave  the  natron  preparatum^  sometimes 
alone^  sometimes  in  conjunction  with  sulphur.  The  oleum  ^ar^- 
tmipir  deliquium^  with  the  addition  of  a  little  laudanum,  was 
equally  efficacious.  Baths  prepared  with  alkalized  sulphur^ 
and  sea-bathing,  have  also  been  serviceable  in  this  complaint. 

On  the  subject  of  the  Prurigo  senilis,  some  remarks  are  in* 
tfodttced,  deserving  attention,  on  the  production  of  insects  in 
diseased  sUtcs  of  the  skin. 

.We  meet  aliQ  with  some  very  useful  observations  respecting 
frmjip  considered  as  a  local  affection  %  which  are  furnished 


^9         De  Mcrten$V  Account  of  the  Plague  at  Moscow, 

partly  by  Dr.  Willan,  and  partly  by  Dt.  John  Sims,  and  whkb 
wc  recommend  to  the  notice  of  our 'medical  readers. 

We  trust  that  this  spirited  attempt  to  supply  the  deficiencies  of 
▼erbal  description  will  be  properly  encouraged.  The  laborious 
researchesi  and  the  accurate  discrimination,  displayed  in  the 
text,  render  the  book  a  valuable  aquisition  to  practitionersj  in- 
dependently of  the  merit  of  the  prints ;  and  we  shall  be  happy 
to  see  it  completed  as  ably  and  correctly  as  it  has  been 
begun.  jj^^ 

A&T.  XIV.  jIn  A€ccn\pt  of  the  Plague  which  raged  at  Moscow^  In 
177 1.  By  Charles  dc  Mcrtens,  M.  D.  Member  of  the  Medical 
Colleges  of  Vienna  and  Strasburg,  &c.  Translated  from  the 
French,  with  Notes.    8vo.    pp.122.    2s.  6d.  Rivingtons.   1799* 

nPHE  subject  of  the  plague,  we  arc  here  informed,  is  at  this 
-*  time  particularly  interesting,  because  we  are  in  constant 
danger  of  having  it  imported  into  this  country  from  the  Le- 
vant and  from  America,  The  latter  part  of  this  sentence  sur- 
prised us  considerably ;  for,  thotigh  the  translator  assures  us, 
in  a  note  on  this  passage,  that  almost  alt  physicians  now  agree 
tiiat  the  yellow  fever  is  actually  the  plague,  yet  lue  cannot  re- 
collect one  author  of  credit  who  has  made  the  assertion.  If, 
however,  the  hazard  of  importing  the  plague  from  Turkey  be 
nearly  as  great  as  it  is  represented  by  Dr.  Russel,  Mr.  Eton, 
and  several  late  writers,  there  is  sufficient  inducement  for 
physicians  to  study  the  best  accounts  of  a  formidable  disease, 
which  they  may  be  required  to  discriminate.  The  present 
tract  seems,  from  the  translator's  preface,  to  be  rather  a  selec- 
tion from  Dr.  Mertens's  book  than  a  version. 

It  appears  that  the  epidemic  here  described  was  greatly  in- 
creased in  its  extent  and  fatality,  by  the  warm  attachments 
and  superstitious  prejudices  of  the  lower  ranks  of  Russians. 
They  even  broke  into  the  plague-hospital,  to  carry  images, 
to  pray  by  the  bed  sides  of  their  sick  relations,  and  to  embrace 
the  bodies  of  tlic  dead.  What  a  striking  contrast  to  the  cau-^ ' 
tious  timidity  of  the  Americans,  under  a  similar  visitation  !— In 
this  riotous  overflow  of  their  feelings,  the  mob -attacked  Dr.  ' 
dc  Mertens's  house;  and  destroyed  almost  every  thing  in  it. 

In  themomh  of  September,  twelve  hundred  persons  died  of* 
the  plague  daily  \  though  Dr.  ^lertens  thinks  that,  in  conse- * 
quence  of  the  alarm  which  bad  driven  away  great  numbers  of 
the  inhabitants,  not  more  than  150,006  had  remained  in  the 
city.  * 

At  length,  measures  were  taken,   under  the  direction  of 
Count  OrloW)  for  suppressing  the  popular  commotions.  *  Hos- 

De  McrlensV  Account  ofihn  J^  Mosc^vi.         79 

pitals  (of  wood)  were  erected  for  the  accommodation  of  the 
sick,  and  a  Council  of  Health  was  established.  The  disease 
diminished  rapidly,  after  the  setting  in  of  a  hard  frost.  The 
effect  of  coldj  in  checking  the  communication  of  infection,  ap- 
pears to  be  very  considerable,  from  some  facts  mentioned  iu 
this  part  of  the  narrative.  Dr.  Pogaretsky  told  the  author, 
that  some  of  the  persons  who  carried  out  the  dead  had  put  on 
sheep-skins,  which  had  been  *  worn  by  the  impested*^*  after 
hiving  exposed  them  to  the  open  air  for  forty-eight  hours,  in 
the  month  of  December,  when' the  frost  was  very  intense,  and 
<hat  none  of  them  became  infected. 

The  total  amount  of  deaths,  in  this  epidemic,  was  upwards  \ 
of  seventy  thousand  ;  of  which  the  a.uthor  supposes  that 
22,000  took  place  in  September  alonct  Adding  to  these  the 
number  of  clandestine  interments,  and  the  deaths  in  neigh« 
bouring  villages  and  towns,  he  thinks  that  this  plague  swept  off 
100,000  persons.  It  is  a  fact  worth  noticing,  that  most  of 
the  people,  who  were  infected  by  carrying  out  and  burying  the 
diead,  fell  ill  about  the  fourth  or  fifth  day  of  their  employment* 
The  contagion  was  communicated  solely  by  contact  of  the  sick, 
or  of  infected  goods,  and  did  not  seem  to  depend  at  all  on  the 
state  of  the  atmosphere.  The  physicians,  who  visited  patients 
in  the  town,  were  secured  by  avoiding  actual  contact  with 
them ;  although  there  was  frequently  not  more  than  the  dis*. 
tance  of  one  foot  between  them. 

The  higher  class  of  people  were,  as  usual,  less  liable  to  in* 
fection  than  the  poor. 

.  The  Foundling  Hospital  at  Moscow,  which  contained  looo 
children  and  400  adults,  was  preserved  from  the  contagion^ 
while  it  raged  in  all  the  surrounding  buildings ;  and  though 
the  disease  attacked  eight  persons  who  had  stolen  out  of  the 
house  during  the  night,  yet  it  was  prevented  from  spreading, 
by  separating  them  immediately  from  the  rest.  This  is  a  fact 
which  deserves  great  attention  ;  as  it  proves  that  the  progress 
of  the  plague  may  be  impeded  as  effectually,  and  by  the  same 
means,  as  that  of  the  common  typhus. 

In  enumerating  the  symptoms  of  the  plague,  the  author 
produces  nothing  which  has  not  Been  noticed  by  former  writers. 
In  addition  to  the  common  symptoms  of  fever,  he  mentions 
itching  or  pain  in  those  parts  of  the  body  in  which  buboes 
and  carbuncles  are  about  to  appear.  The  accession  of  glan- 
dular swellings,  or  of  eruptions,  seems  indeed  to  be  the  pa* 
tho'gndmonic  symptom  of  the  disease ;  for  the  mixed  appear- 

*.  From  this  word,  which  is  repeatedly  used,  we  suppose  the 
txasdaUir  to  be^  a  foreigner;  it  ought  to  be  infected. 


So  De  McrtcnsV  Jeeount  of  the  Plague  at  Moscow. 

ancc  of  the  ey^s,  mentioned  by  Dr.  Russel  as  characterizing* 
the  plague,  is  not  unfrequent  in  our  typhus.  The  author  con- 
siders buboes  as  salutary  efforts  of  the  system,  and  carbuncles 
and  petechia  as  only  denoting  a  general  depravation  of  the 
habit.  It  follows^  therefore,  he  says,  that  the  plague  is  milder 
in  proportion  as  buboes  are  more  common,  and  as  those  erup- 
tions are  more  rare. 

A  particular  account  of  the  symptoms  of  the  plague,  under 
all  its  different  forms,  taken  from  the  wprk  of  Dr.  Omeuj,  is 
given  at  p.  46  \  to  which  we  refer  those  readers  who  wish  for 
full  information  on  the  subject.  Hie  extreme  violence  of  the 
symptoms,  and  the  almost  invariable  affection  of  the  lymphatic 
glands,  appeir  chicilj'  to  distinguish  the  plague  from  typhus. 

It  setnis,  from  the  observations  of  M.  Samoilowitz^  (who 
with  singular  intrepidity  examined  the  state  of  the  pulse  in 
his  patients,)  that  the  pulse  was  irregular  from  the  beginning. 
"When  there  was  much  head-ach,  and  high  delirium,  the  pulse 
was  full,  hard,  strong,  and  quick;  when  these  symptoms 
ceased,  it  became  soft,  feeble,  intermitting,  and  not  to  be  felt. 

Dr.  de  M.'s  division  of  the  course  of  the  plague,  into  nerv* 
ous  and  putrid  stages,  appears  rather  obscure.  The  propriety 
of  bleeding  is  slightly  and  vaguely  mentioned,  in  the  former 
stage.  In  the  latter,  emetics,  Peruvian  bark,  and  the  mineral 
acids,  arc  recommended.  He  very  properly  advises  that  these 
medicines  should  be  administered  in  the  most  powerful  doses* 
We  are  sorry  to  learn,  however,  that  he  conceives  this  method 
of  treatment  to  be  useful  only  in  the  milder  form  of  the  plague, 
and  that  be  has  not  found  any  plan  successful  in  its  violent  at- 

The  method  proposed  for  arresting  the  progress  of  infection 
consists  in  removing  infected  persons,  or  families,  into  a  sepa- 
rate building,  on  the  appearance  of  the  symptoms.  This,  Dr. 
de  Mertens  would  conduct  rather  more  abruptly  than  the  feel* 
ings  of  our  countrymen  would  permit:  but  the  principle  b 
right.  The  foibles  and  prejudices  of  individuals  ought  to  give 
way,  on  such  occasions,  to  the  general  safety. 

The  regulations  proposed  by  the  Doctor  for  indemnifying, 
at  the  public  expence,  persons  whose  infected  goods  it  is  ne- 
cessary to  destroy,  and  for  supporting  the  indigent  sick,  are 
dictated  by  true  humanity  and  just  policy.  The  construction 
of  permanent  fever- wards,  on  the  plan  which  has  been  adopted 
in  Chester,  Liverpool,  and  Manchester,  would  probably  secure 
those  ports  which  are  at  present  exposed  to  the  importation  of 
the  plague,  from  any  extensive  mischief  from  that  disease. 

We  cannot  coiiclude  this  article  without  again  expressing 
Qor  surprise^  that  the  tian^ator  should  have  confounded  the 


Hull*/  tiefinei  of  the  Casafean  C^eraiion.  fft 

y^Itow  fever  with  the  plague.  Not  to  insist  on  the  AitkiinQ^ 
of  the  sjpmptdms,  we  would  only  remind  him  that  many  rev* 
tfp^ctable  writers  have  of  late  denied  that  the  yellow  fever  is 
^mmunicable  by  infection.  Respecting  the  plague,  this  way 
never  doubted.  The  only  difficulty  consisted  in  limiting  the 
sphere  of  its  Contagion. — Had  this  opinion  related  to  a  subject 
merely  speculative,  we  should  not  have  returned  to  it :  but,  as 
die  dread  of  infection  from  America  might  produce  seriouB 
evilsy  if  the  translator's  assertions  were  admitted,  it  is  proper 
to  bbject  to  them  before  an  alarm  be  excited,  which  might  pre* 
elude  accuracy  of  reasoning  at  a  time  when  discriminatioii 
voiild  be  most  necessary.  n 

Akt.  XV.   ji  Defence  of  the  Cesarean  OperalOtiy  with  Obseryatioaar - 
on  Embryulcia,  and  the  Section  of  the  Symphysis  Pubis,  zidf 
drened  to  Mr.  W.  Simmons,  of  Manchester,  Author  of  Rejfectiom 

■  tm  the  Propriety  of  performing  the  Cesarean  Operation.  £hr  Joha 
Hi^  M.  D.  Secretary  of  the  Literary  and  Philosophical  Sotietl' 
6f  Ifinchester.  8to.  pp.  229.  and  Six  Plates.  38.  6d«  BoarAu 
Bickerttaff.    1799* 


THEM  Mr. Simmons's  ^<  Refiectiona*'  were  noticed  incur 
Review  for  February  last,  it  did  not  appear  that  they 
were  levelled  against  any  particular  instance  of  the  Caesareaa 
operation  :-^but  we  now  find  that  the  author  of  this  Defence 
had  lately  performed  it  unsuccessfully  in  Manchester,  and  that 
he  thinks  himself  highly  aggrieved  by  Mr.  Simmons's  publica- 
tion. What  previous  differences  might  have  fomented  the  ani« 
snosity  displayed  in  the  present  letter,  it  is  impossible  for.  us 
to  conjecture  :  but  we  regret  to  see  a  controversy,  on  a  questioa 
of  great  importance  to  the  community,  debased  by  so  much 
personal  asperity.  Whether  so  painful  and  dangerous  an  ope- 
ration as  the  Cxsarean  Section  ought  or  ought  not  to  be  per* 
formed,  in  certain  circumstances,  is  a  problem  about  the  solu« 
tion  of  which  two  medical  men  may  fairly  and  candidly  diflPer; 
and  their  readers  would  willingly  compare  the  arguments  pro- 
duced by  each,  in  support  of  his  opinion.  We  took  up  die 
Tolame  before  us  with  the  expectation  of  seeing  new  light 
thrown  on  the  subject,  from  the  cases  promised  by  the  Author, 
and  from  the  different  sources  of  information  to  which  he 
teems  to  have  resorted  : — but  he  occupies  so  large  a  portion' of  ^ 
bis  book  with  attempts  to  prove  that  his  antagonist  is  ignorant 
of  Greek  and  Latin,  and  shews  so  much  anxiety  to  give  aa 
odious  turn  to  every  passage  that  is  capable  of  misconstruction, 
that.we  were  tempted  to  close  his  performance  in  disgust,  be- 
fbrewe  arrived  at  the  argumentative  part. 
Kit.  MATf  .X79p;  G  We 

62  HttUV  Defence  of  the  Cesarean  Optratm. 

'.  TSTe  shall  not  hazard  an  opinioiii  whether  the  operation  be 
in  all  cases  inadmissible  :  but  we  must  own  that  Dr.  Hull  ha^ 
oot  furnished  any  additional  strength  to  its  supporters.  Hie 
own  experience  is  unfavourable  to  the  cause  which  he  espouses^ 
for  he  informs  us  chat  he  has  twice  performed,  it  without  sav- 
ing bis  patients;  and  the  synoptical  table,  which  he  has  draws 
.up,  exhibiting  a.  brief  view  of  the  cases  of  this  operation  .ob 
record)  presents  .only  melancholy  proofs  of  its  fatal  oon^er 
.quences.  ;  Qut  of  seventeen  patients  who  underwent  (he  8ec« 
tion  in  these  kingcioms,- only  two  appear  to  hjire  recoveved; 
oaiA  one  of  th^se  prases  Pr.  Hull  acknowleges  to  have:  been  a 
^case  of  gastrotomy ;  the  child  having. escaped  into  the  ca(vit;y  of 
^  *■  the  abdomen,  through  a  laceration  of  the  uterus,  previously  to 
the  operation. 

The  inference  which  Dr.  Hulldraws  from  the  wani  {>F6tic- 
'ccsffjn  these  cases,  conjpariid  with  the  frequent  success  of 
tbe ^operation  on  the  Continent,  is,  thiat  surgeons  in  this  coun- 
'%if  have  delayed  Uic  performance  of  it  too  long ;  and  tBa^,  if 
it  wQrp  earlier  practised,  it  would  prove  less  fatal  to  the 'po- 
ther. On  this  subject,  he  will  perhaps  form  more  apcurate 
distinctions,  in  the  larger  work  which  he  promises :  but  we 
cannot  suppose  tteit  he  would  perform  it,  as  he  infottns  ui 
(p.  99)  that  Profcssoi"  Sandifort  of  Leydfcn  has  done,  in  a  case 
in  5;irhich  the  delivery  might  have  been  effected  by  the  crotchet, 
without  much  difficulty;  though  an  adversary  might  draw 
such  an  inference  from  his  expressions.  Since  the  publication 
of  Dr.  Osborne's  Cases,  we  had  understood  that  the  minds  of 
practitioners  in  tliis  country  had  received  a  very  different  im- 
pression ;  and  that  they  now  hoped  to  deliver  by  the  crotchet, 
and  to  save  the  mother,  in  cases  which  were  formerly  supposed 
to  require  the  Csesarean  Operation,  and  in  which  the  parent's 
life  must  probably  have  been  sacrificed. 

We  think  that  this  author  would  have  obtained  a  more  fia- 
vourable  audience  from  the  public,  if  his  defence  had  been 
offered  with  more  diffidence.  The  severity  of  his  personal  re- 
flections is  still  more  reprehensible.  It  is  an  implied  disrespect 
for  the  public ;  who,  in  everv  contest  of  this  nature,  are  inte- 
rested only  in  the  strength  of  the  arguments,  and  must  be  to- 
tally unconcerned  respecting  the  private  character  of  the  dis- 
putants ;  excepting  in  those  cases  in  which  the  evidence  of  facts 
depends  on  their  veracity. 

The  plates  accompanying   this  volume  exhibit  views  and 
sections  of  the  pelvis,  in  some  deformed  patients  mentioned  in 
the  letter.     They  arc  but  indifferently  executed. 
-    A. pamphlet  in  reply,  by  Mr.  Simmons,  is  just  published. 

\  {  83  )   - 

Art.  XVL  Subsiance  of  the  Speech  0/  the  Right  ffonourahle  IfetfTf 
ytiURngton^  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Commons,  on  the  12th  of 
February  1 799,  in  the  Committee  of  the  whole  House,  to  whom 
hts  Majesty's  most  gracious  Message  of  the  2 2d  January,  rektire 

^   to  Ireland,  was  referred.    2d  Edition.    8vo.  is.   Wright. 

'TTHE  information  which  this  speech  manifests  and  conveys, 
'  *-  the  fairness  of  its  arguments,  and  the  considerate  atten* 
tion  which  «it  displays  towards  the. interests  of  both  countries, 
earitle  it  to  a  superior  dejgree  of  public;, notice.  Of  the  many 
bradons  in  favour  of  the  measure,  we  do  not  recollect  to  have 
seen  any  more  tempenite,  or,  within  an  equal  compass,  more 
comprehensive.— The  Right  Honourable  Speaker,  remarking  on 
the  state  of  Ireland,  observes  that  ^  even  at  a  period  of  apparent 
tranquillity,  it  was  impossible  not  to  discover  those  seeds  of 
animosity,  which  have  unhappily  been  matured  by  circuix^- 
stances  into  insurrection  and  rebellion/  In  considering  the 
different  plans  which  have  been  proposed  for  restoring  tran- 
quillity to  Ireland,  and  for  perpetuating  her  connection  with 
Great  Britain,  Catholic  emancipaiion^  xiit  re-enacting  of  the  Popery 
iawSf  in  the  whole  or  in  part ;  and  an  ieicorporation  of  the  iegis^ 
htures  of  the  two  countries^  are  selected  as  those  measures 
which  have  been  most  strongly  recommended. 
•  Agreeing,  we  believe,  in  the  opinion  that  Catholic  emancipa^ 
tioM  is  coupled  with  parliamentary  reform,  Mr.  Addingtcm 
adopts  the  objection  of  Mr.  Potter^  (the  Speaker  of  the  Irish 
House,)  <<  that  it  has  the  tendency  to  give  the  influence  to 
numbers,  and  to  take  it  from  property «,  and  to  overwhelm  the 
rights  of  the  protestants  of  Ireland."  The  reenactmmt  of  the 
jpenal  laws  against  the  Catholics  he  likewise  condemns,  as  being  ill 
adapted  to  heal  the  divisions  of  Ireland;  <  nor  could  it  have  the 
cflect  of  conveying  to  the  Protestants  a  greater  degree  of  coi>o 
fidence  and  security,  by  allaying  the  irritation  of  the  Catholics.' 
Both  the  foregoing  plans  being  rejected,  the  measure  of  a  Legis* 
' klive  Union  comes  next  under  consideration. 

Here  we  wish  to  observe  that  Catholic  emancipation 
would  in  itself  be  a  partial  reform  of  parliament.  Whether, 
beyond  that,  it  is  necessarily  connected  with  parliamentary 
reform,  we  cannot  pretend  to  determine.  The  restrictions  on 
the  Roman  Catholics  of  Ireland  are  justifiable  only  on  the 
principles  of  self-defence,  as  being  necessary  to  the  safety  of 
the  Protestants.  It  is  on  all  hands  acknowleged  that  the  influ- 
ence of  the  Catholics,  supposing  them  to  be  restored  to  their 
political  rights,  would  be  much  less,-  and  of  course  less  dan- 
gerous, in  an  united  legislature,  than  in  the  present  separate 
legislature  of  Ireland.     If,  then,  consistently  with  safety,  Ca« 

G  2  tholic 


84  Addington'/  Speecff* 

thpUc  emancipation- might  be  coupled  with  a  .legislative  anions 
gainst  wtiicn  \he  arguments  that  we  have  seen  do  not  appear 
9p  stropg  as  those  which  have  been  offered  in  favour  of  such  a 
Qieasure^)  the  number  of  those  who  would  be  justly  gratified 
would  be  out  of  all  proportion  greater,  than  of  those  vfhxy 
would  thereby  have  reasonable  cause  of  dissatisfaction. 

The  project  of  an  Union,  the  Right  Hon,  Speaker  shews, 
was  countenanced  by  some  of  the  most  distinguished  and  able 
Statesmen  of  the  last  century:  Sit  Matthetxy  Decker,  Sir  WilBam 
Petty y  Mr.  Molineus,  ahd  Sir  Josiah. Child.  In  speaking  of  the 
effect  of  the  union  with  Scotland,  it  is  remarked  that 

<  The  animosity  between  the  two  nationsi  immediately  previoos  to 
the  Union,  was  such,  as  to  have  led  them  to  the  verge  of  hostilities  l 
and  that  the  grounds  of  distrust,  and  complaint,  were  thereby  enr 
tirely  done  away.  He  also  observed,  that  there  were  circumstance* 
{todins^  to  facilitate  an  intimate  connexion  between  this  country  and 
f  reland,  and  to  incorporate  the  people  of  those  Idn^domtf^  which  did 
not  belong  to  the  relation  in  wbfch  I^ngland  and  Scotland  stood  to 
(Cach  other.  It  would  be  recollected,  amongst  other  illustrations  of 
tliis  observation,  that  here,  and  in  Ireland,  there  was  the  same  cod^ 
cif  civil  ^d.criipina}  law;  the  same  forms  for  the  administratipii.or 
justice^  ana*,  for  the  purposes  of  Iceislatioo ;  the  same  succession  t(^ 
the  crown  ;  and  the  same  established  religion.' 

•  Other  arguments  are  advanced  to  prove  that,  besides  contri- 
buting to  the  general  safety  of  the  empire  by  leading  to  a  co« 
incidence  of  views  and  sentiments  in  the  great  body,  of  th^ 
people,  an  Union  would,  in  many,  more  respects,  be  beneficial 
to  the  people  of  Ireland,  both  of  the  Protestant  and  of  <  the 
Roman  Catholic  persuasion.-i*The  sentiments  in  the  following 
part  of  this  speech,  nearly  at  its  close,  cannot  fail  of  being^ad^, 
mired  for  the  just  respect  which  they  shew  for  the  rights  aod 
the  feelings  of  other  men : 

•  Some  Gentlemen  had  entertained  an  opinion  which,  he  acknow* 
ledged,  was  entitled  to  serious  attention  and  consideration ;  that,  af^ 
the.  proposed  measure  had  been  discountenanced  by  the  House  of 
Commons  in  Irtlantl,  to  persist  in  the  discussion  of  it  here,  would  be 
to  add  to  the  irritation  which  iinliappily  prevails  in  that  country^^ 
Such  ara  effect  he  should  sincerely  lament,  and  should  be  sorry  to 
bjave  any  share  in  producing.  There  were  other  consequences^  howr 
ever,  which  it  was  of  the  utmost  importance  to  avert.  If  the  parlia* 
ment  of  tlus  country  were  to  abstain  from  declaring  the  conditions 
upon  which  it  would  be  disposed  to  incorporate  itself  with  the  parr 
liament  of  Ireland,  it  was  impossible  not  to  be  aware  of  the  oppor- 
tunity and  scope  which  would  be  afforded  for  misconception,  suspicion, 
and  misrepresentation. 

*  He  tru-ited  that  we  slioirld  adx^pt  such  resolntions  as  \\'ould  rather 
^eod  to  appease,  than  to  inflame  ;  such  as  would  be  a  pledge  of  our 

rj  libcraliiy^ 

Monthly  CuTALoctjE,  Medkdl.  8; 

I9benJit7V  ^^^  our  justice :  that  we  should  manifest  the  earnestness 
and  sincerity  of  our  wishes  to  communicate  to  Ireland  a  full  parti* 
cipation  of  all  the  advantages  we  enjoy  ;  that  we  should  prove  our- 
selves  desirous  of  considering  the  inhabitants  of  the  two  countries  at 
one  people,  connected  together  by  the  closest  ties  under  the  same 
Constitotion,  the  same  Parliament,  and  the  same  King, 

*  He  had  understood  that,  if  the  Resolutions  which  had  been 
6pened  should  be  agreed  to,  it  would  be  proposed  that  they  should 
be  carried  to  the  foot  of  the  Throne,  accompanied  by  an  Address  to 
kts  Mi^esty.  In  that  Address  he  hoped,  and  was  persuaded,  that 
DO  sentiments  or  expressions  would  be  introduced  which  jealousy 
might  misinterpret,  or  malice  pervert :  that  there  would  be  no  in- 
dication q£  a  wish  on  our  pait  to  press  the  consideration  of  the 
question  upon  the  Legislature  of  Irelapd ;  and  that  no  impulse  would 
be  gt^n  to  it,  but  what  it  might  derive  from  the  free  and  unbiassed 
pinions,  and  dispassionate  judgment  of  the  Parliament  and  People  of 
tint  kingdom.* 

Wc  have  never  heard  the  character  of  Mr.  Speaker  Adding- 
ton  mentioned  without  respect ;  and  we  never  rontemplate  his 
conduct  without  feeling  that  respect  justified  and  strengthened*       ^  ^ 


For    MAY,     1799. 


Art.  17.  Ohservaiiont  and  Experiments  M  tie  Br§aJ'kawJ  HfTtUow 
Barhy  illustrated  with  Cases.  By  W.  White,  Apothecary  to  the 
Bath  City  Infirmary  and  Dispensary.  8vo*  pp.  59.  IS.  6dr 
Vemor  and  Hood. 

CivcE  the  introduction  of  this  bark  into  practice  at  the  Bath  City 
Infirmary  and  Dispensary,  as  a  substitute  for  the  Peruvian  bark, 
«t  are  tpld,  bot  less  than  twciity  pounds  a-year  have  been  saved  tQ 
the  Charitjr*  If  an  equal  degree  of  good  can  be  effected  by  the 
wiUow^barK)  its  cheapness  certainly  renders  it  an  object  of  attention 
to  the  governors  of  similar  institutions.  It  has  long  been  recom- 
mended in  agruesy  instead  of  bark :  but  its  use  has  never  been  gehc- 
oDy  adopts  by  the  faculty. 

The  common  dose,  Mr.  White  tells  us,  is  two  table-spoons  full  of 
the  decoction,  three  or  four  times  in  a  day :  but,  in  intermittents^ 
it  is  necessary  to  give  one  or  two  ounces  every  three  hours.  The 
&nn  of  tl^e  decoction  consists  of  two  ounces  of  broad-leaved  willow 
bark,  boiled  in  two  pints  of  water  to  one  pint,  with  the  addition  of 
I  drachm  of  pimento. 

Mr.  W.  conceives  this  remedy  to  be  little  inferior  in  ciScacy  to  the 
PcrnTian  bark.— The  willow  bark  he  has  hardly  ever  found  to  dis- 
tgrec  with  the  stontach  or  bowels ;  a  circumstance  greatly  in  its  fa- 
wur.  The  superior  bitter  quality  of  the  Peruvian  bark  seems  tobe 
JU  chief  clatm  to  »  picSarBcc  before  the  willow  bark. 
/  G  3  Tht 

85  Monthly  Catalogub,  Law. 

The  cates  undoubtedly  shew  that  this  remedy  possesses  conuderable 
powier,  and  will  probably  excite  the  attention  of  practitioners  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  country  to  a  substance  so  easily  procured.  1W.. 

Art.  1 8.    jIn  Illustration  of  the  Analog  between  Vegetable  and  jinlmal 

Parturition.      By  A.  Hunter,    M.  D.    F.  R.  S.  L.  &  E.      8vo. 

pp.  4.     With  a  Plate,     is.     Cadell  jun.  and  Davlcs. 

This  is  a  very  pleasing,  though  very  short,  comparison  of  the  mode 

pf  the  production  of  germs  in  animals  and  vegetables ;  it  proves  that 

the  venerable  author  preserves  that  spirit  of  observation  undiminished, 

by  which  he  was  honourably  dibtinguibhed  many  years  ago.  Tjp 

Art.  19.    An  Ap^ndage  to  the  Toilet  :  or,  an  Essay  on  the  Management 

of  the  Teeth.     Dedicated  to  the  Ladies.     By  Hugh  Moises,  M.D. 

Small  8vo.     pp.  42.     2s.  6d.     Hookham  and  Carpenter. 

This  treatise  has  been  effect ually  secured  against  the  attacks  of 
criticiBin,  by  the  patronage  under  which  it  is  placed  by  its  courteous 
author.  Our  fair  readers  will  find  it,  at  least,  a  guide  free  from 
noxious  practices. 

We  wish  that  Dr.  M.  had  avoided  breaking  Priscian's  head,  in  his 
.  motto:  Amicus  Veritas  will  not  do,  even  for  Lady's  Latin.  jyo 

•Art.  20.  One  Hour's  Advice,  respecting  their  Healthy  to  Persons  going 
out  to  the  Island  of  Jamaica.  By  R.  Wise.  12 mo.  pp.  70. 
)sw  6d.    Johnson. 

This  manual  is  compiled  chiefly  from  Mr.  Long's  valuable  history 
of  JAiaica  *,  by  a  gentleman  who  resided  for  some  time  on  the 
island  ;  and  who  imputes  his  preservation  from  the  common  diseases 
of  the  country,  and  particularly  from  the  yellow  fever,  to  his. strict 
adherence  to  the  rules  established  in  a  chapter  of  Mr.  Long's  book. 
They  certainly  merit  the  attention  of  every  European  who  visits  Ja- 
maica \  and  we  oply  fear  that  those,  who  are  most  liable  to  the  bad 
effects  of  the  climate,  will  be  least  attentive  to  the  sagest  monitor.    -^.^ 


Art.  21.    A  Letter  to  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Loughborough^  Lord  Hit  h 
Chancellor  of  England^  8cc.  &c.  from  Richard  Wilson,  Esq.  M.  P. 
on  the  Subject  of  his  Bill  of  Divorce  from  the  Hon.  Anne  Wilson, 
late  Townsend,  presented  in  the  last  Session  of  Parliament  to  the 
House  of  Lords.     8vo.    is.    Chappie.    1798. 
An  unseemly,  and,  as  it  appears  to  us,  an  unprovoked  attack  on 
tlie  characters  of  the  Lord  Chancellor  and  of  the  Bishop  of  Ro- 
chester, because  the  House  of  Lords  have  thought  it  proper  to  dis* 
miss  Mr.  Wilson's  Bill  of  Divorce.  C^l 

Art.  %%.     A  Treatise  on  the  Law  of  Homicide ,  and  of  Larceny  at 
Common  Law  ;  by  Robeit  Bevill  of  the  Inner  Temple,  Esq;  Bar* 
ristcr  at  Law.     8vo.     pp.300.     58.  Boards.    Clarke.    179Q. 
Mr.  Btvill  informs  his  readers,  in  his  Preface,  *  that  he  has  for 

^veral  years  been  preparing  a  treatise,  which  was  intended  to  con* 

•  For  our  ample  account  of  that  work,  sec  Rev.  vol.  li.  p.  159, 


Monthly  Catalocue,  Law.  87 

tain  the  law*  upon  all  the  offences  usually  tned  at  the  Assises ;  and 
that  the  following  pages  were  written  as  a  part  of  that  work.' 
Surely,  such  a  publication  must  be  considered  as  unnecessar)'',  when 
the  Profession  possess  the  able  and  comprehensive  treatises  of  Chief 
Justice  Hale  and  Serjeant  Hawkins  on  the  Pleas  of  the  Crown.  Th? 
useless  multiplication  of  law-books  is  an  evil  of  which  we  have  fre- 
quent cause  to  complain  ;  and  we  shall  persevere  in  expressing  odr 
disapprobation,  till  the  nuisance  be  in  some  measure  removed.  S.H.  • 

Art.  23.  General  OhseruaUons  on  the  Power  of  Indiv'uluah  to  presence f 
hj  Testamentary  DispoutionSf  the  particular  future  Uses  to  be  made  of 
their  Property j  occasioned  by  the  last  Will  of  the  late  Mr.  Peter 
Thellusson  of  London.  By  John  Lewis  dc  Loloie,  LL.  D. 
Author  of  the  Book  on  the  "  Constitution  of  England."  4to. 
.   pp.  40*     IS.     Richardson.     1798.  i 

Ihe  observations  contained  in  this  pamphlet  are  all  drawn  from  the 
argument  ab  tnconvenlentL  If  they  prove  any  thing,  they  tend  ta 
prove  too  much,  for  they  endeavour  to  shew  that  the  acts  of  the 
legislature  may  render  that  illegal  which  executors  have  undertaken 
to  perform.  This  objection  applies,  in  a  great  measure,  to  alter  wills 
under  which  executors  are  appointed.  S>»H  • 

Art.  24.  jin  Address  to  ihe  People  of  Great  Britain^  on  the  Doctrine 
of  Libels  and  the  Office  of  Juror.     By  George  Dyer,  B.  A.    8vo* 
pp.  120.     2s.  6d.    Printed  for  the  Author,  and  sold  by  Symonds 
^    in  Paternoster- Row. 

We  have  read  this  pamphlet  with  that  pleasure  which  good  writing 
is  calculated  to  produce  on  the  mind :  but  we  cannot  add  that  any 
material  information  on  the  subject  of  libels,  or  on  the  office  of 
jurors,  can  be  collected  from  it.  It  might  have  been  entitled  **  A 
Defence  of  Mr.  Wakefield's  Answer  to  the  Bishop  of  Landaff,"  for 
such  it  really  is ;  and, .  in  course,  it  condemns  the  late  proceedings 
against  that  gentleman  and  the  publishers  of  his  book. 
^  The  author  intimates  that  a  jury  should  regulate  their  verdict  not 
•  enly  by  the  evidence  adduced  in  court,  but  by  the  evidence  which 
they  may  have  collected  aliunde, — ^This  doctrine  is  in  direct  oppositfon 
to  the  juryman's  oath;  by  which  he  is  bound,  for  the  wisest  and  moat 
obvious  reasons,  to  find  his  verdict  according  to  the  evidence  whjich 
shall  be  brought  forwards  at  the  triaL 

Mr.  D.  selects,  from  the  whole  body  of  moralists,  the  names  of 
Helvetius,  Hume,  and  Rousseau,  as  the  writers  to  whose  exertions 
mankind  have  been  the  most  indebted.  Surely  other  characters 
might  have  suggested  themselves  to  Mr.  D,  on  such  an  occasion  ; 
for,  with  the  exception  of  Hume,  persons  more  objectionable  could 
scarcely  have  been  introduced, — at  this  time,  and  in  this  country. 
Men  of  genius,  however,  can  render  every  subject  interesting  and 
amusing  :  as  we  have  experienced  in  the  perusal  of  this  Address. 

Art.  ^5.  ji  digested  Index  to  the  Seven  Volumes  of  Term  Reports  in  the 
Court  of  King*t  Bench  ;  containing  a  concise  Statement  of  all  the 
Points  of  Law  determined  in  that  Court,  from  Michaelmas  Term 
26  George  3.  1785,  to  Tiiuity  Term  38  George  3.  1798,  inclu- 

G  4  sivc. 


si  Monthly  Catalogue,  Novels: 

6IVC.     With  Tables  of  Reference  to  the  Names  of  Case^y  Statoiet 
cited,  &c.  &c.     By  T.  E.  Tomlius,  of  the  Inner  Temple,  Bat- 
lister  at  Law,    Editor  of  the  Law  Dictionary.       Royal    8vo, 
pp.  300.     128.  Boards.     Buttcrworth.     1799* 
The  great  advantages  resulting  from  the  periodical  publication  of 
the  Term  Reports  wc  have  frequently  experienced  ;   and,  on  the  ap- 
pcaranpe  of  the  respective  volumes^  we  have  borne  willing  testimony 
,    «  to  their  merit. — As  their  contents,  however,  are  so  voluminous  and 
'  of  so  various  a  nature,  a  clear  and  compendious  manner  of  referring  to 
them  became  desirable.     This  want  is  here  supplied  by  Mr.  Tomlins, 
whose  accuracy  and  diligence  are  already  known  to  the  Profession  ; 
and  who,  to  use  his  own  words,  <  has  arranged,  methodized,  conso^ 
lidatcd,  and  corrected  the  several  indices  which  were\  published  at  the 
tnd  of  each  volume,  so  that  all  analogous  cases  might  be  brought  to- 
gether in  one  view,  the  progress  of  opinion  in  contested  or  doubtful 
mttances  traced  out,  and  seeming  contradictions  reconciled  or  ex- 
plained ;  thus  in  fact  affording  a  Repertorium  to  these  Term  Reports 
which  should  present  a  short  history  of  the  law  laid  down  from  the 
Bench  in  the  course  of  the  last  thirteen  years.* 

A  table  of  statutes  ched,  and  on  which  any  remarks  have  been 
( .  .made,  or  on  which  any  points  have  been  directly  determined,  toge- 
ther with  a  table  of  the  names  of  the  cases,  referring  both  to  the 
Term  Reports  and  to  the  present  work,  are  also  given ;  and  Mr. 
Tomlins  appears  to  have  spared  no  pains  to  render  his  publication  a« 
useful  as  tne  nature  of  the  undertaking  would  admit.  C^*] 

^rt.  26.     ji  Charge  delivered  to  the  Grand  Jury^  at  the  Assizei  bolden 
at  Ely  f  27  th  March  1799.     ^7  Henry  Gwillim,  Esq.   Chief  Jus- 
tice .  oJF  the  Isle  of  Ely,  pubhshcd  at  the  Request  of  the  Ma« 
gistrates  and  Grand  Jury.     4to.     is.  6d.     Butterworth. 
This  is  a  sensible  and  moderate  address,  suited  to  the  circum- 
stances and  temper  of  the  times  ;  and  properly  calculated  to  convince 
the  understandings,  rather  than  to  mislead  or  inflame  the  passions,  of 
its  auditors.  C  | 


Ji^rt.  27.     Letters  written  from  Lausanne.   Translated  from  the  Frenclu 
2  Vols.     i2nio.     5s.  sewed.     Dilly.     1799. 

Love  and  marriage,  the  usual  themes  of  the  novelist,  occupy  ex- 
clusively the  pages  of  this  narrative  ;  and,  worn  as  the  subjects  are, 
wc  have  perused  it  with  considerable  interest ; — yet  we  cannot  wish 
jt  an  extensive  circulation  amougbt  our  fair  countrywomen,  whose 
stricter  morals  can  derive  little  improvement  from  the  example  of 
their  Galh'c  neighbours,  either  before  or  since  the  revolution. — Per- 
haps, the  sentiments  are  exceptionable  ?  No,  the  sentiments  are  uni- 
formly excellent. — The  personages  introduced,  then,  are  unfit  for 
imitation,  and  probably  their  vices  arc  pourtrayed  with  delusive  blan- 
dishments ?  Ah  no  !  the  characters  are  generally  good,  most  of  them 
amiable,  and  none  of  them  bad. — What  tlicn,  after  all,  is  the  V?ndency 
of  the  performance  ?  To  prove,  that  it  is  infinitely  to  be  lamented 
that  an  accomph'sked  young  man,  of  high  birth,  and  a  men)ber  of 
the  British  senate,  had  not  manied  the  kept  mistress  of  a  deceased 

nobleroim  \ 

Monthly  Catalocths,  NowIs.  89 

AoUieman !— Did  wc  ^vritc  sokly  for  courtezans,  we  should  cerUinlf 
endeavour  to  inculcate  the  possibility  of  redeeming,  by  the  sedulous 
practice  of  other  virtues,  the  loss  of  one  of  the  greatest : — ^but»  in  the 
present  state  of  society  in  England,  we  do  not  really  perceive  the  uti* 
lity  of  demonstrating,  by  an  attractive  though  unhappy  example,  that 
the  character  to  which  we  have  alluded  is  not  incompatible  with 
virtues  and  accomplishments,  sufficient  to  procure  for  their  pos« 
sessor  the  highest  degree  of  admiration,  of  respect,  and  of  esteem.— * 
*^  Majores  nostri  si  quam  unius  teccati  (Impudicitia)  muBerem  damnabani: 
4'tmplui  judicio  multorum  maleficiorum  convtctam  fmtabant.  Cur  t  ^ui^ 
nulla  poUsi  honesta  ratio  reiinere  cam^  quam  magniiudopeccatifacii  iimidam^ 
saUmptr/mtia  audacem^  natura  mul'ubris  incomideratamJ*     Cornificius*        T{^an.«*< 

fixl.  28.      Helen  Sinclairt  a  Noyel,  by  a  Lady*^.     i2mo.     2  Vols. 

78.  sewed.  Cadell  jun«  and  Davies,  1799. 
'  This  work  appears  to  be  the  effusion  of  a  pure,  virtuous,  and  be- 
nevolent mind ; — the  characters,  though  neitner  striking  nor  uncom- 
mon, are  on  the  whole  justly  delineated;  and,  if  the  incidents  do  not 
surprise  and  astonish  us,  we  observe  fewer  violations  of  probabilitr 
than  in  the  greater  part  of  the  novels  which  are  poured  out  in  suca 
torrents  from  the  press. — Helen  Sinclair  may  therefore  be  recom- 
mended to  our  female  readers  as  not  only  capable  of  affording  an  in« 
nocent  amusement,  but  as  a  work  which  will  probably  leave  behind  it 
impressions  favourable  to  the  sacred  cause  of  religion  and  virtue. 

Wc  wish,  however,  that  the  fair  writer  had  not  introdaced 
a  masquerade ;  as  it  seems  scarcely  consistent  with  the  gravity  of 
Lady  Olivia's  character  to  countenance  an  amusement  which  may  be 
termed  the  child  of  folly,  and  frequently,  we  apprehend,  has  proved  the 
parent  of  vice.  Lady  Violette,  we  fear,  is  too  just  a  picture  of  many 
young  women  of  fashion  ;  and  the  misery  in  which  sne  involves  her- 
self, and  her  family,  may  convey  useful  instruction  to  the  vain,  the 
thoughtless,  and  the  dissipated.  Mr.  Dashwood  is  a  true  stable- 
buck  ;  and  no  part  of  his  conduct  is  improbable,  nor  inconsisteot* 
except  his  reformation.  Lord  Montgomery  meets  with  that  reward 
'  which  ambition  and  avarice  generally  bestow  on  their  votaries,  viz* 
Aiappoitttmenl  and  repentance,  XL^w  ^ 

Art.  29.  The  Castle  of  St.  Donats  ;  or,  the  History  of  Jack  Smith. 
1 2  mo.  3  Vols.  I  OS.  6d.  sewed.  Lane. 
The  author  of  this  novel  is  a  person  of  talents  and  observation  :  but 
the  hero  of  his  tale  is  a  rake  ;  who,  in  time,  and  before  the  spints  of 
youth  have  wholly  subsided,  is  reformed,  and  married  to  a  fair,  rich, 
and  virt\^ous  woman,  whom  his  altered  conduct  entitles  him  to  espouse. 
Wc  do  not  greatly  approve  such  examples.  The  mind  of  thtf 
young  and  incautious  reader,  to  whom  novels  are  the  favourite  lite- 
rary amusement,  may  receive  a  wrong  bias  from  such  representations. 
With  due  respect  to  the  memory  of  Fielding,  we  cannot  but  think, 
that  his  Tom  Jones  has  produced  more  imitators  of  his  vices  than  of 
his  virtues ;  and  our  experience  in  the  world  induces  us  to  suspect 
that  the  reformation  of  a  rake  is  at  best  very  equivocaL    The  autnort 

y      >  ■         « ■        ■  » 

*  Elizabeth  Isabella  Sptnce. 

90  Monthly  Catalogue,  Novels. 

who  seems  aware  of  this  objection,  has,  in  the  latter  end  of  his  3d 
Tolume,  entered  into  the  common  question,  whether  a  reformed  rake 
will  male  a  good  husband?  This  question  he  canvasses  with  a  de- 
gree of  humour  which  would  have  pleased  us,  had  the  illustration 
been  less  hctntious. 

The  characters  in  this  work,  though  not  new,  arc  distinctly  pour- 
traycd  ;  and  the  buffoon  and  the  punster  (Synims  andWilfle)  are  well 
contrasted  with  the  manly  sense  and  elegant  manners  of  Smith  and 
hi»  friend  Lord  Edward.  In  short,  novel-readers  will  not  be  disap- 
pointed if  they  look  for  entertainment  in  these  volumes.  We  can 
announce  to  them  a  ruined  castle  and  a  ghost ;  and  we  can  add,  with 
pleasure,  that  the  castle  is  at  last  restored  to  its  pristine  splendor,  and 
that  the  midnight  visitor,  **  this  airy  nothing,*'  legains  **  a  local  ha- 
1)itation  and  a  name,"  and  is  agaiti  introduced  to  tlie  enjoyment  of  his 
friends  and  the  world.  StttyV 

Art.  50.  The  Castle  of  Beeston  ;  or>  Randolph  Earl  of  Chester  :  an 
Historical  Romance.  12 mo.  2  Vols.  Faulder. 
An  attempt  to  mix  historical  facts  with  the  inventions  of  fancy 
generally  proves  unsuccessful,  for  two  classes  of  readers  are  most  pro- 
bably disappointed: — the  lovers  of  romance  deem  such  stories  not 
sufEciently  amusing  ;  and  the  adherents  to  historical  accuracy  accuse 
the  motley  writer  of  inconsistency  and  falsehood. — In  the  volumes 
before  us>  the  plot  exhibits  little  ingenuity  ;  the  observations  and  sen- 
timents manifest  no  unusual  sagacity ;  and  the  diction  is  frequently 
rendered  tumid  by  affectation>aud  obscure  by  grammatical  inaccuracies.   1^0 

Art.  51.  Human  VlctssUudes  ;  or,  Travels  into  unexplored  Regions. 
2  Vols.  i2mo.  6s.  sewed.  Robinsons.  1798. 
We  may  venture  to  predict  that  these  regions  will  not  often  be  ex- 
plored twice  by  the  same  traveller.  To  contrast  the  moral  and  poli- 
tical state  of  England  with  those  of  an  imaginary  people,  of  innocent 
manners  and  acute  understandings,  seems  to  have  been  the  design  of 
the  writer :  but  the  pen  of  Gulliver  has  long  been  missing  ;  and  cer- 
tainly the  author  of  this  jejune  performance  lias  not  found  it.  R^OH 

Art.  32.  j1  Tale  of  the  Times.  By  the  Author  of  "  A  Gossip's 
Story.'*  i2mo.  3  Vols.  t2s.  sewed.  Longman.  1799. 
This  work  is  interesting,  though  too  diffuse  in  its  narration,  and  though 
It  is  rendered  too  prolix  by  the  multiplicity  of  its  reflections.  A  novel 
is  indebted  for  its  historical  merit,  to  the  liveliness  and  perspicuity  of 
the  manner  in  which  it  is  told  5  and  to  endeavour  to  aid  the  narra- 
tion, by  the  progress  of  the  plot,  proclaims  barrenness  of 
invention. — ^The  characters  ate  well  drawn  ;  and  the  lesson  to  marned 
ladies,  warning  them  against  male  confidants,  1%  important  and  well 
urged.  The  delineation  of  Fit/.osborne,  an  unprincipled  soi-disant 
fhilosophe,  shews  at  least  an  honourable  wish  in  the  author  to  expose 
the  selfish  and  dangerous  principles  of  some  modern  ethics. 

We  cannot  but  Ihink  that  distributive  justice  might  have  dispensed 
with  the  death  of^the  lovely  Lady  Monteith,  as  her  misfortunes  and 
misbehaviour  were  occasioned  by  the  infamous  plots  and  diabolical  con- 
duct of  the  ravisher  Fitzosborne.     Her  repentsuice  and  reformation 


Monthly  CATAtOGUE,  Irelatid.  91 

might  have  reconciled  her  to  her  husband  ;  and  the  story,  without 
being  less  instructive,  would  have  been  more  in  unison  with  the  feel- 
ings of  a  candid  and  huniane  reader.  The  language  is  uniformly 
correct ;  and  the  moral  sentiments  do  honour  to  the  writer's  heart 
and  understanding.  Sw^^  • 

^ Art.  33.  The  Libertines*  1 2 mo.  2  Vols.  6s.  sewed.  Robinsons. 
The  purport  of  these  volumes  h  to  expose  the  vices  and  enormitiei 
committed  in  the  intercourse  between  male  and  female  convents.  The 
author  (as  he  intimates  in  his  preface)  has  availed  himsclt  of  the  va- 
rious accounts  Avhich  he  has  perused  m  the  private  lives  of  monks  and 
nuns ;  and  of  the  judicial  proceedings  of  the  **  holy"  inquisition : 
but  siich  accounts,  if  authentic,  would  be  more  interesting  and  instruc- 
tive in  historical  narration,  than  in  tales  of  professed  fiction. — The 
work  is  full  of  convent  intrigues  and  diabolical  anecdotes  of  inquisi- 
torial tyranny : — but,  regardmg  novels  chiefly  as  books  of  amusement, 
we  cannot  recommend  the  present  volumes  to  our  readers,  as  the  story 
does  not  appear  to  be  conducted  by  a  writer  who  is  possessed  of  powers 
sufficient  to  render  gloomy  stories  agreeable  to  the  imagination,  or  to 
seize  on  it  forcibly  by  the  magic  of  the  pen.  The  plot  is  intricate ;  and 
the  poetry  interspersed  is  too  flimsy  to  relieve  the  iiksomeness  of  the 
general  plan.  I^o 


Art.  34.     Consulerations  on  National  Independencey  suggested  by  Mr. 

Pitt's  Speech  on  the  Irish  Union.      By  a  Member  of  the  Hon. 

Society  of  Lincoln's  Inn.     8vo.     is.  6d.     Robinsons. 

These  suggestions  are  written  in  favour  of  the  independence  of 
^  Ireland,  and  in  course  against  an  union  :  but  the  author  seems  to  lean 
towards  an  independence  too  much  separated  and  too  distinct  from 
this  countr}' ;  and  he  is  at  the  trouble  of  advancing  proofs  of  the  abi- 
lity of  Ireland  to  maintain  herself  as  an  independent  stHte.  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  are  not,  nor  can  the  sober  friends  of  cither  country 
desire  thdt  they  should  he,  independent  of  each  other.  The  first  and 
great  end  of  government  is  security.  Security  against  foreign  at- 
tempts is  mojt  necessary  to  national  independence  ;  and  on  the  justness 
and  goodness  of  the  government,  rests  tlie  secutity  of  that  individual 
independence,  the  enjoyment  and  preservation  of  which  constitutes 
the  character  of  a  frte  people.  With  respect  to  national  independence^ 
the  two  kingdoms,  if  united,  would  become  one  nation.  As  such^ 
the  national  independence  of  the  whole  would  not  be  less  secure  than 
it  is  in  the  present  not  independent  connection  o(  the  parts, 

In  speaking  of  the  cllects  of  union,  the  writer  asks  *  whether 
Scotland  produces  such  high-spirited  and  intrepid  characters  as  of  old?* 
we  sec  not  the  smallest  reason  for  questioning  the  spirit  of  the  present 
race  of  North  Britons. 

The  rights  of  sovereignty  in  the  ptople,  which  the  author  conceives 
to  have  been  attacked  iu  Mr.  Pitt's  speech,  are  here  defended ;  and 
in  answer  to  the  assertion,  that  such  a  principle  can  make  no  part 
of  any  system  of  j  urisprudence,  the  author  quotes,  amongotlier  instances, 
the  preamble  to  the  consutulionof  Pennsylvania.— Several  late  writers 


92  MoiJthlv  Catalogue,  Religious^  bfc* 

have  expressed  apprehensions  that  an  union  between  Great  Ilricain 
and  Ireland  would  so  much  increase  the  iuilucncc  of  patronage,  as 
wholly  to  undermine  the  freedom  of  the  constitution  ;  and  this  seems 
to  be  the  greatest  danger  attendant  on  such  an  union.  If  provision 
.  were  made  against  this  consequence,  we  believe  that,  in  most  other 
^respects,  an  union  would  promote  the  respective  interests  of  each 
conntr}',  and  consequently  the  general  interest  of  the  whole.  (^pV.'B 

Art.  35.     -^  LeiUr  addressed  to  the  Gentlemen  of  England  and  Irsland^ 
.  en  the  Inexpediency  of  a  Federal  Union  between  the  Two  King- 
doms.    By  Sir  John  J,  W.  Jcrvis^  Bart.     8vo.     is.  6d.     Printed 
at  Dublin  ;  Loudon  reprinted  for  Debrett.     1798. 
This  Letter  was  written  before  the  plan  of  a  legiblative  union  was 
debated  in  the  parliament  of  cither  kingdom.     The  writer  condemns 
xht  prc^cied  yxnvcrn  as  '  a  phenomenon  of  hideous  aspect'— in  its  nature, 
be  says,  *  so  destructive,  that  I  would  wish  fondly  to  believe  even  the 

5 resent  times,  so  creative  of  novelty  and  reproach,  could  not  form  or 
ring  forth  a  more  frightful  monster.*  Notwithstanding  this  warmtk 
of  declamation,  there  is  reason  in  some  of  the  author's  remarks.  He 
argues  that  an  union  would  greatly  increase  ministerial  influence,  and 
enable  the  executive  branch  to  command  at  all  times  a  majority.  He 
.  apprehends  likewise  that  great  injury  would  be  sustained  by  Ireland, 
in  the  administration  of  justice,  from  a  removal  of  the  appellant  ju- 
risdJction  of  the  peers  :  for  *  the  great  cxpence  would  render  a  refer- 
ence to  tlie  supreme  jurisdiction  m  England  a  thing  almost  unattain* 
able;' — and  the  restraint  and  control  over  the  courts  of  law  being  so 
temoved,  the  *  great  Snnctutiry^  against  partiality  or  caprice  in  the 
judges  would  be  lost.  These,  certainly,  are  considerations  worthy  of 
lenous  attention.  J)0 

RELIGIOUS    and  P  O  L  n  M  I  C  A  L. 

Art.  36.  Prospectus  y  with  Specimensy  of  an  Octavo  Pehglott-Blble*  fij 
Josiah  rratt,  M.  A.  8vo.  is.  Rivingtons!  1799. 
This  is  Mr.  Pratt's  stcond  Prospectirs  of  a  Polyglot t- Bible.  It  is  a 
trite  saying  that  **  second  thoughts  are  best,"  and  we  are  much  inclin- 
5l4  to  think  that  the  saying  holds  good  here.  In  the  autumn  of  1797, 
rfic  author  published  a  Prospectus  of  a  Quarto  Polyglott  Bible,  [see 
©nr  Review  for  May  1798,  p.78,]  in  which  he  requcsttd  the  communi- 
cation of  any  hints  that  might  tend  to  improve  his  plan  ;  and  a  great 
variety  of  suggestions  having  since  reached  him,  he  has  adopted 
some  of  them,  and  wrought  them  into  a  new  plan  ;  to  which  he  is 
determined  to  adhere.  'I'lie  work,  as  it  is  now  iinally  offered  to  the 
public,  differs  from  tliat  proposed  in  the  former  Prospectus,  chiefly, 
m  the  following  particulars,  i.  The  size  is  changed  from  quarto  to 
a  large  octavo. —  2.  The  price  is  lowertd  from  ten  guineas  to  seven 
pounds. — 3.  The  mode  of  publication  is  altered  from  ten  parts,  at 
considerable  intervals,  to  twenty  quarterly  numbers  :  i.  e.  (as  we 
understand  it)  a  number  will  be  published  at  the  end  of  every  quarter 
of  a  year — 4.  The  prolegomtlia  are  omitted  ;  except  so  far  as  they 
concern  the  necessary  catalogues  of  codices,  &c. — 5.  The  sanw:  texts 
are  preserved  :  but  most  gf  the  t^pcs  arc  somewhat  smaller,  •  though 


MdiTHit  C/rt-ALocuEi  Reltghttf,  e^r.  93 

^511  (oys  Mr.  P.)  easy  and  pleasaijt  to  the  eye. — ^Tliifl  we  (]eein 
•tnie  with  regard  to  the  types  of  the  Hebrew  texti  and  the  English 
version  :  but  the  types  used  to  express  the  Samaritan  t€xt>  the  Sejv- 
tuaginty.the  Synac»  and  the  Vulgate,  are,  in  our  opinioo,  too  amal^. 
— 6,  The  Masoretic  vowel  points  are  introduced  into  the  Hebrew 
tC3^t, —  7.  The  English  punctuation  is  omitted  in  the-  Samantaa, 
Chaddee,  and  Syriac. — 8.  *  The  accents  ^nd  spirits  are  <9mitted  in  aU 
the  Greek,  but  the  aspirate  and  tola  suhtcriptum  are  retained.*  These 
arc  Mt.P.'s  own  words:  but  is  not  the  aspirate  a  spirit ?^g.  In. 
the  nptes  of  various  readings,  the  editgr  pledges  himselt  for  nothing 
beyond  an  arrangement  and  abndgment  of  those  of  De  Rossi  on  the 
Old  Testament,  and  of  those  of  Grie^bach  on  the  New.— 10.  Th^ 
JProlegomena  and'  notes  will  be  given  in  Latin,  instead  of  English^ 
to  accommodate  the  work  to  more  ^enei-al  use4 

In  the  specimen  of  this  octavo  Pplyglott,  t^ie  text  stands  thus  la 
the.O.  T. — First,  dn'the  left  hand  page,  the  Hebrew,  with  the  EngJ. 
lish  by  its  side  :  on  tlie  right  hand  page,  the  Septuagint,  Qnkelos^ 
snd  the  Latin  Vulgate,  ia  tli/ee  collateral  cpliimns.  At  thebottpiii 
of  both  pages  is  the  Samaritan  text,  in. lines  equal  to  the  breadth  of 
the  whole  page.  We  think  that  tliese  are  too  long  for  the  eye  to  rua 
Over,  and  would  have  been  better  in  two  columns  ;^— the  Samaritan  text 
was  never  so  properly  arranged  as  in  Kennicott's  edition,  and  we  widi 
that  Mr.  Pratt  had  followed  that  arrangcment.-^Below  the  Samaritan 
text,  lie  the  various  readings  from  Kennicott  and  De  Rossi. 

In  the  New  Testament,  the  Syriac  and  English  versions  stand  on 
the  left-hand  page,  and  the  Greek  and. Latin  Vulgate  on  the  right  ; 
in  four  columns. — The  various  readings  are  below,  in  four  colunuia 

The  tvpe  in  which  the  Hebrew  is  printed  is  very  neat,  and  of  x 
proper  size  $  and  the  same,  without  points,  ought,  in  our  opinion^ 
to  have  been  employed  for  the  Samaritan  and  Onkelos  :— orat  least  a 
type  of  a  better  body  and  more  pleasant  form.  As  the  editor  tells  us, 
however,  that  new  types  are  to  be  cast  on  purpose,  he  will  doubtless 
make  the  best  choice  in  his  power.  Perhaps,  the  Greek  tvpe  of  thq 
"fjTew-Testament  specimen  should  be  used  for  the  Septuagmt :  it  ia 
dear  and.  elegant. 

In  appendix,  Mr.  P.  combats  objections  urged  by  ^me  periodical 
critics  against  his  former.  Prospectus.  (t^.-S. 

Art.  37.  Two  Letters  address^  I  to  the  Lord  Bishop  of  Landagfy  ooi 
casioned  by  the  Distinctioii  his  Lordship  hath  made  between  the 
Operation  of  the  Holy  Spirit  in  the  Primitive  Ministers  of  Christ» 

'  and  Its  Operation  in  Men  at  this  Day,  contained  in  an  Address  to 
Young  Persons  after  Coiifirmation ;  which  Distinction  is  sheuoi  jiot 
to  have  any  Foundation  in  the  New  Testament.  Also  that  the 
Promises  of  the  Spirit  to  Christ's  Disciples  extend  to  the  Daya 
of  the  Apostles  only.  By  William  Ashdowne.  8vo.  pp^  39. 
IS.  Johnson.  1798. 
"With  treat  plainness,  but  with  high  respect  for  the  learned 'Bishop;^ 

Mti.  A«  here  discusses  the  difficult  questions  concerning  the  g^'fts  and 

(^pentioBt/>f  thei>puit»    While  the  Bishop  of '  Landaff'.maintdin^A 


^4  MoMTHLT  CataloGUBi  Religious^  C^V, 

In  hi8  "  Address  to  Young  Persons,"  that  **  the  manner  in  which  the 
Holy  Spirit,  now  gives  his  assistance  is  not  attended  with  any  certain 
signs,  but  is  secret  and  unknown,  and  cannot  now  be  distinguished 
'from  the  ordinary  operations  of  the  mind ;"  Mr.  A.  asserts  that  the 
distinction  made  by  diviiies  between  the  extraordinar)r  and  ordinary 
gifts  and  operations  of  the  spirit  is  a  mere  modern  distinctipn,  un- 
supported by  the  Scriptures ;  and  that  every  text  on  this  subject 
clearly  shew*  tliat  its  effects  were  manifest  and  evident  to  the  person 
under  its  holv  influence.  For  this  purpbse,  he  adduces  passages  contairi- 
ing  the  word  Spirit^  without  appeanng  to  consider  that  this  term  is 
employed  in  various  senseft  fn  the  N.  T. — He  contends  that,  *  in  the 
Apostolic  days,  siimers  were  converted  to  God  without  the  opera- 
'^^!oft^  of  the  Spirit  ;*  and  when  John,  iiL  5.  seems  to  oppose  his  hypo- 
thesis, he  explains  the  word  Spirit  here  to  mean  •  the  revolutioa  of 
the  Spirit  in  the  word  of  God.'  Why  may  it  not  mean  this  in  other 
places  ?  Is  there  not  a  distinction  made  in  the  N.  T.  between  mira* 
cmlous  gifts,  for  which  Simon  offered  money,  and  .the  fruits  of  the  , 
^ritj  holiness,  goodness,  and  truth  f 

'  How  far  the  promise  of  the  spirit  extends  to  the  present  times,  1% 
a  question  which  admits  of  dispute.  It  must  be  confessed  that  the 
hecret  of  unknown  influence  or  effect,  for  which  the  learned  Bishop 
contends,  is  very  like  no  influence  at  all ;  and  yet  it  cannot  be  denied 
that  it  is  possible  for  the  eternal  Spirit  to  operate  on  the  mind  in  a 
silent  and  impetceptible  manner.  Wc  should  consider,  at  the  same  time, 
what  is  gained  to  religious  pleasure  and  conscious  satisfaction  by  this 
admission.  Does  the  mention  of  **  giving  the  Spirit"  always  imply 
the  peculiar  presence  of  the  Spirit  of  God  to  the  mind,  or  is  it  not 
a  strong  Orientalism  ?  The  Gospels  teach  us,  by  their  parallel  places, 
that  "  giving  the  Spiiit"  is  synonimous  with  "giving  good  things." 
When  the  doctrine  of  divine  influences  is  maintained,  it  should  be 
done  with  great  caution ;  for,  in  the  hands  of  enthusiasts,  ijt  hzA 
been  the  source  of  the  most  extravagant  follies  that  have  ever  dis* 
graced  religion, 

*  The  substance  of  this  pamphlet  was  published  many  years  ago,  ia 

k  tract  noticed  in  our  Ixiiid  vol.  p.  ^$$*  IMa 

Art.' 38.     Thoughts  on  Christian  Communion t  addressed  to  Professors 

•  of  Religion  of  every  Denomination.     2d  Edition  enlarged.     By 
John  Fawcett,  jun.     lamo.     6d»     Wills.     1798. 
Bcnqvplence,  brotherly -love,  or,  as  this  writer  seems  to  choose. 

Christian  communion^  (though  he  does  not  particularly  explain  the 
term,}  are  certainly  excellent  qualities ;  and  to  promote  them  is  the 
design  and  tendency  of  this  pamphlet.  We  conclude  from  its  title, 
and  from  the  remarks  towards  its  end,  that  Christians  of  all  senti- 

'  ments  and  opinions  are  here  included.  Christianity  forms  itself 
on  an  extensive  scale  ;    and  happy  will  it  be  when  its  multifarious 

•  divisions  concur  in  the  common  cause  of  advancing  practical  truth, 
piety,  charity,  and  all  virtue  !  TT 

Art.  39.  An  Apology  for  Brotherly  Love^  and  for  the  Doctrines  of  tie 
Church  of  Ettglandy  in  a  Series  of  Letters  to  the  Rev.  Charles 
Daubeny  ;  with  a  Vindication  of  such  Parts  of  Mr.  Wilberforce's 

14  <  Practical 

/     Monthly  Q^TALOGUE,  Rsllgwusp  ^c.  95 

*  Practical  View,^  as  l^ivx:  been  objected  to  by  Mr.  Daubeny,  in 
'^/.lus  lie  Publication,  entitled,  *  A  Guide  to  the  Church.'     Also, 

.    loineiRcmarks  oa»Mr.  Daubeny's  Conduct  In  bringing  a  false  Quo- 
tation from  a  Pamphlet,  entitled,  *  Five  Letters  to  the  Rev.  Mr, . 
lletciier,  written  by  Sir  Richard  Hill  in  the  Year  177 1.'     By  Sir 
Richinl  Hill,  Bart,  M.  P.     8vo.     pp.  269.     5s.   Boards.    Cadcll 
^  jun.  knd  Davics.     1798. 

Brotherly  love  can  certainly  need  no  apology,  whatever  some  may 
tkink  with  regard  to  the  articles  of  the  church:  but  the  auth9r'$ 
meaniQff'  is  plain  ;  and,  although  we  do  not  agree  with  him  in  senti- 
ment, we  peruse  his  writings  with  a  kind  of  prejudice  in  his  favour, 
l>ecause  we  consider  him  as  a  benevolent,  worthy,  and  Ingenious  man. 
He  professes  himself  a  friend  to  liberty  and  the  right  of  private  judg« 
inentt  an4  he  appears  to  rejoice  that  the  spirit  of  bigotry  and,  Ihtoli- 
Tance  has  been  laid  low,  while  that  of  peace  and  universal  good- will 
Jbu^  rlseor/n  its  stead.  Zealous  for  the  doctrine  of  the  established 
ctiurch,  .and  favourable  to  Its  discipline  and  forms,  he  yet  regards 
the  latter  as  not  essential,  and  so  far  pleads  In  behalf  of  those  who 
dijjseut  from  it.  *  I  must  (says  he)  ever  esteem  the  doctrines  of  our 
church,  to  be  of  much  greater  consequence  than  her  walls. '  A  short 
extract  from  the  preface  may  afford  the  reader  a  proper  view  of  Sir 
Richard's  design  and  manner : 

*'  I  ^lall  readily  obtain  credit,  when  I  say,  that  in  the  following 
letters,  I  have  paid  no  court  to  the  fashionable  system  of  divinity, 
which  now  passes  so  currently  for  truth,  and  even  for  the  doctrine 
•  rf ^f  ^^^  church  of  England.  To  give  offence,  I  would  never  wish  ; 
wAlyct  to  steer  about,  halve,  and  trim  in  a  matter  of  the  most  essential 
conseqiience,  for  Tear  offence  should  be  taken,  would  be  still*  more 
»y  abhorrence.'— 

*  On  the  present  occasion,  Mr.  Daubeny  and  I  meet  on  fanp 
)(rouiid,  and  the  church  of  England  is  the  field  of  our  controversy. 
To  this  church  Mr.  Daubeny  professes  to  guide  his  readers.  I,  as 
well  as  hej  professes  myself  to  be  a  steady  member  of  the  church  of 
England  :  but  I  positively  deny  that  salvation  is  confined  within  her 
pale,  and  that  her  external  constitution  and  polity  ought  to  be  the 
pattern  ta^all  other  churches,  though  I  am  as  much  a  friend  to  con- 
formity,  unity,  and  concord,  and  as  much  averse  to  what  the  Scrip- 
ture deems  jchunit  as  Mr.  Daubeny  himself  can  be. 

*  Mr.  D.  also  expresses  his  high  approbation  of  the  doctrines  of 
the  church  of  England.  Here  again  I  meet  him  with  open  arms  : 
hut  in  comparing  his  creed  with  that  of  the  church  herself,  and  bring- 
ing it  to  the  test  of  our  ai  tides,  homilies,  and  liturgy,  here  a  mighty 
dmerence  appears  between  us,  and  either  he  or  I  must  be  a  dissenter 
and  schismatic  indeed  :  but  to  which  of  us  die  charges  belong  must 
be  left  to  the  candour  of  the  reader.' 

Sir  Richard  laments  that  what  he  ttrms  fashtonahk  preaching  doet 
not  accord  with  his  ideas  ;  yet  he  may  console  himself  by  the 
thought  that  fashion  varies,  and  that  fashionable  men  vary  with  it, 
and  that  therefore  the  mode  which  he  prefers  may  again  prevail: 
indeed  he  intimates  something  like  an  expectatipn  that  this  will  be 
the  case.  He  has  however  proved,  beyond  dispute,  that  Mr. 
i  Daubeny't 

T)aubcny%  sentiments  do  not  comport  witlf  the  articles  of  our  cstab- 
lishmcnt ;  and  he  appears  also  to  have  the  advantage  over  Mr.  D. 
respecting  the  pretended  quotation  from  a  former  pubh'cation  by  the 
Baronet >  who  ingeniously  discovers  that  it  vrds  taken  from  the  life 
of  Mr.  Lackington  the  bookseller. 

We  should  farther  observe  that,  while  Sir  Richard  HiU  is  a 
strenuous  advocate  for  the  doctrine  of  election^  in  the  calvinistic  sense 
of  the  word,  he  wavers  on  the  horrible  subject  of  reprohat}ony  or  at 
least  is  desirous  of  expressing  it  by  the  milder  term  oi pretention,  IrLt 
is  devoted  to  what  has  long  b€en  called  old  Jrvinhy.  High  praise  is 
due  to  our  first  reformers  from  popery,  for  they  had  true  merit :  fti 
it  is  wonderful  that  it  should  not  have  occurred  to  this  respectable 
writer  that  they  were  not  inspired,  nor  iwfallible  ;  that,  emerging  as 
they  did  from  the  regions  of  darkness,  they  were  not  entirely 
emancipated  from  prejudice,  bigotry,  or  ignorance.  Gtieat  were  theit 
stchievements  I  yet  they  left  much  to  be  accomplished  by  their  suc- 
cessors.— Sir  Richard  often  professes  his  charity  and  liberality  of 
sentiment ;  and  we  trust  that  it  extends  to  those  Whose  opinions  sire 
Tcry  different  from  his  ou-n,  and  is  by  no  means  restrained  by  certaiil 
|>oints  which  he  characterises  as  essential  and  fundamental! 

After  this  brief  notice,  we  must  take  our  leave,  without  attending 
to  several  other  particulars  ;  and  we  wx)uld  conclude  by  inserting  a 
short  maxim  from  the  >^Titings  of  a  divine  in  the  English  church, 
who  was  eminent  in  the  last  century  :  **  Give  me  a  religion  that  is 
grounded  on  right  reason^  and  divine  authority  ;  such  as  when' it  doei 
aUain  its  effect,  the  world  is  the  better  for  it."  Jit  ^ 

Art.  40.  The  Rights  of  Protestants  asserted;  and  Clerical  Incroach* 
ment  detected.  In  allusion  to  several  recent  Pubh'cations  in  De- 
fence of  an  exclusive  Priesthood,  Establishments,  and  Titf^s,  by 
Daubeny,  Church,  and  others.  Bat  more  particulariy  in  Reply 
t6  iL  Pamphlet  lately  published  by  George  Markham,  Vicsir  of 
Carlton,  entitled  "  More  Truth  for  the  Seekers.'*  8vo.  8d, 
Lane,  &c.     1798. 

It  seems  now  to  be  Mr.  Markham's  turn  to  suffer  persecution  *  : 
but  aft  Hob  savs  in  the  farce,  ^*  Turn  and  turn  about's  the  fair 
thing.** — Whether  the  contest  be  yet  closed,  we  cannot  say: 
but,  imagining  that  our  readers  are  satisfied  with  regard  to  tliis  tithe 
mntronersy^  [and  certain  that  we  are,]  we  shall  not  enlarge  on  the 
present  occasion. 

Art.  41.  The  Universal  Restoration  \  exhibited  in  a  Series  of  Ex« 
tracts  from  Winchester,  White,  Sieffvolk,  Dr.  Channcy,  Bishop 
Ne%vton,  and  Petit-picrrc  ;  some  of  the  most  remarkable  Authors, 
vho  have  written  in  Defence  of  that  interesting  Subject.  8vo. 
2,R.  6d.   Boards.     Lee  and  Hurst. 

The  chief  part  of  this  volume  is  appropiiated  to  five  dfalo^es 
written  by  Mr.  Winchester  ;  who  remarks  *  that  more  persons  refose 
to  believe  in  revelation,  because  it  is  commonly  thought  to  contain 
the  doctrine  of  endless  misery,  than  from  any  other  cause  5   and  num. 

p- ^ ' 

•  We  ai«  gbd,  however^  that  it  is  only  lUetary  persecution* 



MoNTHLt  C^TALOCtTK,  Poifrf,   tifc.  Vt 

bcrs  have  embraced  it  immediately,  on  being  fairly  canvmced  that 
it  wag  not  necessary  to  understand  ft  in  that  light.'-»^In  another 
Dlace  he  says,  *  some  have  believed  it,  yea  wrote  (have  wHtten)  oil 
At  secretly,  for  many  years,  and  yet  to  the  day  of  their  death  have 
not  openly  avowed  \u  because  It  is  not  popular.^  This  conclusion  H 
not,  perhaps,  perfectly  candid  ;  since  it  is  easily  apprehended  that 
the  motives  to  caution  may  be  benevolent  and  virtuous.  It  must  be 
acknowleged  that  the  arguments  here  offered,  though  not  delivered 
in  the  most  captivating  style,  are  very  powerful:  but  woe  to  him  who 
rashly  concludes  and  acts,  without  regarding  the  whole  that  is  to 
be  said  on  the  point. 

The  late  eminent  Dr.  Newton  Is  here  introduced  among  other 
writers ;  and  extractb  are  selected  from  the  sixth  volume  of  hit 
posthumous  worki{.  These  and  other  parts  of  this  compilation 
merit  an  attentive  perusal:  — but  the  appearance  of  the  book  has 
nothing  attractive  ; — bad  print,  bad  paper,  bad  style,  and  numerous 
trrata  ;  with  additional  errors  (we  apprehend)  in  the  very  list  which  ^ 
18  given  of  ^rrj/^i.  nX* 

Art.  42.  ji  Letter  to  the  Church  of  England^  pointing  out  some  po- 
pular Errors  of  bad  Consequence  ;  by  an  old  Friend  and  Servant 
of: the  Church.  8vo.  is.  Hatchard.  1798. 
This  pamphlet  has  the  merit  of  good  paper,  good  print,  good  style, 
energy  of  language,  &c. — but  what  shall  we  tay,  on  the  whole,  of 
the  performance? — //(g/&-churchman, — a  name  for  such  a  length  of 
time  generally  discarded  as  implying  ignorance,  bigotry,  &c.  —  is  with 
this  writer  the  only  good  churchman  ; — and  at  the  same  time  that 
he  rejects  human  authority,  he  insists  on  its  exercise  in  the  church  of 
England !  We  once  were  inclined  to  think  that,  under  the  conceal- 
ment of  art,  -we  were  perusing  the  product  of  a  7^jtfi/' speni  aud 
.tliat  the  professed  design  of  favouring  the  church  of  England  was  far 
exceeded  ;  and  there  are  expressions  or  sentiments,  occasionally  occur- 
ring, which  might  favour  such  a  suspicion : — but  we  vcuture  not  to 
pronounce.  Hi  • 


Art.  43.  Sentimental  Poems^  on  the  most  remarkable  Events  of  the 
French  Revx^ution.  Dedicated  to  his  Serene  Highness  the  Princ*e 
of  Conde.  By  a  Foreign  Officer,  and  translated  by  an  English 
Nobleman.  Under  the  Patronage  of  their  Royal  Highnesses  the 
Prince  of  Wales  and  the  Duke  of  York.  Large  8vo.  pp.  120. 
Flattery,   in  French  and  English:    elegantly  printed,    and  orna- 

snented  with  neat  engravings.  The  book  is,  indeed,  very  (Handsome  1 

Art.  44.  The  Noble  lAe ;  a  Drama,  in  One  Act ;  being  a  Continua- 
tion of  the  Play  of  Misanthropy  and  Repentance  ^  orTHEOTRANOER*: 
now  acting  with  the  greatest  Applause  at  the  Theatre  Royal, 
prury  Lane.  Translated  from  the  German  of  Kotzebue,  by 
MaVia  Gcisweilcr.  8vo.  is.  Sold  at  No.  54,  Pall  Mall,  &c. 
>799- ^ 

^  See  our  account  of  two  transUtions  of  the  Stranger,  Review 
lane  1798,  p.  188. 
SLtj.  MaY|  1799.  H  This 

08  MbHTHLY  Catalooub,  Poarji  l^C. 

This  smtU  piece  is  not  unworthy  of  the  Muse  of  Vienna,  li 
affords  a  pleasing  picture  of  rural  simplicity  and  domestic  happiness  %  . 
exemplified  in  the  felicity  of  a  virtuous  and  amiable  married  couple^ 
i^pcople  of  conditioni  retired  to  enjoy  the  tranquillity  and  innocence 
of  a  rural  situation  in  Switzerland ;  and  this  picture  furnishes  the 
moral  of  the  drama.  The  translatress  seems  to  merit  encouragement. 
We  understand  that  this  is  her  first  literary  attempt.  The  German^ 
we  suppose^  is  her  native  tongue,  as  she  professes  to  have  a  thorough 
knowlege  of  it : — but  we  find  very  few  defects  in  her  English  ;— 
none>  indeed,  that  are  very  material. 

Art.  45.     The  Eplphanv :    a  Seatonian  Prize  Poem.     By  William 

Bolland,    M.  A.    of  Trinity  College,   Cambridge.      4to.      is. 

ftivin^tons.    1799. 

This  is  the  second  instance  of  Mr.  Bolland  hating  gained  the 
Seatonian  prize.  His  first  successful  poem  was  on  the  subject  of 
Miracles  ;  a  theme  far  ihore  fertile  than  the  present : — ^but  the  sacred 
.  subjects  suggested  by  the  vice-chancdlor,  the  master  of  Clare^Hally 
and.  the  Greek  professor  for  the  time  being,  in  the  spirit  of  the 
pious  Founder's  Will,  Mated  Oct.  1738,)  having  been  discussed  and 
illustrated  during  a  penod  of  60  years,  are  so  far  exhausted,  that 
the  executors  of  this  Will  seem  unable  to  furnish  the  candidates  with 
new  materials  for  the  exercise  of  their  talents,  within  the  limits  of 
the  Testator's  original  intentions. 

The  Epibhanyf  (itri^aviiff,)  or  appearance  of  the  three  wise-tnent 
kings,  or  Magi,  who  came  to  adore  and  bring  presents  *  to  the  in- 
fant testis,  is  mentioned  by  only  one  of  the  four  Evangelists,  St. 
Matthew.  Indeed  the  fathers  of  the  church,  divines,  and  other  ecclc» 
via&tical  historians  and  commentators,  are  not  perfectly  agreed  about 
the  origin  of  the  feast  of  the  Epiphany.  Some  assign  it  to  the  birth 
of  our  oaviour  himself, — some  to  the  arrival  of  the  Magi  to  do  hiiti 
homage,— 4nd  some  to  tlie  Star  that  was  seen  in  the  east,  by  which 
they  were  guided  to  his  residence  in  Bethlehem*  Mr.  Bolland  seems 
I     chiefiy  to  adhere  to  this  last  opinion :  celebrating 

*  That  wondrous  Stnr^  that,  in  the  eastern  sky 
Majestic  rising,  to  Judsa's  land 
Trac'd  its  illumin'd  path  to  mark  the  cUme^ 
From  whence,  as  erst  by  holy  Prophet  told. 
To  Israel  should  a  mightv  Prince  be  bom# 
The  King  and  Saviour  ot  a  fallen  race.' 
Though  little  either  of  originality,  or  of  remarkable  ingenuity, 
is  discovet^ble  in  this  short  composition,  the  verses  are  smboth  ;  and 
the  ideas  are  as  poetical,  perhaps,  aa  propriety  and  religious  reverence 
for  the  sacred  text  will  allow.  'Dirj 

Art;  46.  Lines  suggested  by  the  FcUt^  appointed  on  Wednesday,  Feb. 
27>  1799*  ^y  Charles  Lloy^^  Author  of  Edmund  Oliver,  &c. 
4to«     is.    Longman. 

*  Did  the  custom  of  eating  twelfth-cake,  and  choosing  king  and 
^ueen,  originate  in  t!ie  Magi  presenting  *^  gold,  fraukincense,  and 
myrrh  ?'• 

.       .  The 

Monthly  Qltilogub^  Poetrj^  Isfc.  99 

Tbe  heavy  artilleiy  of  blank  verse  is  here  employed  against  Jaco- 
^ism/  and  what  has  been  called  the  modem  fhUotepfy.  Protey  w^ 
should  have  thought^  would  have  better  suited  the  author's  purpose* 
Mo  conviction  can  be  produced  by  such  desultory  discussion,  nor 
contentment  and  Joy  by  such  an  address,  as  that  which  makes  the 
finale  of  this  poem  : 

*  Then  bow  yourselves,  my  countrymen,  and  own 
That  in  a  world  where  voluntary  slaves 

Exist  by  millions,  wretched  slaves  to  vice, — 

That  in  a  world  where  victims  to  tlie  sword. 

Famine,  and  pestilence,  are  swept  away 

As  summer  insects  by  an  eastern  blast,-*-* 

That  in  a  world  like  this — you're  blest  and  free/  Miifi-v 

Art.  47.  7%e  Battle  of  the  Nile.  A  Descriptive  Poem.  Addressed 
as  a  tributary  Wreath  to  Nautic  Bravery.  By  a  Gentleman  of 
Earl  St.  Vincent's  Fleet.  8vo.  is.  6d.  Debrett. 
Our  naW  victories  have  furnished  an  ample  field  for  descriptive 
poetry  ;  and  the  late  brillant  action  o£F  the  Mouth  of  the  Nile  has 
ihe  advantage  of  affording  many  opportunities  for  classical  allusions^ 
of  which  the  author  of  the  poem  before  us  has  not  failed  to  avail 
himself.  The  versification  is  in  general  smooth,  and  sometimes 
elevated:  but  there  is  frequently  great  negh'gcncc  and  want  of  correct- 
ness in  the  rhymes :  as  in  towers,  secures,  rour,  fire*  Sim,  entwine^ 
ftc.  The  author  shews  an  ardent  zeal  for  the  honour  of  the  Bri- 
tish Navy,  and  appears  to  possess  considerable  knowlege  of  maritime 
aSairs,  as  well  as  of  the  particular  circumstances  of  the  action  which 
he  celebrates. — On  the  signal  being  made  by  the  Earl  of  St.  Vincent 
for  Admiral  Nelson's  squadron  to  go  in  pursuit  of  the  enemy, 
tke  author  thus  describes  a  ship  weighing  anchor,  and  casting  X» 

*  Then  high  in  air  tlie  colour'd  sigfnals  fly  ; 
The  watchful  fleet  the  waving  tokens  spy. 
Quick  runs  the  ready  answer  to  the  main  ♦, 
Nor  need  they  more  the  order  to  explain. 
*^  All  hands  up  anchor,"  loud  the  boatswaiqs  bawl. 
As  round  the  decks  they  pipe  the  triple  call : 
**  All  hands  up  anchor,"   echoes  all  around ; 
And  boatswains'  mates  with  silver  pipes  resound. 
Now  from  his  gripe  the  forked  anchor's  torn, 
Ai>d  to  the  bows  the  pond'rous  mass  is  borne ; 
A  weight  un wieldly  f ,  which,  in  times  of  old, 
s    Would  a  whole  Grecian  fleet  securely  hold. 
Some  to  the  helm  repair,  while  up  the  shrouds. 
With  checrfiil  haste,  each  hardy  sailor  crowds. 
To  citimb  the  yards,  and  loose  the  girded  sail. 
And  spread  its  bosom  to  the  western  gale.— 

*  •  A  blue  flag  is  hoisted  at  the  main.' 

'  t  Ths  anchor  of  a  first-rate  weight  five  tons  V 

Ha        *  The 

The  skSful  master  on  each  motion  tends, 

**  The  anchor's  up,"  he  cries;  "  she  wends, she we&ds  1^ 

Her  prow  ohedicnt  *  now  she  heaves  and  lares. 

And  turns  majestic  on  the  swcUing  wares. 

Now  fourteen  sail,  by  vah'ant  Nelson  led, 

By  gales  impeird,  glide  o'er  old  Ocean's  bed  ; 

Swift  o'er  the  deep  they  bound  with  willing  fectf 

Whilst  from  afar  they  view  the  remnant  fleet. 

With  crowded  sail,  urg'd  by  the  freshening  bceezCi^ 

And  steady  course,  they  plough  the  briny  seas.*-* 

Now  on  the  swelling  surge  f  tliey  plunge  and  risft 

And  lift  alternate  to  the  seas  and  skies. 
*  Now  through  the  blocks  the  whistling  current  pours^ 
f  And  througli  the  masts  and  yards  and  tackling  roars. 

Successive  shocks  the  trembling  bark  sustains. 

And  to  the  wind  the  lab'ring  canvass  strains. 

Now  wide  around  the  foaming  surges  play. 

And  circling  gyres  mark  out  a  whiten'd  way. 

Thus,  with  strong  gales,  the  chosen  squadron  tendp 

And  tow'rds  SiciuVs  isle  their  course  they  bend  ; 

Full  east-north-east  a  steady  course  they  bore. 

Till  safely  anchored  on  Its  sea-girt  shore  ; 

Where,  m  the  bay  of  Syracuse,  they  wait. 

To  gain  some  tidings  of  the  Gallic  fleet.' 
The  subject  of  this  poem  is  generally  interesting  ;  and  its  defcrrp<- 
lipns  of  nautical  operations,  illustrated  by  the  notes,  will  be  partfcu- 
}arly  pleasing  to  those  landsmen  who  are  partial  to  naval  affairs,  and 
wish. to  acquire  more  idea  of  them  than  the  opposite  nature  ©f  their 
pursuits  ban  allowed  them  to  attain.  Oxft^^^y^'  k 

Art.  48.     LeomJaif  a  Poeniy  by  Wifliam  Glover.     Adorned  with  fie  2 
Plates.     8vo.       2   Vols.     1 8s.    Boards.      Printed  for  F.  J.    du 
Roveray,byT.  Benslcy,  and  sold  by  Boosey,  &c.     1798. 
This  is  a  very  beautiful  edition  of  a^n  ingenious  poem,  but  of  which 
the  merit  has  been  so  often  discussell,  that  we  shall  not  now  enter 

*  *  Her  proiu  obedient ^  &c.]  There  is  something  highly  pleasing 
in  the  appearance  of  a  vessel  "  casting  to  sea,"  that  is,  when  her 
anchor  being  once  clear  of  the  gr^^und,  she  begins  to  lift  and  swing 
off,  being  before  stationary,  by  the  conjoint  influence  of  the  wind 
and  waves.' 

*  f  Now  on  the  swellirrg  surges  &c.]  It  is  perhaps  an€  of  the 
grandest  images  •  existing,  and  most  sublime,  confining  our  ideas  to 
works  of  art  and  the  manner  in  which  they  may  be  aflected,  to  ob- 
serve so  beautiful,  so  vast,  stupendous,  and  complex  a  machine  as  a 
man  of  war  of  a  hundred  guns  rising  and  plunging  in  the  waves.  I 
havebeer.  struck  with' a  silent  and  pleasing  astomshment,  at  beholding 
a  vessel  of  that  ma^itude  crossing  the  stem  at  sea,  when  it  has  bita 
tempestuous  wcatlier,  and  the  waves  consequently  lofty.  Sach  an 
immense,  yet  beautifully  diversified  body,  tossing,  rolling,  and  dart* 
ing  along  the  waves,  gives  you  an  idea  of  some  huge,  animated^ 
monstrous  Being.*  '  .    •  -  •  - 


w    -^.-      -^    .    ■ 

Monthly  Catalogue,  Poetry,  ffc.  lox 

etf  Its  ezaminatioD.     Indeed  it  may  be  said  to  be  cut  of  statute^  with 
respect  to  our  critical  court ;  having  been  published  in  I737>  twelve 
years  before  our  establishment.     Its  present  editor  candidly  confessef 
that  this  poem  was  too  hiehly  rated  by  the  friends  of  the  author^ 
on  its  finit  appearance  ;  and  that,  with  equal  injustice,  it  afterward 
experienced  neglect,  when  that  party  had  either  gained  their  point, 
or  its  principal  members  were  retired  *•  to  that  bourne,  from  wheact 
no  travellers  return."     Many  instances  might  be  given,  of  the  enthu- 
shsm  with  which  literary  productions,  in  support  of  party,  have 
been  at  first  received,  and  which  have  experienced  tlie  same  diminn-        y 
lion  of  favour:    such  as  Dryd&n's  Alban  and  Albanius,  Rowe's    £f 
Tamerlane,  Addison's  Cato,  CnurchiU*s  Poems,  &c.     In  prose,  as       • 
well  as  in  verse,  if  an  author's  political  principles  flatter  those  of  his 
readers,  or  hearers,   they  are  not  disposed  to  be  very  fastidious 

All  that  remains  for  us  to  do,  with  respect  to  Leonidas,  lies  in  a 
very  small  compass.  The  author  of  the  poem  having,  amid  the 
dash  of  opinions,  obtained  an  honourable  iiiclie  in  the  temple  of  fame, 
we  shall  not  attempt  to  displace  Inm  by  critical  ejectment,  in  order  to 
assign  him  either  a  better  or  a  worse  station  than  that  of  which  he 
bas  been  long  in  possession  ;  and  wc  have  only  to  add  that  the  plites 
of  this  edition,  of  which  tlicre  are  seven,  have  been  designed  and 
engraved  by  excellent  artists  ;  and  that  the  pa|)er  and  type  do  honour 
to  Mr.  Benslcy  and  our  national  press.  '  X^fB  .   >f' 

Art.  49.     Tie  Rape  of  the  Lochy  an   Heroi- Comical  Poem,  by  Mr. 

Pope.     Adorned  ^ith  Plates.     8vo,     los.  6d,  Boards.    Printed 

for  F.  J.  du  Rovcray,  and  sold  by  Arch,  &c. 

This  is  an  exquisite  edition  of  our  great  bard's  playful  poem. 
Besides  the  frontispiece,  there  is  a  beautiful  plate  to  each  canto,  by 
artistsof  the  £rst  class.  Intending  this  for  a  companion  to  Leonidas, 
the  editor  has  spared  neither  pains  nor  cxpence  in  rendering  it  equally 
complete.  "p^ 

Art.  50.  Tho  Sacred  Oratorios ^  as  set  to  Music  by  Geo.  F»  HatiM* 
Part  I.  •  Containing,  Messiah,  Athalia,  Belshazzar,  Dcborah» 
Esther^  Jephlha,  Joseph,  Israel  in  Egypt,  Joshua,  Occasional 
Oratorio,  Samson,  Saul,  Solomon,  Judas  Maccabseus,  and  Su- 
sannah. i2nK>.  pp.  251.  4s.  6d.  Boards.  Hookham,  &c. 
A  collection  of  the  words  of  sacred  dramas  set  by  HandeU  tlic 
Crst  reception  and  subsequent  patranage  of  whose  compositions  reflect 
so  much  honour  on  our  country,  was  much  wanted  : — for,  as  the  v 

music  to  these  poems  is  not  hkely  to  be  soon  laid  aside,  correct 
copies  of  the  words  must  be  very  acceptable  and  useful  to  the  vota« 
lies  of  this  great  musician. 

The  paper  and  type  of  this  collection  are  beautiful  and  elegant.  Wc 
wished,  however,  to  have  found  the  names  of  the  writers  and  compilers 
of  these  oratorios,  and  the  dates  of  their  first  performance  ;  most  of 
which  ape,  we  apprehend,  recorded  in  Dr.  Burney's  History  of  Music, 
and  Dr.  Arnold's  edition  of  the  Work^  of  Handel.  The  first  two, 
Esther  and  jitbaJta^  we  have  no  doubt,  were  formed  on  the  model 
of  Racing's  sicred  dramas  of  the  same  name.    Pope  and  Gay  have 

H  J  been 

loa  Monthly  CATALoctm,  Poetry^  iffe. 

been  said  to  have  had  some  share  in  furnishing  Handel  with  the  words 
of  Acis  and  Gaktca ;  and  Saul  must  have  heen  the  production  of  no 
contemptible  poet.  Many  of  the  others  were  wntten,  or  compiled, 
bv  the  karncd  Dr.  Morcll ;  who  constantly  attached  himstlf  to 
Handel,  during  the  latter  years  of  his  life  ;  and  in  whose  judgment 
the  composer  often  confided  in  the  import,  pronunciation,  and  expres- 
sion of  passages  in  scripture,  and  in  allusions  to  the  sacred  writings. 
A  second  part  of  these  lyrical  productions  is  promised,  with  th^  life 
of  Haiidcl,  and  a  general  mdex.  BTJ 

Art.  51.     The  Count  of  Burgundy^  a  Play  ;    in   Four  Acta,     By 
Augustus  Von  Kotzcbue,     Traitelated  from  the  Genuine  German 
Edition.     By  Anne  Plumptre.     8vo.     28.  6d.     Symoods. 
The  original  of  this  play  was  noticed  in  our  xxviith  volume,  p.  58 1. 

It  appears  to  advantage  from  the  hands  of  the  present  translator.        ^jl 

Art.  52.  The  Natural  Son  ;  a  Plav,  in  Five  Acts,  by  Augustus 
Von  Kotzcbue,  Poet  Laureat  and  director  of  the  Imperial  Theatre 
at  Vienna.  Being  the  Original  of  Lovers'  Vows,  now  perform- 
ing, with  universal  Applau!?e,  at  the  Theatre  Royal,  Covent- 
Garden.  Translated  from  the  German  by  Anne  Plumptre,  (Au-* 
thor  of  the  Rector's  Son,  Antoinette,  &c.)  who  has  prcGxcd  a 
Preface,  explaining  the  Alterations  \n  the  Representation  ;  and 
has  also  annexed  a  Life  of  Kotzcbue.     8vo.     2s.  6d.     Symonds; 

Art.  53.     Lovers^  Vows  ;  a  Play,  in  Five  Acts.    Performing  at  the 

Theatre  Royal,  Covent-Garden.     From  the  German  of  Kotzcbue*. 

By  Mrs.  Inchbald.     8vo.     2s.     Robinson^. 

The  name  of  Kotzcbue  will  now  secure  to  every  production  of 
his  pen  a  considerable  popularity  in  Great  Britain.  Considered  at 
a  national  moralist, — and  such  is  the  very  responsible  office  which 
every  dramatic  writer  assumes, — he  is  too  indulgent,  for  the  true  in- 
terests of  domestic  happiness,  to  breaches  of  chastity :  yet  there  is,  in 
other  respects,  a  refinement  in  the  cast  of  hi^  ethics,  a  lofty  indifference 
to  artificial  distinctions,  a  catchin?  spirit  of  disinterest  and  benevolence, 
and  an  exclusive  enthusiasm  for  the  qualities  of  the  heart,  which  pro- 
voke only  because  they  humiliate  the  cringcrs  to  fortune,  birth,  and 
power.  It  is  no  feeble  symptom  of  interior  selfishness,  not  to  relish 
the  general  flow  of  his  sentiments  ;  not  to  glow  with  sympathetic  rap- 
ture, while  this  Rousseau  of  the  drama  delineates  the  awect  affections 
and  the  noble  sacrifices  which  abound  among  his  heroes  and  heroines, 
and  which  are  so  well  adapted  to  electnfy  an  audience. 

Of  the  play  specifically  before  us,  every  one  is  familiar  with  th? 
story,  from  its  great  success  in  representation.  The  translation  ojF 
Miss  Plumptre  is,  to  mere  readers,  of  roost  value  on  account  of  its 
superior  fidelity.  That  of  Mrs.  Inclibald  is  more  wi'iely  adapted  to 
representation  in  this  conntr}'.  The  soliloquy  of  Frederick  will  afford 
a  convenient  passage  for  comparison. 

Miss  Plumptre,  p.  30  : 

*  Return   with  these  few  pieces  ; — Return  to  see  my  mother  Alt  ? 

-—No,  no,  rather  plunge  into  the  water  at  once-Vyrathcr  run  on  to  the 

end  of  the  world.     Ah,  my  feet  seem  clogged — :I  cannot  advance— 

I  cauaot  recede — the  sight  pf  yonder  straw-rpofed  cottage,  where 

...     ^   .  .  .   _      ,.......:  rests 

MoNTHLT  Catalogue^  Poetry^  (f^i  t«] 

rests  my  fufiering  mother  ! — why  must  I  always  turo  my  eyn  thai 
way  ? — am  I  not  surrounded  by  verdant  fields  and  laughing  meadows  f 
why  must  my  looks  be  still  drawn  irresistibly  tovrards  that  cot  which 
contains  all  my  jovs,  all  my  sot  rows !  (looks  %fith  angmsb  at  the  motuy) 
Man  !  man  !  \a  this  your  bounty  I  this  piece  was  given  me  by  the 
rider  of  a  stately  horse  followed  by  a  servant^  whoK  livery  ffUttered 
with  silver ;— this*  by  a  sentimental  lady  who  had  alighted  mm  her 
9^^i™ge  to  gaze  at  the  country,  describe  it,  and  print  her  descrip* 
tion.  *'  Yon  cottage,"  said  I  to  her,  while  my  tears  intemipte4 
^c— **  It  is  very  picturesque,"  she  answered,  and  skipped  into  her 
carriage.  This  was  given  mfiJby  a  fat  priest,  enveloped  in  a  huge 
bushy  wig,  who,  at  the  sameHAe,  reviled  me  as  ap  idler,  a  vagabond^ 
ind  thus  took  away  the  merit^^if  hi-j  gift.  This  Dreser  (eaUremefy 
affixttdj  a  h^ggsir  gave  me  unasked ; — he  shared  with  me  his  mite, 
and,  at  the  s^me  time,  gave  me  God*s  blessing.  Oh  I  at  the  awful 
^y  of  retribution,  at  how  high  a  price  will  this  dreyer  be  exchanged 
by  the  all-righteous  Judge  !  (He  pauses  and  looks  again  sU  the  monej) 
what  can  I  purchase  with  this  paltry  sum  ?  Hardly  will  it  pay  ^r 
the  natla  of  my  mother's  cof&u — scarcely  buy  a  rope  to  hang  myself  1 
(He  easts  a  wishful  look  towards  the  distant  country)  There  insultingly 
glitter  the  stately  towers  ^  the  prince's  residence  ;n.p«hall  I  go 
Uiither  ?  there  implore  pity  ? — Oh  no  !  she  dwells  not  in  cities-^the 
cottage  of  the  poor  is  her  palace— the  heart  of  the  poor  her  Temple* 
Well  then»  should  a  recruiting  officer  pass  by,  for  five  rix-douars 
paid  on  the  spot,  he  shall  have  a  stout  and  vigorous  recruit.  Five 
rii-doUars  !  Oh  what  a  sum !  yet  on  how  many  a  card  ma^^  such  i 
sum  be  staked,  even  at  this  moment!  -(wipes  the  sweat  from  Usfore* 
head)  Father  !  Father  I  on  thee  fall  these  drops  of  anguish— on  thee 
the  despair  of  a  fcDow  creature,  s^nd  all  its  dreadful  consequences;-* 
yet  God  forbid  thou  shouldst  languish  in  vain  for  pardon  in  another 
woHd,  as  my  wi  etched  mother  languishes  in  this  for  a  drop  of  wine. 
(a  bunting  horn  is  heard  at  a  dtstancet^"-/^  gun  is  Jiredf-^ucceeded  If 
the  **  Halloo^  Halloo"  to  the  hounds  ;  severed  dogs  tpa  over  the  stag^t 
Frederick  Iboks  around)  Hunters  !  Noblemen  probably  I  VftM  theot 
now  to  beg  once  more  i^to  beg  fpr  my  mother  I — Qh  God  I  God  I 
grant  that  I  may  meet  with  companionate  hearts  1' 

Mrs.  Inchbald,  p*  33* 
I  *  To  return  with  this  trifle  for  which  I  have  stooped  to  beg !  retun| 
to  see  my  mother  dying  !  I  would  rather  fly  to  the  world's  end.  ^Lofikm 
hg  at  the  wionejA  What  can  I  buy  with  this  ?  It  is  hardly  enough  to 
pay  for  the  naus  ths^t  will  be  wanted  for  her  coffin.  My  great 
anxiety  will  drive  me  to  distraction.  However,  let  the  conse-. 
quence  of  our  affliction  be  what  it  may,  all  wfll  fall  upon  my  father'a 
head ;  and  may  he  pant  for  Hcavcn^s  forgiveness,  as  my  poor  mo- 
ther  ^At  a  distance  is  heard  thejif^ing  of  a  gmy  then  the  cry  of  HaUoo^ 
Hcdloo^^Gamekeepers  and  Sportsmen  run  across  the  stage^^e  loofy  ahowt.^ 
Here  they  come  -  a  nobleman,  I  suppose,  or  a  num  of  fortune.  Yes^ 
yes— and  I  wiH  once  more  Wg  for  my  mothetr*  May  heaven  tenj 
relief!'  .       .. 

A  few  scenes  are  fortunate :  but,  in  general,  they  are  loosely  con- 
se^cdy  imd  excite  no  progressive  anxiety :  nor  is  the  story  probable.       HVv. 

H  4  '      '  •       Art.  •^ ' 

l«4  MoNTHiT  Cataiogub,  P^r/,  ts^. 

Art,  54-  •  Lo^eti*  Vonus^  or  the  Child  of  Love.    A  Play,    In  Five  Actt** 
'  Tranlated  from  the  German  of  Kotzebuc  :  with  a  bnef  Biography 

of  the  Author.     By  Stephen  Porter,  of  theMiddle  Temple.    8vo; 

38.     Hatchard. 

Wc  have  already  noticed  two  translations  of  this  afFrcting  btit  3I-  '. 
donstructed  play.     The  present  belongs  to  the  class  of  UteraU  not 
amended^  versions,  and  approaches  very  nearly  in  quality  to  that  of 
Miss  Plumptre.    From  the  prefixed  biography,  we  transcribe  a  para-  . 

*  Kotzebue  was  born  at  Weimar,  in  Saxbny,  a  city  which  haf 
long  been  considered  as  the  most  refined  in  Gcririny,  as  far  as  relates 
to  the  manners  of  its  inhabitants  ;  and  is  at  present  particularly  fia- 
nous  for  a  seminary  of  education  for  young  men  of  rank,  which  af- 
fords the  students  the  double  advantage  of  acquiring  the  most  ex.' 
tensive  learning,  and  of  improving  their  manners-by  a  constant  in- 
tercourse with  the  Court  of  the  reigning  Duke,  at  present  one  of  the 
most  polished  in  Europe. — His  predilection  for  the  Drama  displayed 
itself  while  he  was  very  young  ;  for  in  his  youth  he  not  only  wrote» 
but  performed  in  several  private  theatres,  though,  wc  believe,  he 
never  yrt  appeared  on  the  public  stage.  He  was  educated  under 
the  celebrated  professor  Musacus ;  and  early  betook  hittisclf  to  the 
profession  of  the  Law,  which  he  practised  with  considerable  success, 
oiling  various  eminent  stations,  till,  at  length,  he  was  appointed  Pre- 
sent of  the  high  College  of  Justice,  in  the  Russian  province  of 
XfivOnia,  where  he  wrote  a  great  niimber  of  his  dramatic  works,  as 
well  as  his  other  miscellaneous  compositions.  The  cabills  of  a  party 
Itx  Livonia,  who  envied  his  superior  talents,  compelled  him,  after  some 
years,  to  resign  his  high  situation ;  when,  fortunately  for  the^  ad- 
mhrers  of  genius  and  learning,  he  resolved  to  devote  himself  entirely 
to  literary  pursuits,  and  accordingly  repaired  to  the  Court  of  Vienna, 
where  he  was  shortly  after  appointed,  *•  Director  and  Dramatist  of 
ttie  Imperial  Theatre ;"  a  place  which  he  has  ever  since  filled  with 
pleasure  to  himself,  and  the  greatest  satisfaction  to  the  Emperors  he* 
has  lived  under.' 

•  It  would  be  i;vcll,  in  order  to  prevent  collision,  if  translators  were 
to  announce  the  works  which  they  undertake,  previously  to  pub- 
lication: one  of  the  Jcast  meritorious  of  Kotzcbuc's  plays  has  in 
this  instance  obtained  the  honour  of  triple  translation.  Ti 

Art.  55.     Poems  on  various  Suljects.     By  R.  Anderson,  of  CarKsle.- 
Small  8vo.     pp.  227.     3s.  6d.  Boards.     Clarke.     179^. 

It  has  been  said  that  /'there  are  writers  for  every  reader,  and; 
readers  for  every  writer.'*  The  favour  which  these  pieces  may  have 
obulned  is  probably  local ;  and  th«y  may  have  appeared  wonder-, 
ful,  perhap?,  from  the  situiition  and  circumstances  of  the  writer ;  who . 
seems  self-taught,  and  who,  indeed,  modestly  confesses  that  his  edu- 
cation did  not' entitle  him  to  a  place  among  the  learned.  We  arc 
wholly  unacquainted  with  this  rural  bard's  peculiar  history,  and  caa 
only  judge  of  his  poetical  merits  by  the  productions  before  us.  They 
arc  certainly  nLitliLT  ungrammatical  nor  absurd,  and  may  perhaps  be 
ranli^d  witk  those  pf  Stephen  Duck,  and  other  favourites  of  the 
«•  unlettered  muse.'*     Mr.  Anderson  seems  to  hitch  his  thoughts 


Monthly  Catalogue,  Politics^  Finance^  fsfc.     tog 

fcito  rhyme  with  great  facility  :  but  we  could  wish  for  more  ongin* 
alky  in  tliose  thoughts.  He  is  not  sufficiently  wild  and  inaccurate 
to  make  us  expect  better  productions  from  ^ture  efforts.  Through 
46  songs  in  smooth  measures,  well  rhymed,  we  looked  in  vain  for 
novelty  ;  in  his  epistles,  and  even  epigrams,  wc  sought  unsuccedsfullT 
for  wit  or  humour;  and  in  his  sonnets,  our  search  for  poeticu 
imagery  was  equally  fruitless. 

In  every  page,  the  author  is  perpetually  extolling  the  innocence 
and  felicity  of  a  peasant's  life.  His  shepherds,  and  even  his  clowns^ 
are  Arcadian.  He  never  omits  to  censure  the  Great,  (of  whom,  wc 
should  supnofie,  he  can  know  but  little,)  as  miserable  tools  ofacoart<-« 
slaves  of  a  high  degree — rapacious  rulers  of  the  blood  stained  earth— ^ 
-*  plagued  with  the  noise  of  the  town — with  pride,— ambitiony-^c* 
"pendence  on  a  monarch's  smiles,  &c.  &c. 

Many  of  the  songs,  and  other  pieces,  of  this  poetic  inhabitant  of 
Carlisle,  are  written  in  the  neighbouring  dialect  of  Scotland^  and 
may  be  thought  to  resemble  that  of  the  laic  Rohy  Bums :  but  it 
would  be  flattery  to  compere  his  genius  with  that  of  Bums*  i^rii 

POLITICS,     FINANCE,     tsfc.  ^ 

Art.  56.  Ohseroations  en  the  Politic  a!  State  of  the  Continent^  ahoiilj 
France  be  suffered  to  retain  her  immense  Acquisitions;  in  which 
js  reviewed  her  whole- System  of  Aggrandizement,  and  the  probable 
Advantages  which  she  will  derive  from  the  Subversion  of  Italy,  and 
the  Possession  of  Belgium,  on  the  Return  of  Peace.  8vo.  pp.  147, 
98. 6d.     Debrctt. 

Tliese  very  sensible  observations  are  thrown  into  an  epistobry  fonh^ 
as  being  best  suited  to  the  desultory  and  unconnected  manner  ia 
which  they  are  written.  The  author  is  a  strenuous  advocate  for  a 
continuance  of  the  war,  rather  than  that  France  shall  be  allowed  t6 
ictain  a  degree  of  power  which  would  prove  incompatible  with^  th^ 
future  security  of  Europe.  Few  of  the  arguments  are  new,  yet  th^ 
letters  are  replete  with  considerable  information  in  several  particulaji 
relative  to  the  powers  on  the  continent  *. 

In  the  •  first  letter,  he  says  <  Every  state  hat,  in  my  opinion^  iti 
own  physiognomy,  if  I  may  be  allowed  to  use  the  expression,,  pecu* 
Kar  to  itself:  and  as  Lavater  endeavoured  to  cklineate  the  character! 
of  the  mind  of  man  by  the  most  striking  features  of  the  countenance, 
I,  with  the  map  in  my  hand,  study  the  peculiar  cast  of  every  state,* 
ky  their  physical  geography,  which  includes  the  nature  of  its  inha* 
bitants :  an(i  it  appears  to  me,  that  a.  person  well  versed  in  this  study, 
is  less  liable  to  trr  in  his  deductions,  than  the  physiognomist  already 
mentioned.  Hence  we  may  ascatain  the  genuine  features  of  re« 
and  apparent  strength  ;  of  fierceness  and  formidability  ;  of  rapacious 
inclinations  and  imperious  sway  ;  of  inactivity,  impotence,  &c.* 

Speaking  of  the  advantages  which  France  yet  enjoys  unimpaired, 
he  says,  *  She  still  retains  her  situation,  soil,  and  climate ;  her 
drcumference ;   her  interior  shape  j  her"  natural  productions ;  her 

♦  We  must  bear  in  mind  that  these  obseryations  were  made  in  tht 
year  i798.-^Thc  aiticle  has  been  mislaid. 

unity  ( 

.I.q6      Monthlt  Catalogue,  Politics,  Finance,  fig. 

unity ;  and  the  same  pltabtlity  of  disposition  among  licr  inbabttanti^ 
*  What  of  all  these  has  France  lost  by  the  revolution  ?  Is  the 
world  lifted  off  its  hinges,  and  France  moved  farther  to  the  SoutU 
pr  the  North  ?  Has  an  earthquake  changed  her  situation  and  homo- 
geneous shape  V 

It  is  but  fair  to  give  the  reader  a  specimen  also  of  the  able  writer** 
candour : — He  tells  his  correspondent  j  *  You  have  expressed  a  dcr 
m^  to  be  made  acquainted  with  my  thoughts  on  the  actual  situation 
of  affairs,  and  what  I  may  suppose  to  be  the  future  expectations  of 
ihc  several  states  of  Europe  trom  a  peace  concluded  with  France* 
If  you  expect  to  find  my  observation  touUy  devoi4  of  error,  you 
expect  too  much.' 

The  pamphlet,  however,  contains  many  sensible  and  Important    r 
icmarka.  ^ 

Alt.  57.     Constitutional  Sirtcturti  mt  particMl^  Positions f  advanced  in 

the  Spiechei  of  the  Right  Hon.  IV.  Pitt,  in  tiie  Debates  which  took 

place  on  the  Union  between  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,   on  the 

^  ^ -.      X3d  and  31st  of  January  1799.    ^7  WiUoughby,  Earl  of  AbiugT 

'^  '^      don.     8vo.     18.     Barnes. 

In  this  short  treatise,  the  doctnne  of  the  necessity  of  a  supreme 
unlimited  power  being  vested  in  governments  is  combated.  In  ^, 
letter  from  the  late  Sir  William  Jones  to  the  noble  author,  (a  copy 
of  which  apptiars  in  this  publication,)  is  the  following  passage  :  '^  My 
wishes  have,  been  uniformly  the  same^  to  keep  the  three  powers  in  our  siate 
within  their  just  limiiSf  measured  hy  the  equal  balance  of  the  law  J*  The 
opinion  of  the  great  Earl  of  Chatham  respecting  the  omnipotence  of 
ParHasnent  is  quoted,  and  also  the  protest  of  the  Lords  on  the  Re- 

It  is  very  generally  beUeved  that  the  present  is  by  no  means  an 
^gible  time  for  the  discussion  of  abstract  questions  on  political 
power ;  ani especially  of  those  in  whicli  the  rights  claimed  on  behalf 
€kf  the  people  clash  with  the  authority  claimed  for  governments. 
It  seems  indeed  a  duty  incumbent  on  men  in  high  power,  at  this 
time,  to  advance  such  principles  onlv  as  have  a  tendency  to  tran- 
oaiHize  the  public  mmd.  We  decline  entering  into  the  present 
ciscmision,  farther  than  to  observe  that  unlimited  powers,  and  a  free 
eoustitution,  appear  to  us  to  be  contradictory  terms.  T 

Art.  58.  j^rguments  for  a  Coalition  against  France*  8vo.  is« 
Hatchard.     1799. 

After  having  pointed  out  the  danger  to  other  Europ^n  powcni 
from  the  extended  dominion  of  France,  this  writer  exhorts  them  to 
unite  in  their  common  defence,  and  not  to  be  disheartened  by  the  failure 
of  preceding  confederacies.  He  argues,  justly,  that  a  coalition  i%am^ 
cd  froin  motives  of  fear  and  ntctssity,  and  for  the  purposes  of  defence, 
is  much  more  worthy  of  rtliunce  than  a  coalition  originating  ii^ 
ambitk)as  and  greedy  motives,  in  which  each  party  has  an  interest 
separate  from  tnat  of  his  confederates. 

L?te  events,  we  hope,  will  assist  the  reasoning  of  this  author,  an^ 
encourage  that  general  exertion  which  he  recommends,  in  order  tq 
eonfioe  the  power  of  France  within  such  limits  as  shaU  be  CQn^ten^ 
wiik  the  safety  of  the  rest  of  Europe.  X3 


Monthly  Catalogue,  Politics,  Finanoe^  life.       107 

Art.  59.     Principks  of  Taxation.    By  William  FrcncL    8vo.    is.  6d« 
Ridge  way.     i^j^. 

Mr*  Vxtnd  ^881} mc8,  as  the  only  correct  principle  of  equitable 
taxation,  that  a)l  6ul)ject8  of  the  state  shall  \t  required  to  contribute 
to  the  public  scrrice  ^n  a  just  proportion  to  their  means ;  and  he 
asserts  th^t  this  principle  has  not  been  followed  in  the  income-tax, 
notwithstanding  that  it  is  specifically  expressed  in  the  preamble  to 
tlie  bill.  He  accuses  the  Minister  of  being  unjust  to  the  middle 
classes,  and  draws  the  following  contrast  between  that  eentleman 
and  a  noted  character :  (T.  Paine : ) — •  The  one  would  biing  the 
•  poor  and  the  rich  together  by  levelling  the  rich ;  the  other  would 
increase  the  distance  between  the  podr  and  the  rich,  by  demolisliing 
the  middle  dass^ 

Mr.  F.  remarks  that  *  Since,  in  all  countries,  there  are  tome  de- 
pending upon  charity  for  support,  and  others  are  in  possession  of 
every  enjoyment,  there  must  be  a  certain  income,  which  will  exactly 
keep  a  man,  his  wife,  and  two  children  ;  and,  if  from  this  income 
any  thing  is  taken  away,  the  family  ift  deprivtd  of  necessaries, 
^uch  a  family  alto  stands  in  need  of  unproductive  capital;  namely, 
cloaths,  furniture,  bed,  &c.  without  which,  the  man*s  personal  in« 
dustry,  and  consequently  the  atate,  would  be  injured.  On  such  a 
man  the  state  could  not  consif^tently  make  any  demand,  much  len  on 
the  man  who  depends  on  others  for  support.' 

In  this  country,  he  supposes,  an  income  of  30 1.  a-year  from  per- 
sonal industry,  with  20 1.  unproductive  capital,  bhoidd  distinguish 
the  class  of  non-contributers  to.  the  state. 

*  The  contributcrs  then,  or  they  whose  means  arc  greater,  mar 
be  compared  with  eaiJeto  each  other.  From  the  yearly  income  Of 
any  individual  deduct  thirty  pounds,  the  remainder  is  a  superfluity, 
a  fit  object  of«taxation.  From  his  unproductive  capital  deduct  twenty 
J>ounds,  and  the  remainder  is  a  superfluity,  a  fit  object  of  taxatloo'* 
Then,  if  the  taxes  on  these  superfluities  are  made  proportional  to  the 
superfluities,  the  relative  situation  of  the  parties  taxed  is  presenred» 
and  they  arc  after  the  payment  of  the  tax  in  the  same  proportioa  im 
e&ch  other,  as  tliey  were  before  the  payment  of  tlie  tax.* 

On  this  scale  of  taxation,  the  author  has  given  a  table,  and  ilsa 
tables  of  the  comparative  effect  of  Mr.  Pitt's  tax.  Both  the  plana, 
perhaps,  run  tbo  much  into  extremes.  In  Mr.  Frend's  calculatiops, 
the  annual  produce  of  industry  is  estimated  as  worth  only  one  year's 
purchase ;  and  in  Mr.  Pitt's  calculadons,  the  annual  produce  of  in*' 
flustry  is  estimated  at  as  many  years'  purchase  fis  is  given  for  landt 
or  for  perpetuities.  It  is  evident  on  the  one  hand,  that  a  man  hav» 
ing  aoo  1.  capital,  without  a  profession  or  other  means  of  obtainin||^ 
hiore,  is  in  a  worse  situation  than  a  man  without  capital  who  has  ai| 
occupation  which  produces  to  him  annually  200 1.,  —  and  cannot  afford 
to  conti'ibute  so  much.  On  the  other  hand,  to  exemplify  the  dif- 
ference of  situation  between  landed  property  producing  aool.  per 
annum,  and  ividustry  producing  the  same  sum  ;  supposing  land  to  be 
worth  20  years'  purchase,  and  that  the  tax  demanded  Uie  whole  of 
income;  then  the  landed  proprietor  would  remain  worth  3800 L 
while  the  industrious  man  would  be  without  means  of  subsisteitee* 
Qf  their  former  rebtive  situations,  no  proportion  would  remain. 

^  4  Mf. 

lo8  MoHTHLT  Catalogue,  Fme  Arts. 

Mr.  Frcnd  ha»  obscrvc<J  tliat,  \{  the  relation  bettrcen  ^  man  wrtn 
Cool.  pToductifC  capital,  and  the  man  with  an  income  of  30 1.  a-ycar 
nrom  personal  industry',  could  be  ascertained,  the  proportion  of  the 
tax  on  productive  capital  to  that  on  income  from  personal  indnstry, 
might  he  also  ascertained :— but  this  proportion  he  has  not  explained. 
The  profits  of  industry  may  perhaps  fairly  be  reckoned  as  equivalent 
to  an  annuity  for  years,  but  certainly  ought  not  to  be  rated  at  as  many 
years'  ptxrchase  as  an  annuity  for  life.  If  the  number  of  years  were 
agreed,  the  proportion  between  the  produce  of  landed  estates  and  the 
produce  of  industry  might  be  established. 

There  seems  to  us  much  propriety  in  leaving  a  certain  qnantunj 
rf  property  untaxed,  as  being  i^ecessary  for  subsistence ;  and  in 
yating  all  above  that  quantity  as  superfluity,  proptrly  the  object  of 
taxation.  Yet  a  more  correct  principle  of  deduction  is  mentioned  in  the 
latter  part  of  Mr.  Frend's  pamphlet ;  where  he  proposes  to  fix  a  sum 
for  a  single  man,  an  increased  sum  for  a  man  and  his  wife,  and  a 
fivther  incrcMC  for  every  child  under  twenty-one  years  of  age. 

This  small  treatise  appears  to  us,  on  the  whole,  to  be  of  great 
utility  ;  as  well  in  promoting  the  inquiry,  as  in  the  advances  vvhieh 
the  author  has  made  towards  the  discovery  of  the  principles  of 
cqukable  taxation.  *■  The  real  worth  of  a  constitution,*  says  Mr. 
T.  *  may  be  discovered  from  its  mode  of  taxation  :  the  nearer  it 
u^proacnes  to  the  state  of  equal  representation,  the  higher  will  be 
the  prii/ciple  of  honour  in  that  country',  the  more  equitable  will  be 
its  tax|ltion.' 

With  respect  to  some  other  observations  on  taxes  as  connected 
with  representation,  it  is  necessary  to  remind  the  author  that,  where 
customs  and  excise  are  established,  no  individual  can  escape  taxation.    CjUp 

FINE    ARTS.  ^ 

Art.  60.     A  Tnai't^  on  the  Art  of  Pamtin^y  and  the  Composition  of 

Colsursy  contain in;T   Instructions  for  all  the  various  Processes  of 

Painting.     To|rctiu;r  with  Obscrvati<jns   upon  the  Qualities  and 

Ingredients   of  Colours,      Translated    from  the   French   of   M. 

Constant   de  Massoul.     Published  and  sold  by  the  Author  of  the 

Originalf  at  his  Manufactory,  No.  136,  Ne^u^  Bond- street y  where 
^,  -Jutdies  and  Gentlemen  may  be  furnlshud  ivith  every  Article  necessary 

fir  Pamthg  and  Dra'ujln^  *.     8vo.     pp.  240.     4s.     Dcbrett. 
•♦  Into  our  houses,  places,  beds,  they  creep. 

They've  sense  to  get  what  we  want  sense  to  keep  !** 
•  M.  Constant  de  Massoul  has  taken  some  pains  to  produce  a  small 
^umc  on  the  art  of  painting,  which  he  has  culled  from  Fresnoy^ 
I>epile»»  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  and  others  who  have  discussed  thia 
•ubject  ;  thus  claiming,  with  true  Galh'c  finesse,  the  meed  bestowed 
cm  original  exertions.  Not  less  enterprizing  on  the  score  of  gal- 
laittry,  he  has  paid  his  addresses  to  Di*.  Dcssie^s  Hdmlmazd  to  the 
Alts.  Being  a  man  of  honour,  he  conceals  the  amoup.;  but  the 
{process  of  jnak ing  colours,  so  ostentatiously  detailed,  furni&lies  ut 
urith  a  clue  to  discover  the  intrigue  ;  and  from  tlit  tints,  blushes,  and 
the  adoption  of  rougcy  we  pronounce  his  ir.ibtress  t^  be  a  coquette.-— 

*  An  iiigeuious  mode  of  advertising  the  contents  of  a  shop. 


Monthly  Cataiocub,  Fme  Arts  109 

In  short,  this  artpd  essay  on  the  art  of  painting  is  cxtrwtiely  wcB 
calculated  ior. tyros  of  JtUc  pencil,  novices  poases^d  of  more '  moiKrT 
than  genius,  who,  dazzled  by  the  radiance  of  a  splendid  apparatCM^ 
dose  tlieir  eyes  against  the  conviction  which  results  from  the  ase  of 
a  few  -simple  colours  in  the  hands  of  a  professor  of  decided  merit. 

Men,  whose  coi  ceptions  are  warmed  by  a  real  srnse  of  the  beautiet 
of  nature  and  the  attainments  of  art,  delight  in  chastity  of  st)ie« 
Redy  hlue^  and  yellow^  are  the  three  primitive  colours ;  no  more  are 
wanted ;  judgment  to  compound,  contrast,  and  harmonize,  will  -en- 
large  the  scale ;  and  combinations  ad injinitum  will  be  produced  by  troe 
science,  whose  object  has  been  uniformly  to  create  the  most  iutcrc«t- 
ing  effects  by  the  most  simple  means.  This  doctrine  is  exemplified 
'ik  the  best  specimens  of  both  antient  and  modem  masters,  and  is  the 
•practice  invariably  pursued  from  the  infancy  of  colouring  in  the 
essays  of  Cimaluey  to  its  maturity  in  the  works  of  Sir  Joshua  R^ 

But  lo !  and  behold !  gallantry  and  Jinttie  arc  laid  aside,  the 
chemist  and  the  scholar  are  dismissed,  and  the  colour-grinder  appears 
and'  make«  his  best  bow  I  M,  dt  MassouPi  manufactory  intrcduoea 
to  the  notice  of  the  public  several  French  artists  of  eminence,  and 
several  French  artists  of  eminence  introduce  M.  dg  Matsours  maau* 
factory  to  their  friends.-— This  reminds  us  of  what  was  said  in  con* 
sequence  of  the  mutual  praises  alternately  bestowed  on  each  othcr^ 
Ijr  a  couple  of  indifferent  poets : 

^*  So  two  poor  Rogues,  when  both  their  credits  fail, 
To  cheat  the  world,  become  each  other's  bail. — " 
We  are  always  grieved  when  the  names  of  men  of  talents  are  pixra« 
tituted  to  the  sordid  views  of  dealers  in  any  line.  iS»H  • 

Art.  61.     A  Plarif  preceded  by  a  short  Review  of  the  Fine  Arts^  tw 
preserve  amortj  us^  and  transmit  to  Posterity^  the  Portraits  of  the  most 
distinguished  Characters  of  England^  Scotland,  and  Ireland^  since  hit 
Majesty's  Accession  to  the  Throne.     Also  to  give   Encourage- 
ment to   British  Artists,  and  to  enrich  and  adorn  L.ondon  witli 
«ome  Galleries  of  Pictures,  Statues,  Antiques,  Medals,  and  other 
valuable  Curiosities,  without  any  Expence  to  Government,     By  Noel 
Desenfans,  Esq.     8vo.     pp.  60.     is.  6d.     Law.   1799. 
The  object  of  Mr.  Desenfans  is  sufficiently  expressed  \n  his  title- 
page.     The  mode  in  which  he  proposes  to  accomplish  it  is  by  ap- 
propriating the  British  Museum  to  the  purpo8e,~among  others,  not 
excluding  that  to  which  it  is  at  present  confmed,— of  receiving  por- 
traits of  eminent  men  and  specimens  of  antient  art.     The  expcuce  of 
the  institution,  he  suggests,  should  be  defrayed  by  the  curiosity  of  the 
public,  in  the  same  manntjr  as  the  wealth  of  the  Royal  Academy  if 
annually  increased  by  an  exhibition. — In  the  review  of  tho  FiiiC  Arts, 
we  observe  several  injj^enious  and  judicious   rcnaiks,    cxprcsiied  in 
language  which  it  would  be  ungenerous  to  criticise,  were  it  sufficiently 
deifective  to  require  animadversion  :  but  this  is  not  the  case.     It  is  to 
be  remembered  that  the  writer  is  not  a  native  of  this  country  :  bu", 
by  having  *  lived  nearly  thirty  years'  among  us,  he  writes  English  a^ 
well  as  the  generality  of  our  pamphleteers.  P* 

5  i:DUCJL. 

I  i  o  MoNTitLt  C  At  At  OGiTBy  Sdiicattdn^  tsfc. 

Art.  62 »  The  Poetical  Momtor^  consistiW  of  Pieces  select  and  or!-. 

ginal,  for  the  Improyement  of  the  Young  m  Virtue  and  Piety ; 

intended  to  succeed  Dr.  Watts's  Divine  and  Moral  Songs,    Second 

Edition.     t2mo.     28.  bound.     Longman.     1798. 

As  this  little  selection  has  already  received  our  approbation  *,  wc 
have  only  now  to  announce  to  the  public,  on  its  re-pvib1ication,  that 
It  has  received  a  small  alteration  by  the  omission  of  a  few  pieces,  the 
leading  thoughts  of  which  were  contained  in  others,  in  order  to  in» 
troduce  some  which  had  not  before  appeared.  The  benevolent 
editor  expresses  much  satisfaction  in  ihis  call  for  a  second  edition,  as 
she  hopes  that  it  may  contribute  some  farther  assistance  to  the 
Shakspeare's-walk  female  charity-school ;  to  the  benefit  of  which 
this  publication  had  a  particular  regard.  TUv  < 

Art.  63.  Gcirladur  Cymraeg  a  Siusoneg* — ^Welsh-English  Diction- 
ary. By  William  Owen.  Part  iv.  large  Bvo.  73.  boards.— 4to« 
los.  6d.     Williams.  1799. 

A  character  and  specimen^  of  this  work  havings  on  mentioning 
the  former  parts,  been  already  given  in  our  Review  f,  we  have  now 
onty  to  announce  the  appearance  of  this  4th  part ;  in  which  Mr. 
Owen's  undertaking  is  carried  on,  and  successfully  conducted  to  the 
etid  of  the  letter  I. — The  3d  part  concluded  the  first  volume. 

Art.  64.  The  New  Universal  Gazetteef^  or  Geographical  Dictionary  / 
containing  a  Description  of  all  the  Empirts^  Kingdoms,  St&te8» 
Provinces,  Cities,  Towns,  Forts,  Seas,  Harbours,  Rivers,  Lakes, 
Mountains,  and  Capes,  in  the  known  World ;  with  the  Govern* 
ment.  Customs,  Manners,  and  Religion  of  the  Inhabitants;  the 
Extent,  Boundaries,  and  Natural  Productions  of  each  Country  ; 
the  Trade,  Manufactures,  and  Curiosities  of  the  Cities  and  Towns, 
collected  from  the  best  Authorjt ;  their  Longitude,  Latitude, 
Bearings,  and  Distances,  ascertained  by  actual  Measurement,  on 
the  most  authentic  Charts ;  with  Twenty-six  Whole  Sheet  Maps, 
by  the  Rev.  Clement  Crutwcll.  3  Vols*  4to.  2I.  as.  Boards. 
Robinsons.     1798. 

Of  compilations  which  treat  of  a  science  daily  advancing  towards 
perfection,  it  may  usually  be  affirmed  that  the  last  is  the  best.  The 
mechanical  labor  of  alphabetical  arrancrcment  being  facilitated  by  the  . 
assistance  derived  from  preceding  publications,  the  modem  compiler 
corrects  at  leisure  the  errors  of  his  precursors,  improves  on  their  metnod, 
and  incorporatci  the  facts  which  recent  discoveries  have  added  to  the 
mass  of  human  knowlegc.  How  widely  the  boundaries  of  geogra*  . 
phic^  science  have  been  extended  by  contemporary  travellers  and 
navigators,  a  retrospective  view  of  our  monthly  labors  will  demon- 
strate. The  names  of  Nicbuhr,  Bruce,  and  Forster;  of  Cook, 
Vancouver,  and  La  Pcrouse ;  will  evince  the  necessity  of  correcting 
and  enlarging  our  gazetteers,  by  means  of  their  accuiate  and  dearly* 
bought  information.  In  other  respects,  the  times  are  lest  propitious* 
The  laud-marks  which  have  withstood  the  shock  of  ages  are  now 

See  Rev.  vol.  xxL  N.  S.  p.  223. 

and  ToL  xxii.  p.  235. 


See  our  xviich  voL  N«  S.  p.  410;  and  voL  xxii.  p.  233. 


MowTRLT  Catalogue,  MmettanHuu  iit 

levelled  with  the  3ust ;  and  huihinity  inquires,  witH  anxious  ctl- 
riositjTf  by  what  bloody  sacrifices  they  must  be  replaced  ?  The  fornw 
of  government  saiicftioned  by  the  approbation,  or  by  the  long  ac* 
quiescence,  of  populous  and  enlightened  nations,  have  suddenly  been 
overthrown,  and  the  statesman  scarcely  dates  to  calculate  on  the 
chances  of  their  restoration. 

Amid  such  general  convulsions,  while  each  je^r  beholds  a  republic 
annexed  to  a  neighbouring  kingdom,  oir  a  kingdom  converted  into 
a  republicy  a  wonc  like  the  present  can  only  exhibit  what  Europe 
was :  into  what  fair  divisions  the  policy  of  former  ages  had  appor- 
tioned this  quarter  of  the  globe  ;  and  for  what  forms  of  TOVernment 
the  ancestors  of  the  present  race  fought  and  bled,— exck^ming,  with 
thort-sighted  gratulations,  *  Esto  perpetua  P 

To  toil  through  a  voluminous  gazetteer  exceeds  the  patience  evenof  a 
reviewer :  but  we  have  examined  a  variety  of  articles  in  the  worl^ 
BOW  before  ut,  and  have  found  abundant  reason  to  applaud  Mr.  Crut- 
well's  diligence  in  the  collection  and  judgment  in  the  arrangement  of 
his  matenals.  His  work  is  beyond  comparison  more  copious  thaa 
any  preceding  publication  of  the  same  nature,  und  we  deem  its  com- 
parative value  at  least  commensurate  with  its  bulk.  The  new  and 
old  divisions  of  France  are  both  inserted.  We  think  that  it  would 
have  been  ao  improvement,  if  the  longitude  had  been  invariablf 
stated  cither  from  Greenwich  or  Fcrrol ;  and  if  the  French  or  Ger- 
man orthography  had  been  uniformly  preserved  in  the  names  of  cer* 
tain  places.  Ghent  is  to  be  found  under  its  German  name,  whi][e 
Brusselsy  Mechh'n,  and  Basil,  must  be  sought  under  their  Frendi 
appellations.— *  Anticnt  geography  is  not  introduced,'  says  Mn 
Crutwell ;  *  it  was  intended  to  describe  the  world  as  it  is.'  Yet  this 
department  we  think,  is  more  strictly  within  the  province  of  a  Geo- 
graphical Dictionary,  than  a  detail  of  sieges  and  battles,  vsrhich  cer- 
tainly belongs  to  history.  The  wars  of  Italy  end  the  Low  Coun- 
tries in  and  since  the  reign  of  the  Emperor  Charles  V.  occupy  no 
inconsiderableportionof  such  publicatiuhii,  which  seem  to  us  unneces- 
sarily swelled  by  this  circumstance.  Geography  is  an  indispensable  com- 
panion of  history :  but  it  should  neither  encroach  on  the  province  of 
the  latter,  nor  omit  what  is  necessary  to  elucidate  her  more  antient 
records ;  which  require,  still  more  than  the  recent,  the  assistance  that 
she  is  qualified  to  bestow. 

Our  cursory  inspections  have  inspired  us  with  a  favorable  impres- 
sion of  the  general  accuracy  of  this  work,  though  many  exceptions 
might  be  adduced ;  and  we  have  to  regret  that  Mr.  Crutwell  has 
not  availed  himself  sufficiently  of  the  county  and  parochial  histories 
of  England,  and  of  the  statistical  accounts  of  Scotland,  to  render  his 
statements  of  population  so  complete  as  they  might  have  been.  ^^ 


Art.  S^".  Omnium  ;  containing  the  Journal  of  a  late  Three  Days 
Tour  into  France  ;  curious  and  extraordinary  Anecdotes  ;  critical 
Remarks  ;  and  other  Miscellaneous  Pieces.  By  William  Clubbe, 
LL.B.  Vicar  of  Brandeston,  Suffolk.  8vo.  6s.  Boards^  Hfiving- 
t^ns.    1798. 


112  Mohruvt  CMritoGm,  Miiattumtss, 

If  sumnoier  be  the  mo8t  prpper  time  for  7our-wuiiin^9  it  aeeour  als# 
tibe  fittest  time  for  Tour-r^acii^g.  Foote,  that  pleasant  observery  re- 
comiQcnded  the  «*  Hght  wmmcr  kind"  of  literary  maonfocturc  for 
yr^rm  vyeatber»  as  most  suitable  to  the  GstlcH  leason^  when  neither 
mind  noi*  body  is  mueb  disj^osed  to  fatigue. 

Mr.  Clubbe's  little  volume  * ,  now  before  U8|  seems  happily  cal- 
Cnlftted  in  this  view.  It  is  **  iighty  enough,  in  all  conscience,  both 
in  qu^.ntitv  and  character ;  and  it  is  so  fortunately  diversified,  in  re* 
ipect  to  ibe  subjects  introduced,  that  the  reader  may  pass  with  little 
trouble  or  regret,  from  paper  to  paper, — from  piece  to  piece,— frora 
mosc  to  verse, — and  from  verse  to  prose, — We  need  not  cnlaree  on 
tbk  publication,  as  we  gave,  it  is  apprehended,  a  sufficient  esUmate 
of  this  v*rriter*s  abilities  in  our  (not  severe)  remarks  on  his  Horace; 
MC  Rev.  for  October,  1797,  p.  a  16,  &ۥ 

Art.  66.  The  Political  anil  Moral  Uses  of  an  Evil  Spirit.  By  George 
Hanmer  Lcycester,  A.  M.  of  Merton  College,  Oxford.  8vo. 
2s.     Egerton. 

Mr.  Satan,  we  are  again  f  called  by  your  able  and  ingenious  advo- 
cate Mr.  L.  to  make  you  our  lowest  bow,  and  to  confess  our  mani- 
fold obligations.  The  clergy  have  long  said  that  •  there  is  no  li^nng 
Vfitbout  you  /'  and  according  to  the  logic  of  your  friend,  it  would  be 
a  great  pity  that  there  should.  How  ungratefully  have  you,  Sir, 
been  treated  by  the  human  race  !  How  have  they  mistaken  as  well  as 
leviled  you  !  What  they  have  considered  as  temptations  and  seduc- 
tions, you  have  meant  as  wholesome  and  effectual  lessons  of  morality  j 
You  arc,  to  be  sure,  what  on  earth  is  called  a  hogging  preceptor ; 

Su  make  us  feel  the  lash  pretty  smartly :  but  then  you  make  us 
irn  what  we  ought  to  know,  when  no  other  master  can  accomplish 
this  good  end.  Ypu,  by  your  well-applied  discipline,  often  bring  us, 
tad  dogs !  to  our  senses. — So  says  Mr.  L.  and  he  proves  it  in  tlie 
nicest  college  logic ;  which  demonstrates  tilings  in  the  most  metho- 
dical and  convincing  manner,  and  can  shew  to  the  satisfaction  of  any 
audience,  that  two  and  two  are  to  day  more  and  to-morrow  less  than 

As  this  logic  of  Mr.  L.  is  only  intended  for  grave  university-men, 
who  may  have  been  what  they  call  hoaxing  the  Devil  most  unmer- 
cifully ;  the  multitude  are  still  permitted  to  say  all  the  evil  cyf  the  old 
gentleman  that  they  can  prove :  but  it  is  requested  that  no  one  hente- 
torth  will  unload  his  own  cart-fuU  of  sins  inio  the  Devil^s  stage 
waggon.  JI^. 

Art.  67.  The  Baronage  of  Scotland;  containing  an  Historical  anH 
Genealogical  AccDUut  of  the  Gentry  of  that  Kingdom,  coUeaed 
from  the  public  Records  and  Chartularics  of  this  Countr}' ;  the 
.TI  Records  and  private  Writings  of  Families  ;  and  thr  Works  of  our 
best  Historians,  illustrated  with  Engravings  of  the  coats  of  Arms. 
Vol.  !•  Folio,  pp.  623.  il.  lis.  6d.  Boards.  Cadelljun,  and 
I>avie8.     J  798. 

*  ■  '  "  ■  ■      I  III  ■  111  I   I  a  I  ■■ 

•    *  VrlntcA  by  subscription, 

f  This  is  a  2d  part.  Of  the  zst»  wc  gave  ao  accovoti  Rcr.  toL 
»if.  N.  S.  p.  47a. 


Monthly  Catalogue,  MUcitlaimus.  113 

The  late  Sir  Robert  Douglas,  in  his  Peerage  of  Scotland,  pub- 
lished the  family  history  of  the  greater  barons,  or  nobility,  of  that 
kingdom.  His  future  labors  were  dedicated  to  the  ttelU  minores. 
In  the  present  work.  Sir  Robert  designed  a  delineation  of  the 
genealogies  of  the  Baronets,  and  the  lesser  Barons,  or  landed  gentry 
pf  Scotland,  by  tracmg  the  line  of  their  ancestry,  by  enumerating 
their  pedigrees  and  intermarriages,  by  mentioning  their  employments 
whether  civil  or  military,  and  by  recording  the  remarkable  atchicve- 
ments  performed  by  them.  Had  he  lived  to  finish  it,  say  the  editors 
and  continuators  of  the  work,  he  would  have  accomplished  an  ini' 
portant  desideratum  in  the  history  of  Scotland.  For  the  information 
of  those  who  may  be  disposed  to  concur  in  this  opinion  of  the  editors^ 
we  have  only  to  mention  that  562  pages  of  the  present  volume  com- 
pnze  that  portion  of  the  design,  which  Sir  Robert  lived  to  complete; 
and  that  the  editors  have  thought  it  unnecessary  to  bring  his  history 
up  to  the  present  time,  by  adding  to  it  such  family  events  as  have 
fiibsequently  occurred,  or  the  armorial  bearings  which  he  had  omitted: 
hut  the  latter  are  promised  in  a  secor.d  volume.  An  addition  of 
thirteen  family  histories,  and  a  copious  Index,  constitute  that  portion 
of  this  work  for  which  the  public  arc  indebted  to  the  editors.  .  Ksupti*-- 

Art.  68.  The  Secrets  of  the  English  Bastik  disclosed.  To  which  it 
added  a  Copy  of  the  Rules  and  Orders  by  which  the  whole  System 
is  regulated.    By  a  Middlesex  Magistrate.    8vo.    is,   Rivingtons, 


The  proper  regulations  of  prisons,  both  of  those  which  are  in* 

tended  for  safe  custody  before  trial,  and  of  those  which  arc  appro- 
priated  to  the  puni.-hment  of  offenders  after  conviction,  is  an  essential 
and  important  object  in  every  well- constituted  government ;  and  where 
lufficitnt  attention  has  been  directed  to  this  object,  in  which  the  in- 
terests and  comforts  of  so  many  miserable  creatures  are  deeply  con- 
cerned, it  is  almost  equally  necessary  that  the  public  should  receive 
accurate  and  authentic  information,  In  order  that  the  cause  of  truth  may 
not  suffer  from  ignorance  or  design.  These  remarks  arc  suggested  by 
some  late  inquiries  into,  and  some  violent  misrepresentations  of,  tho 
present  state  of  the  new  house  of  correction  for  the  county  of  Middle- 
sex; which  indeed  have  produced  the  pamphlet  before  us,  containing 
a  history  of  the  institution,  and  a  copy  of  the  rules  *  by  which  the 
whole  system  is  regulated.'  These  regulations  have  received  con- 
siderable assistance  horn  the  labours  of  Sir  George  Oncsiphorus  Paul; 
by  whose  laudable  exertions  the  prisons  in  the  county  of  Gloucester 
have  been  much  benefited. 

The  pamphlet  appears  to  be  the  productloi)  of  a  scnsibki  candid, 
«od  welt-informed  mind. 

It  may  not  be  improper  to  observe  that  the  question  was  lately 
agitated  in  the  Court  of  King's  Bench,  whether  persons  under  z, 
cnai^e  of  treason  could  be  sent  tor  safe  custody  to  this  prison  by  virtue 
pi  the  wrarrant  of  a  Secretary  of  State ;  and  the  Court  determined 
that  there  was  nothing  in  such  a  proceeding,  that  was  in  opposition  to 
the  statutes  by  which  houses  of  correction  are  instituted  and  rc« 
ffttlated.  CH 

*  Riv.  Mat,  1799-  I  Art.     ^-^^ 

ti4  Monthly  CATALOGtrs,  Mmenaneouu 

Art.  69.    An  jfrrangement  of  Provincial  Coins f  Tokens ^  and  Medaktr^. 

issued  in  Great  Britain,  Ireland,  and  the  Colonies,  within  the  last 

twenty  Years,  from  the  Farthing  to  the  Penny  8ize.     By  James 

Conde^.      8vo.     pp.  330.      7s.  6d.    Boards*     Cadell  jun.  and 

Davies.    1799* 

Mr.  Addison  has  observed  that  *'  ft  is  certain  that  medals  gi5«  %. 
great  light  to  history."  They  undoubtedly  assist  in  the  confirmation 
of  events  and  f^cts,  afid  contribute  to  their  ehicidatibn.  Some  read- 
ers will  have  their  doubts  concerning  such  collections  as  that  here 
before  us,  whether,  though  they  may  be  of  uee,.  they  may  not  at  the 
same  time  occasion  perplexity  and  mistake.  We  agree,  however,, 
with  Mr.  Conder  in  remarking  that,  *  the  man  who  exerts  himself  to 
increase  the  stock  of  usefuF  information^  or  who  endeavours  to  ad- 
vance, vary,  or  muTtiply  the  innocent  amusements  or  enjoyments  of 
life,  has  a  claim  ta  the  patronage  and  support  of  the  public*'  Great 
attention  has  been  employed  by  the  author  to  render  this  work  ac- 
ceptable. The  order  in  which  the  several  subjects  are  disposed  16. 
clear  and  pleasant,  and  a  suitable  Indiex  is  added. 

Among  the  coins  not  localy  are  several  of  *whiie  metal ^  one  of  sllver-y. 
value  three  pence,,  we  observe  at  Armagh  in  Ireland  ;  the  rest  arc 
principally^  or  wholly,  pennies,.half-pennics,  and  farthings ;  or,  as  the 
last  class  is  ludicrously  termed  in  the  reverse  of  one  of  ui^TUy^ youngest- 
sons  of  fortune. 

In  a  sensible  Preface,,  written  by  the  late  James  Wright,  Esq;  of 
Dundee,  which  introduces  the  work,  it  is  observed  that,  if  from  the 
rxvo  thousand  varieties  which  are  here  described,  we  make  a  large  dc* 
diiction  for  those  that  are  contemptible  \\\  design,  rude  \\\  workman- 
•Jiip,  trifling,  absurd,  and  merely  formed  to  obtafii  a  paltry  profit 
from  a  few  collectors,  there  will  still  remain  perhaps  one  third  worthy 
the  notice  of  the  medallist  of  judgment.  These  he  devides  into  six 
descriptions ;  *  views  of  remarkable  buildings  ;  representations  of 
great  commerdal  and  public  works ;  striking  emblems  of  tiic  indus- 
trious genius  of  the  country ;  portraits  of  illdstrious  men  ;  historicat 
events,  and  characteristics  of  political  parties  ;  representations  of  ani- 
mals, landscapes,  &c.^  This  gentleman  appears  to  have  written  com 
mmore ;  and  with  the  fervour  of  an  enainorato  he  produces  apposite 
and  weighty  arguments  in  favour  of  his  subject :  but  some  readers 
may  be  inclfntd  to  smile,  when,  after  having  mentioned  a  general 
view  of  the  state  of  architecture  in  Great  Britam  as  exhibited  by 
coins,  he  adds ;  *  the  preservation  of  which,  at  the  distant  future 
period  when  three  or  four  thousand  years  shall  have  elapscrf,  (should 
the  world  last  as  long,  the  pieces  may,)  must  be  of  extreme  utility 
and  value  to  posterity.' — Among  other  proofs  of  his  zeal,  he  sug- 
gests the  formation  of  a  society  in  London,,  under  the  designation 
of  The  MeddUic  Society  of  Brttahu  To  this  he  sees  no  objection, 
unless  it  should  be  the  gloomy  aspect  of  the  times;  which^  as  it  does- 
not  prevent  several  more  useless  expences,  will  not,  he  trusts^  forbid 
an  attention  to  the  proposal.  By  this  mode,  he  observes,  they  might 
indulge  some  of  the  worthiest  feelings  of  human  nature,  in  the  patron- 
age  of  poor  and  mcrltGrious  artists  v  ^<^  ^^^7  inay  instruct  and  dc^ 

Monthly  Cat ALO€VJi,  ThatAsgiving  Sermons,      iij 

fight  future  ages,   and  render  permanent  the  most  important  cha- 
racteristics of  the  present. 

Relative  to  the  cxpencc  of  these  coins,  Mr.  W.  tells  us  *  that^ 
taking  an  average  of  different  statements  made  by -various  intelligent 
persons  in  correspondence  with  him,  not  less  than  a  capital  of  300,000!. 
•has  been  expended  by  companies  and  individuals,  on  the  whole  mass 
of  private  coinage,  of  which  specimens  are  described  by  Mr.  Conder.* 
Three  small  pla^s  only  illustrate  this  work.  JJl  ^ 

Art.  70.  T7)e  Fallacy  of  French  Freedom j  and  dangerous  Tendency  of 
Siemens  IVritlngt*  Or  an  Essay  shewing  that  Irreligion  and  Im- 
morality pa^e  the  Way  for  Tyrann^y  aiid  Anarchy  ;  and  that 
Sterne's  Writings  are  both  irreligious  and  immoral::  concluding 
with  some  Observations  on  the  present  State  of  France.  By  D. 
Whytc,  M.  D.  late  Surgeon  to  English  Prisoners  in  France.  8vo. 
€8.     Hat  chard. 

Two  subjects  are  here  umted  which  bear  non-elation  to  each  other, 
and  cannot  with  success  be  blended  in  one  discussion.  The  ob-  • 
scenity  of  Sterne's  writings  is  universally  owned  and  generally  la- 
mented :  but  the  vicious  tendency  of  his  works  has  nothing  to  do 
with  French  principles  or  practices ;  of  both  which  Dr.  W.,  from 
having  lived  in  France,  has  a  complete  abhorrence.  Speaking  of 
the  fair  sex  an  France,  *  Adieu  (says  he  J  to  English  morals  ;  adieu 
to  English  liberty  j  and  ^ieu  to  every  thing  that  is  sncred  in  religion, 
or  decorotus  in  common  life,  should  the  fair  ones  of  Albion  ever  stoop 
to  form  themselves  on  such  al)ominable  models.' 

He  tells  US9  also,  that  there  *  the  essence  of  justice  and  the  forms 
of  law  are  equally  laid  aside.*     These  arc  the  author^s  words ;  but 
whether  they  may  be  taJken  literally,  or  cum  grano  sallsy  we  pretend  ,^ 
not  to  say.     The  reader  must  exercise  his  own  judgment.  iSo^y^ 

Art.  71.  jf  Tcgtr  of  the  River  Wye  ami  its  Flc'mtty.  Enriched  with 
Two  Engravings,  i2mo.  2s.  sewed.  Sael.  1798. 
Those  who  have  read  the  more  extensive  works  of  Gilpin  and  . 
Ireland,  on  the  picturesque  beauties  of  the  Wye,  will  iind  little  in 
the  present  small  volume  to  attract  their  attention  ^  but  it  may  be 
tn  useful  ^od6>/ companion  to  the  traveller  who  is  engaged  in  explor* 
ing  the  dch'ghtful  scenery  of  this  celebrated  river.  Q^ 

T«ANKSOIVIN^     SERMONS,    JIVi?t;.  2i^   I798- 

Art.  72.     Freached  at  the  Parish-Church  of  Heyteebury,  Wilts. 

By  David  WiUiams,  Curate  of  Hcytesbury.    8vo.    is.    Williams. 

This  sermoa  does  «ot  rank  in  the  class  of  ranting  performances  : 
the  author  i«  temperate  in  his  censures  ;  and  while  ke  explodes  the 
principles  and  conduct  of  the  French,  he  also  candidly  leads  us  back 
to  prc-disposing  causes. — •  Far  indeed  j(he  says}  be  the  intentioa 
from  this  ro«f<savz#r// platce,  where  the  words  of  truth  and  soberness, 
in  accents  of  love  and  charity,  should  alone  be  heard,  to  bring  any 
malignant  or  railing  accusation,  even  against  our  enemies.  The  JLord 
tn^uke  them  and  convert  them.'— Of  these  our  adversaries,  however, 
he  leaves  bo  very  favourable  impression  oa  thie  mliuls  oi  lus  audi- 

It  W< 

U6  Monthly  Catalogue,  Fast  Sermon^ 

Wc  incline,  with  Mr.  Williams,  to  retain  the  common  version  of 
the  firgt  part  of  his  text,  [Isaiahy  tiii.  12 — 14.)  a  confederacy y  rather 
thin  admit  the  criticism,  ingeniously,  but  diradcntly,  proposed  by 
I)r.  Lowtb,  Or  more  properly  by  Dr.  Seeker ;  who,  inbtead  of  thisi 
>^ould  read,  by  some  change  of  letters  in  the  original  word>  it  it  holy^ 
fthtntig  to  tne  divinen  or  soothsayers  who  imposed  their  illusions 
under  tne  appearance  of  sanctUy  :  but,  as  complracy  is  often  si^niiied 
by  the  Hebrew  term  "tjjtp,  confederacy  also  well  accords  with  its 
primary  signification  ;  and  the  warning  here  implied  seems  very  sea- 
ionably  addressed  by  the  prophet  to  his  countrymen,  who  were  anxi- 
6'u*  to  obtain  foreign  earthly  connections  and  assistance,  while  they 
disregarded  and  neglected  the  protection  and  aid  of  Heaven.  Hi« 

Art.  75.  Preached  in  the  Church  of  St.  John  Baptist,  Wakefield, 
By  the  Rev.  Richard  Munkhouse,  D*D,  8vo.  is.  Riving- 
.  Dr.  M.'s  sermon  glows  with  pious  gratitude  to  the  Giver  of  all 
Tictory,  pointedly  reprobates  and  condemns  Jeniucratic  aud  seditious 
principles,  and  energetically  exhorts  us  to  order  our  convirsation  by 
the  sound  maxims  of  religion,  loyalty,  and  virtue.  Text,  Ps.  1.  23. 
Liturgy  version.  Ttfo-l 

FAST    SERMON,    i*Vi.  27,    lyp^. 

Art.  74.     Preached  before  the  Hon.  House  of  Commons*     By  the 

Rev.  Thoiiia<i  Hay,    D.  D.    Canon  of  Chrisi-Church,    Oxford. 

4to.     IS.     Walter. 

A  respectable  writer,  in  a  periodical  paper,  lately  expressed  hif 
astonishment  at  seeing  "  such  a  number  of  political  sermons  con« 
tinually  issuing  from  the  British  press:" — adding,  that  "  it  wafi,  to 
him,  a  matter  of  wonder  that  .many  of  them  were  so  replete  with 
bitter  invective  and  violent  declamation,  that  the  mild  and  pacific 
ntaxims  of  the  gospel  seemed  almost  totally  overlooked,— in  a  country 
which  calls  itself  CHRUtiAK  1" 

Without  stopping  to  animadvert  on  this  remark,  we  shall  only  note 
that^  in  the  instance  before  us,  the  author  is  less  liable  to  the  chaigc 
implied  in  the  above  quotation. — Indeed  it  could  not  be  expected 
that,  in  a  discnurse  intended  to  be  delivered  before  one  of  the  great 
branches  of  our  legislature,  the  preacli.-r  should  enlarge  on  the 
ravages  of  war,  and  the  innumerable  miserlovi  which  follow  it ;  for- 
whaiever  religion  or  humanity  might  dictate,  the  learned  and  eloquent 
orator  could  noi,  for  a  moment,  forget  that  his  auditory  had  sane* 
tioned  every  measure  of  hostility  which  had  taken  place  since  the 
commencement  of  the  war. 

As  a  specimen  of  Dr.  Hay's  sermon,  wc  shall  extract  a  passage 
in  which  he  expatiates  on  the  uniform  tenour  of  our  national  policy  : 

*  The  policy  of  this  country  (says  he)  has  been  uniform  aifd  decided  : 
it  still  continues  to  assert  the  inestimable  value  of  those  blessinga  de« 
jived  from  sound  Religion,  dnd  aUo  those  derived  from  our  frame 
of  civil  government,  a  regular  subordination  of  ranks,  an  able  and 
impartial  administration  of  justice,  flourishing  maiiufactures,  Si  com* 
SAC'rcc  protected  and  extended  beyond  the  example  of  former  times^ 

a  grca; 

MoNTHtt  CaTALOCCE,  Sifjgfe  Sermons.  It  J 

4  great  and  increased  rcTenue>  individual  opulence,  and  national  pro* 
tpcrity.  Such  are  the  unrivalled  blessings  which  have  long  excited 
the  envy  a»d  the  inveterate  hostility  of  the  enemy  :  our  wealth  hat 
been  the  object  of  their  avarice  ;  our  civil  constitution,  from  its  admi- 
rable wisdom,  and  the  protection  which  it  affoids,  is  the  reproach  of 
their  anarchy,  their  licentiousness,  and  their  tyranny  ;  oiir  religion 
the  condemnation  of  their  infidelity;  our  power  the  restraint  of 
their  aggrandiaement*  Hence  an  enmity  eager  to  deprive  us  of  theaci 
invaluable  privileges,  hence  the  reiterated  menaces  of  the  ruin  ao4 
extinction  of  the  British  empire* 

*  Under  this  trying  conjimcture,  let  us  calmly  consider  the  con* 
^uct  of  our  own  nation  :  not  with  a  view  to  advance  exalted  claima 
of  presumptuous  arrogance,  highly  unbecoming  man's  best  exertioniii 
but  to  enquire,  whether  we  have  endeavoured  to  satisfy  those  great 
public  duties  incumbent  upon  us  in  the  course  of  the  present  war^ 
with  such  a  regard  to  our  obvious  obligations,  in  the  support  of 
the  Contest  itself,  as  has  manifested  our  sincere  desire  to  fulfil  the 
distinguished  and  arduous  part  allotted  to  us  with  such  an  upright* 
ftcss  and  intcgnty,  as  we  may  humbly  liope,  will  recommend  thia 

?art  of  our  conduct  to  the  merciful  acceptance  of  a  gracious  God. 
iave  we  in  any  instince  been  unmindful  of  the  soUd  establishment 
of  the  liberties  of  Europe,  and  of  those  objects  inseparably  involved 
in  the  event  of  xhis  war  r 

On  reading  this  passago,  we  could  not  help  asking  ourselves,  with 
a  heartfelt  sigh,  whether  we  were  *  mindful  of  the  solid  establishment 
^f  the  itberiiet  of  Europe,'  when  we  left  the  poor  honest  Poles  to  be 
enslaved  by  the  hostile  hands  of  Imperial  and  Regal  power?— Alaal 
Whtrc  was  then  the  uniformity  of  our  *  national  policy  V  CrCd.  •  S-  \ 


Art.  75.  Preached  at  the  Assizes,  at  Carlisle,  Aue.  12,  1798, 
before  the  Hon.  Sir  Giles  Rooke,  Knight,  one  of  the  Justices  of 
our  Lord  the  King,  &c.  &c.  By  Jonathan  Boucher,  A.  M. 
F.  A.  S.  Vicar  of  Epsom,  Surrey.  Published  at  the  Request  of 
the  Gentlemen  of  the  Grand  Jury.  410.  is.  Clarke. 
This  assise  sermon  is  of  a  political  and  patriotic  cast :  the  senti-       JJ|^  ^ 

iments  are  laudable ;  and  the  language  is  good.  *  > 

Art.  76.     Preached  at  Guildford,  in  Surrey,  at  the  Assizes,  July  8f 

1798,  before  the  Lord  Chief.  Justice  Kcnyon,  &c.     By  Jonathan 

Boucher,  M.  A.  F.  A.  S.     4to.     is.     Clarke. 

The  character  of  this  discourse  is,  in  the  main,  similar  to  that  of 
the  foregoing  Assize- sermon.  It  contains  also  some  thoughts  and 
.j>bservations  which  are  not  common  :  but  which  are  not  the  less  esti* 
mable  on  that  account* — We  entirely  agree  with  the  author,  in  hit 
•pinion  that  Mbrcy,  improperly  directed,  may  be  productive  of  the 
Greatest  evil.  The  weakness  of  good  men  serving  on  juries,  while  it 
has  favoured  unfortunate  individuals,  has  proved  m  its  cousequcnccs* 
t^e  fear,  very  detrimental  to  the  public.  -. 

^*^  This  author's  sermons,  preached  in  North- America,  between       I?* 
the  y^urt  1763  and  l^^^^  on  the  causes  and  conscqucocca  oiiht  Re* 


ii8  Correspondence. 

volution  in  that  country,  will  be  noticed  in  our  next  Review : if  we 

arc  not  prevented  by  the  intervention  of  more  pressing  subjects. 

Art.  77.  The  Duty  of  loving  our  Country  :  preached  at  the  Cathedral 
Church  of  St.  Paul,  July  22,  1798,  before  the  Temple-Bar  and 
St.  Paul's  District  Military  Association.  Uy  Thomas  Bowen, 
M.  A.     4to.     I  s.     Riviijgtons. 

Well  written  and  well  intended :  recommending  with  warmth',  yet 
in  a  rational  manner,  the  true  spirit  of  patriotism ;  together  with  our 
active  endeavours,  as  circumstances  admit,  for  the  security  and  pro* 
spcrity  of  our  count r)'.  ^  „  • 


•  To  the  Monthly  Reviewers. 

*  Gentlemen,  Newbury,  Berks,  March  24,  1799. 

T»  your  review  of  a  volume  of  letters  said  10  have  been  written  by  Gen, 
*  Washington  about  the  commencement  of  the  American  war,  (see  M. 
Kev.  vol.  xxi.  p.  475-  N.  S.)  you  seemed  to  express  a  belief  that  the 
*wbols  of  the  letters  were  not  authentic,  but  thai  some  pf  them  were 
notoriously  and  wilfully  fabricated  for  base  and  unworthy  purposes. 
This  belief,  the  General  himself  has  fully  justified,  in  a  letter  which  be 
purposely  addressed,  some  time  ago,  to  the  Secretary  of  State  of  the 
United  States,  (and  by  the  latter  published  in  the  Philadelphia  News* 
paper  entitled  "  The  United  States  Gazette,")  wherein  he  particularizef 
certain  letters,  and  adds  his  solemn  declaration  of  his  ignorance  of  their 
contents,  till  he  saw  them  in  print.  I  have  inclosed  the  letter  above 
referred  to  ;  and  1  think  that  in  justice  to  onc^f  the  greatest  men  the 
world  has  ever  produced,  and  siill  more  for  the  propagation  of  truth 
and  the  eradication  of  error,  you  cannot  deny  it  a  place  at  the  end  of 
your  valuable  publication.    1  am.  Gentlemen,    Yours,  &cc. 


"  Dear  Gir,  "  Philadelphia,  3d  March  1797, 

**  AT  thecoficlusion  of  my  public  employments,  1  have  thought  it 
expedient  to  sottce  the  publication  of  certain  forged  letters,  which  first 
Appeared  in  the  year  1777,  and  were  obtruded  upon  the  public  as  mine. 
They  aie  laid  by  the  editor  to  have  been  found  in  a  small  portmanteau 
that  I  bad  left  in  the  car^of  my  mulatto  servant  Billy,  who,  it  is  pre- 
lended,  was  taken  prisoner  at  Fort  Lee  in  1776. 

•*  The  period  when  these  letters  were  first  printed  will  be  recollected, 
and  what  were  the  impressions  they  were  intended  to  produce  on  the 
public  raind.  It  was  then  supposed  to  be  of  some  consequence  to  strike 
at  the  integrity  of  the  Commander  in  Chief,  and  to  paint  his  inclinations 
as  at  variance  with  his  professions  and  his  duty. — Another  crisis  in  the 
^f&irs  of  America  having  occurred,  the  same  weapon  has  been  resorted 
to,  to  wound  my  character  and  deceive  the  people. 

**  The  letters  in  question  have  the  dates,  addresses,  and  signatures, 
bere  following: 

"  New  York,  June  11,  1776.  To  Mr.  Lund  Washington,  at  Mount 
Vernon,  Fairfax  County,  Virginia."     G.  W. 

««  To  John  P^f  kc  Curtis,  Esa.  at  the  Hon.  Benedict  Calvert's,  Esq. 
Mount  Airy,  MaryUnd,  June  181  1776.''    Ceo«  W^abington. 

Co  Tl  ft  %'§  P  O  N  b  S  N  C  E*  119 

^Kcw  YorV/  July  8,  1776.    To  Mr.  Lund  Washington,  at  Mount 
Vernon,  Fairfax  County,  Virginia."   G.  W. 

•«  New  YorV,  July  15,  1776.   To  Mr.  Lund  Wat«hinpton,  Ac.**  G.W. 

«*Ntfw  York,  July  16, 1776.  To  Mr.  Lund  Washington,  &c."  G.W, 
.    *•  New  York,Jij]y  aa,  1776.  To  Mr.  Lund  Washington,  ice."  G.W. 
•*     "  June  a4f  1776.    To  Mrs.  Washington."     G.W. 

■•  At  the  time  when  these  letters  first  appeared,  it  was  notorious  io 
the  arjny  immediately  under  my  command,  and  partjctthrly  to  4he 
xentlemeo  attached  to  my  person,  that  my  mulatto  man  Billy  had  never 
been  one  moment  in  the  power  of  the  enemy. — It  is  also  1  fact  that  no 
^rt  of  my  baggage  or  any  of  my  atterklants  were  captured  during  th» 
whole  course  of  the  war. — These  well  known  facts  made  it  unnece^Raiy 
during  the  war  to  call  the  public  attention  to  the  forgery  by  any  expren 
declaration  of  mine  ;  and  a  firm  reliance  on  my  fellow-citiaens,  and  the 
abundant  proofs  they  gave  of  their  confidence  in  me,  rendered  it  alike 
jinnecessary  to  take  any'formal  notice  of  the  revival  of  the  imposition 
during  my  civil  administraxion.— Bnt  as  1  cannot  know  how  soon  a  mere 
serious  event  may  succeed  to  that  which  will  this  day  lake  place  •,  I  have 
thought  it  a  duty  which  I  owe  to  myself,  my  country,  and  to  truth,  now 
to  detail  the  circumstances  above  recited,  and  to  add  my  solemn  declara^ 
tion  that  the  letters  herein  described  are  a  base  forgery,  and  that  I  nefe? 
«aw  or  heard  of  thcra  until  they  appeared  in  print. 

"The  present  letter  I  ccmmit  to  your  care,  and  desire  it  nr»ay  be  de- 
posited in  the  office  of  the  depaitment  ot'state,  as  a  testimony  of  the  truth 
to  the  present  generation  and  to  posterity. 

•*  Accept,  I  pray  you,  of  the  sincere  esteem  and  affectionate  regard  of, 
••  Dear  Sir,  your  obedient 
"  Timothy  Pickerinp,  «  GEO.  WASHINGTON/* 

Secretary  of  Slate.*' 

In  a  letter  from  Dr.  Booker,  that  gentleman  expresses  a  wish 
for  some  information  relative  to  the  Vulon  of  Pierce  the  Plowmarty  ta 
which  we  made  some  reference  in  our  Re.view  of  the  Doctor's  Poem 
«n  Maltern  :  sec  M.  Rev.  for  December  1798,  p.  419. 

The  poem  in  question  was  written  by  Robert  Langland,  a  secular 
Priest,  and  Fellow  of  Oriel  College  in  Oxford,  about  the  year  »3JO* 
It  contains  a  series  of  distinct  visions,  which  the  author  imagines  him- 
•clf  to  have  seen  while  he  was  asleep,  after  a  long  ramble  on  Malvern 
Hillsin  Worcestershire.    (See  Warton's  History  of  Po^tr)',  i.  266.) 

It  18  a  satire  on  tHe  superstition,  vices,  and  luxury  of  the  clergy* 
It  abounds  with  wit,  humour,  and  just  observation  ;  and,  like  other 
compositions  of  this  sort,  it  gives  a  lively  representation  of  the  man« 
ncra  of  the  times. 

A  short  biography  of  Langland  may  be  found  in  Gibber's  Li^^s  of 
the  Poets,  vol.  i.  and  a  small  extract  is  there  given  from  the  poem. 


•  In  acknowleging  the  favours  of  Theodoxus  and  RuttieoSf  (on  dif- 
tercnt  subjects,;  we  f«hould  be  happy  in  paying  due  attention  to  their 
•trictures,  and  in  explaining  to  them  the  ground  on  which  we  built 

*  The  last  day  on  which  General  WashicgloD  performed  the  office  of 
Prciident  of  Uk  United  State*.  <F.B» 



the  asieitions  on  which  they  comment :  but  we  have  tuck  ii^  vrcr^ 
How  of  business  on  our  hands,  that  we  have  no  time  for  controversy  ^ 
and  though  we  would  not  be  supposed  arrogantly  to  obtrude  our  opi- 
nions on  the  pubHc»  we  are  forced  in  these,  as  in  numberkss  other 
tnitancesy  to  decline  all  subsequent  discussion.  IUTa 

*  A  Constant  Reader,*  who  is  *  pleased  with  the  sentiments  ex- 
pressed in  our  account  of  •*  The  Nnrse^*  wishes  to  know,  «  whether 
there  was  not  a  book  puWished  a  few  years  ago,  on  the  dangerouf 
effects,  both  to  mother  and  child,  of  women  neglecting  to  suckle  their 
children' ;  and  he  inquires  concerning  the  title  of  such  book.  We  re- 
collect only  a  small  tract,  '<  Essay  on  the  injurious  Custom  of  Mo« 
thers  not  suckling  their  own  Children  ;  with  Ijirections  for  chusing  a 
Nurse,  &c,  &c.  By  Benj.  Lara,  Surgeon."  ijmo.  is.  Moore^ 
1791.    Sec  M.  Rev.  vol.  ix.  N.  S.  p.  loi. 

We  arc  obliged  by  a  letter  from  Exmouth,  s«g^ed  T.  H.  Hutton : 
who  informs  us  that  TuUy's  Offices  were  translated  by  the  famous 
Sir  Roger  T  Estrange ;  and  that  he  is  possessed  of  a  copy  of  th^ 
book.  This  seems  to  be  the  *  third'  translation,  which  we  could  not 
with  certainty  recollect :  see  M.  Rev.  February  last,  p.  1 7^.  This 
translation  is  also  noticed  in  Cibber's  Biography  of  the  Poets,  Uje  of 

Mistakes  of  fact,  erroneous  quotations,  and  all  other  accidental 
tnis* statements,  we  have  ever  been  eager  to  rectify  at  the  desire  of  any 
correspondent :  but  to  re-argue  a  question  of  mere  opinion,  espe- 
cially when  the  determining  arg\iments  have  been  indicated,  would 
only  open  a  door  to  endless  controversy.  Our  correspondent  J.  A — n 
must  therefore  excuse  the  non-insertion  of  his  three  folio  pages,  in 
opposition  to  the  idea  intimated  by  us  in  vol.  xxvi.  p.  38a,  "  that 
the  expendit^ire  of  the  luxunous  classes  is  not  of  much  consequence 
to  the  public  prosperity."  The  writer's  mind  is  evidently  occupied 
with  the  application  ol  this  doctrine  to  the  case  of  the  union  with 
Ireland:  we  refer  him,  therefore,  to  Clarke's  edition  of  Dean 
Tucker's  «*  Union  or  Separation  :"  in  which  he  will  find  this  very 
question  argued  at  length,  pages  20  to  30,  in  a  sensible  and  popular 
manner ;  and  decided  precisely  as  by  ourselves,  on  grounds  to  whicii 
it  is  needliess  to  add  farther  appeals  to  reason  or  to  tacts.  ^^ 

The  letter  of  PhllottuU  is  just  received :— too  late  for  farther  «a* 

f^  The  Appendix  to  Vol.  xxvni.  of  the  M.  R.  is  pub]ishe4 
with  this  Number,  as  usual,  and  contains  copious  accounts  of  im- 
portant Foreign  Publications,  with  the  General  Title,  Table  of 
Contents,  and  Indexi  for  the  Volume. 

T  H  £ 


For     JUNE,      1799. 

Art.  I.     Romaticfs.   By  J*D*Ianicli.    8vo.    pp.  314^     8s.  Boards* 
Cadcll  jun.  and  Davits.     1798. 

-It  is  the  province  of  genius  to  search  for  its  favourite  objects, 
"*  the  beautiful  and  the  sublime,  in  new  and  unbeaten  tracks. 
At  a  period  >when  the  delineation  of  oUr  own  manners  Would 
perhaps  form  no  interesting  topic  forpoctrj^  it  seems  the  reign* 
ing  passion  to  gather  subjects  of  description  from  the  bolder 
features. of  German  character,  or  from  the  more  luxurious  effu- 
sions of  Eastern  imagination.  With  all  the  faults,  therefore,  that 
maj  occasionally  result  from  extravagant  admiration  of  either  of 
these  sources,  the  friend  of  taste  and  literature  must  rejoice  to  see 
the  boundaries  of  imitation  enlaifged  by  new  acquisitions  from 
both.  The  mind  of  Mr.  d'Israeli,  naturally  susceptible  of  vivid 
impressions,  seems  to  have  caught  a  richness  of  fancy  from  his 
intimacy  with  Oriehtal  poetry ;  and  his  language,  except  in  a 
few  unfortunate  sentences,  is  elegant.  The  pompous  imagery 
of  the  Eastern  poets  is  given  in  an  English  form  so  judiciously, 
that  it  has  little  of  that  extravagance  which  would  inevitably 
characterise  and  deform  a  bald  translation*  An  instance  of 
this  occurs  in  the  description  of  the  land  of  Cashmere,  when 
he  speaks  of  the  shawled  beauties :  *  Their  moonlight  foreheads 
veir^i  with  flow'rs:' — a  beautiful  and  expressive  , epithet,  aiXd 
happily  adapted  to  an  English  reader  by  substituting  it  for  the 
original  expression  **  moon-faced.'* 

Mr.  d'Isracli's  romances  are  interspersed  with  poetry,  which, 
like  bis  prose,  abounds  with  luxuriant  imagery  :  but  it  is  cer- 
tainly doing  the  author  no  injustice  to  say  that  his  verse  docs 
not  flow  in  that  melodious  modulation,  which  so  liighly  en- 
hances the  poetry  of  Rogers,  Hayley,  Darwin,  and  others  of 
the  present  day ;  and  that  we  do  not  mark  in  it  chut  strong 
though  unmusicil  measure,  which  gives  energy  to  the  verses 
of  Cowper.  Occasionally,  but  not  often,  the  ear  is  delighted 
Vith  a  musical  line. — ^This  defect  in  the  author's  versification, 
however,  is  well  compensated  by  the  richness  of  hnguage,  and 
the  Oriental  novelty  of  thought,  which  adorn  the  poems,  small 

Vol.  xxix.  K  and 

riz  D'lsracli'/  Romance f* 

and  great.  We  mention  his  Oriental  imitation,  because  It 
forms  the  most  important  part  of  the  volume.  The  story  of 
Leila  and  M<rjnoun  is  the  principal  Romance,  and  the  most 
highly  to  be  valued  for  its  beauty  and  pathos. 

The  first  article  in  the  volume  is  a  Poetical  Essay  on  Ro- 
mance  and  Romances,  in  which  the  poet  describes  the  a]lego<- 
rical  birth  of  Romance,  the  Child  of  Love  and  Fiction.  He  then 
celebrates  the  romantic  disposition  of  the  wandering  Arabs^ 

*  Charming  the  desert  wildpesa  with  a  talc,* 
and  the  well-known  custom  prevalent  in  Persia,  India,  Tartary, 
and  Arabia,  of  assembling  in  serene  evenings  around  their 
tents,  or  on  the  platforms  with  which  their  houses  are  in  ge* 
neral  roofed,  to  amuse  themselves  with  traditional  narrations. 
He  then  takes  notice  of  the  Spanish  historical  ballads,  the  min- 
strel troop,  the  'squire  minstrel,  and  the  Gothic  romances  with 
their  refaccimentos  and  moral  allegories.  Love  is  now  supposed 
to  be  seized  with  ennui ;  to  dispel  the  influence  of  which,  Fiction 
is  brou)^ht  to  him  by  Beauty  *,  and  his  amour  with  this  lady  is 

Eourtrayed  by  the  poet  in  glowing  language,— bordering,  per* 
aps,  somewhat  too  much  on  the  luscious. 
*  She  softly  parting  his  incumbering  wings ; 
fTo  smiling  love  more  lovely  smiles  she  brings;) 
«*  My  name  is  Miction  ;  by  the  Graces  taught ; 
"^Po  Love,  unquiet  Love,  by  Beauty  brought;'* 
She  s'iid,  and,  as  she  spoke,  a  rosy  cloud 
JUush'd  o'er  their  forms,  and  shade  and  silence  shroud  ? 
Through  heaven's  blue  fields  that  pure  caress  is  felt, 
A  thousand  colours  drop,  a  thousand  odours  melt  1 
O'tr  the  thin  cloud  celestial  eyes  incline, 
(They  hugh  at  veils,  too  beautifully  fine,) 
His  feeling  wings  with  tender  tremors  move, 
Hitf  nectar 'd  locks  his  glowing  bosom  rove, 
Their  rolling  eyes  in  lairibent  radiance  meet. 
With  circling  arms,  and  twin'd  voluptuous  feet : 
Love  sigh'd — Heav'n  heard  I  and  Jove  deHghted  bawed, 
Olympus  gazed,  and  shiver'd  with  the  god  I 
'Twas  in  that  extacy,  that  amorous  trance, 
That  Love  on  Fiction  got  the  child  Romance.' 

The  next  piece,  •  the  Arabian  Petrarch  and  Laura,'  is  a 
Romance  founded  on  an  Oriental  story.  Mejnoun  and  Leila  is 
the  title  of  a  poem  highly  celebrated  in  the  £ast,  composed  by 
Nezami.  The  sorrows  of  these  impassioned  but  unfortunate 
lovers  have  furnished  the  basis  of  an  endless  catalogue  of 
amatory  compositions,  Arabian,  Turkish,  and  Persic;,  of 
which  the  Poem  of  Nezami,  written  in  the  latter  language,  ia 
the  most  admired.  To  translate  Nezami  was  not  the  object  of 
Mr.  d'Israeli;  bul  he  has  preserved  the  romantic  style  of  descrip* 


D'lsraclIV  Rorhaneei»  1 23 

don  with  so  much  fidelity,  that,  while  we  tympathise  with 
Mejnoun  as  a  lover,  we  likewise  admire  him  as  a  poet. 

Young  Kais,  the  hero  of  the  romance,  who  afterward,  from 
his  enthusiastic  frenzy,  received  the  appellation  of  Mejnoun  % 
was  the  son  of  Ahmed  Kais,  a  distinguished  Sheick  among  the 
Bedoween  Arabs ;  and  was  sent  by  his  fond  father  to  be  edu- 
cated under  the  care  of  a  celebrated  Persian,  the  venerable  Ef- 
fendi  Lebid,  who  is  (improperly)  termed  a  student;  under 
whom,  about  the  same  time  and  nearly  of  the  same  age,  was 
placed  the  lovely  Leila,  the  only  daughter  of  an  Emir.  The 
young  pupils,  soon  without  rivals  in  the  academy,  were  at- 
tracted to  each  other  by  mutual  admiration. 

*  They  loved  (says  the  Romancer)  to  mingle  in  the  same  tasks  ; 
and  in  the  arts  of  imagination  their  gentle  spirits  perpetuated  their 
finest  emotions.  The  verse  of  Kais  treasured  their  most  delicious 
sensations ;  from  the  wild  intonations  of  Leila  he  often  caught  the 
air  be  composed  ;  and  when  they  united  to  paint  the  same  picture,  it 
seemed  as  if  the  same  eye  had  directed  the  same  hand. 

•  They  saw  each  other  every  day,  and  were  only  sensible  to  this 
pleasure.  Their  mutual  studies  became  so  many  interchanges  of  ten- 
derness. Every  day  w^s  contracted  to  a  point  of  time  :  months  rolled 
away  on  months ;  and  their  passage  was  without  a  trace :  a  year 
closed,  and  they  knew  it  but  by  its  date.  Aheady  the  first  spark  of 
love  opened  the  heart  of  Kais :  already  he  sighed  near  the  entender- 
ing  form  of  Leila ;  aheady  he  listened  for  her  voice,  when  she  ceased 
to  speak  $  while  her  soft  hand  passing  over  his  own  vibrated  through 
his  shivering  nerves.* 

Kais,  with  his  beloved  Leila,  took  delight  in  adorning  his 
garden  with  every  .beautiful  embellishment  which  a  delicious 
climate  could  supply,  or  a  fine  taste  could  suggest.  By  the 
side  of  a  delightful  fountain,  he  raised  a  pleasant  Kiosque 
(a  banqueting  or  summer  apartment) ;  seated  in  which,  the 
lovers  would  read  the  Persian  Tales.  In  this  place,  Kais  is 
supposed  to  read  to  his  mistress  a  poetical  account  of  the  Land 
of  Cashmere,  the  Paradise  of  Love,  which  abounds  with  ro- 
mantic and  sweet  descriptions ;  though  the  reader's  admiration 
18  sometimes  suspended  by  unmusical  lines  and  overstrained  ex- 

The  EiTendi,  their  tutor,  perceived  the  ripening  passion  of 
the  young  lovers  :  but,  with  a  gentleness  of  soul  and  a  sym- 
pathy of  feelings  which  wisdom  and  old  age  had  not  diminished, 
he  was  pleased  to  behold  the  undisguised  afiection  of  their  art- 
less bosoms ;  and,  instead  of  checking,  he  sanctioned  and  ap- 
proved the  generous  flame.    The  father  of  Leila,  however, 

*  Mejnoun  signifies  in  Atabic  a  man  inspired,  an  enthusiast,  a 

K  a  was 

124  D'lsraeliV  Romancer. 

was  at  length  informed  of  the  object  of  his  daughter's  love  ; 
and  being  a  haughty  Emir,  he  considered  himself  debased  at 
the  prospect  of  an  alliance  between  a  child  of  his  family,  and 
a  youth  so  lowly  born  as  Kais ;  whose  father  Ahmed  was  not 
descended,  like  himself,  from  a  series  of  nobility.  Ahmed, 
though  less  noble  than  the  Green-turban'd  Emir,  and  though  a 
better  and  milder  character,  was  also  too  proud  of  his  importance 
to  regard  the  alliance  as  eminently  honourable  to  his  family :  he 
was  haughty  (says  the  Romancer)  becatise  he  was  glorious 
without  nobility,  and  derived  his  renown  not  from  men  extinct 
in  their  graves,  but  from  living  men  around  him. 

The  lover,  now  separated  from  his  mistress,  found  momentary 
happiness  by  visiting  her  in  the  disguised  and  humble  character 
of  a  seller  of  perfumes.  By  means  of  present^,  he  makes  his 
way  into  her  tent  through  the  surrounding  slaves  :  but  Kis  in- 
terview was  short,  and  fatal  in  its  consequences.  The  libe- 
rality of  the  unknown  perfumer  caused  suspicion  :  the  alarm 
was  spred :  the  Emir  rushed  into  the  tent  -,  and  unaffected  by 
all  the  tears  of  his  daughter,  and  the  respectful  though  manly 
imprecations  of  Kais,  he  drove  the  youth  from  his  presence, 
and  ordered  Leila  to  be  secured.  The  parting  scene  is  beau- 
tifully described. 

Repulsed  in  this  ignominious  manner,  the  distracted  poet 
retOrns  home  to  the  tenf  of  his  father.  Ahmed,  though  full 
of  affection  for  Kais,  was  indignant  at  the  disgrace  which  his 
family  had  received,  and  he  called  on  him  to  avenge  the  insult. 
*  I  cannot  strike  at  the  father  of  Leila,'  replied  the  lover. 
Divided  between  contending  passions,  stung  with  the  reproach 
of  his  father,  and  delirious  with  love  for  Leila,  he  is  seized 
with  a  melancholy  madness,  and  flies  from  the  tents  of  his 
fathejr  to  the  desert,  attended  by  none  but  an  affectionate  gazel 
or  antelope.  The  parents  were  distracted  on  losing  their  be- 
loved son  :  the  mother  was  loud  in  her  grief:  the  good  o\i^ 
father  felt  more  severely,  conscious  that  his  words  had  aug- 
mented the  miseries  of  Kais  ;  and,  after  having  prayed  to  the 
holy  prophet,  he  set  out  to  wander  in  the  desert  in  quest  of 
his  son,  in  company  with  the  EfFendi  Lebid,  who,  hearing  of 
his  pupil's  misfortunes  and  melancholy,  came  to  solace  the  fa- 
ther and  to  assist  in  finding  the  lost  son. 

After  a  long  and  weary  search,  Kais  is  discovered  on  a  moon- 
light night,  in  a  state  of  wild  delirium,  wandering  by  the 
side  of  a  precipice  and  chanting  his  fine  and  distracted  verses. 
From  this  period,  he  is  characterised  in  the  Romance  by  the 
name  of  Mejnoun,  or  maniac.  He  is  brought  back  to  the 
tents  of  Ahmed  :  but  the  consolations  of  his  friends  are  un- 
availing to  alleviate  the  agony  of  his  passion.    His  fatlier  pro- 

D'lsracIiV  Romances.  125 

poses  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  which  Kais  performs  :  but,  in- 
stead of  returning  home  with  his  friends,  he  escapes  to  a  de- 
sert bordering  on  the  habitation  of  Leila.  Intelligence  is  brought 
to  Leila  of  the  Mejnoun  Kais,  by  a  hunter  who  met  him  in  the 
desert.  The  faithful  mistress  sets  out  to  meet  him,  and  finds 
him.  Their  interview  is  short,  for  Leila  was  forced  speedily 
to  return,  but  it  is  finely  and  afFectingly  described.  In  the 
midst  of  his  solitude,  Mejnoun  is  visited  by  Noufel,  the  Imaa 
of  Sana,  who  was  a  warm  admirer  of  his  poetry,  and  strongly- 
interested  in  the  success  of  his  passion.  He  is  taken  by  this 
prince  to  his  court,  and  caressed  with  every  mark  of  distinc- 
tion. War  is  made  on  the  Green-turban'd  Emir,  the  imperi- 
ous father  of  Leila  :  the  despot  is  overcome  \  and  liis  daughter 
is  given  in  marriage  to  her  faithful  lover. 

From  this  height  of  happiness,  he  is  suddenly  dashed  into 
his  former  despair.  The  Iman  Noufel,  thi^ugh  generous  in 
his  friendship  for  Mejnoun,  was  too  frail  to  withstand  the 
growing  passion  which  he  cherished  for  the  beautiful  captive. 
After  a  dreadful  struggle  between  his  duty  and  his  desires,  he 
yields  to  the  latter  in  despair,  and  prepares  a  poisoned  cup  for 
Mejaoun  at  the  marriage :  but,  by  mistake,  he  drinks  it  him- 
self. A  terrible  consternation  ensues,  and  the  marriage  ce- 
remonies are  delayed:  a  new  Iman  succeeds;  whq,  enraged 
that  his  predecessor  had  made  war  for  the  sake  of  a  woman, 
sends  back  the  Green-turbanM  Emir,  and  replaces  him  in  his 
former  dignity. — The  father  of  Leila  now  dooms  her  to  the 
embraces  of  a  new  lover,  whose  name  is  Ebn-selan.  The 
stern  commands  of  the  Emir  have  no  power  over  the  faithful 
mistress  of  Mejnoun  :  but  aflFection  prevailed  when  force  was 
ineffectual ;  and  she  yields  in  despair  to  the  melancholy  in- 
treaties  of  her  mother,  who  seemed  unable  to  support  her  dis- 
obedience. The  nuptial  day  arrives.  Ebn-selan  approaches 
Leila,  lifts  her  veil,  and  beholds  tears  on  her  cheeks,  and 
frowns  on  her  brow.  *  Stay  thy  hand  (exclaimed  the  virgin, 
in  a  tone  more  resolute  and  awful  than  ever  virgin  spoke)  : 
well  thou  knowcst  that  Leila  is  Mejnoun's  Leila,  and  can  be 
the  Leila  of  no  other.' — *  Ebn-selan  was  the  mild  inmate  of  a 
mild  climate.  He  had  merited  Leila,  had  Leila  to  chuse  a 
lover.*  Out  of  respect  for  the  passion  of  Leila,  he  did  not  in- 
sist on  the  privileges  of  a  husband  ;  and  his  generosity  won  her 
friendship:  but  her  love  was  in  the  desert  with  Mejnoun. 
The  news  of  her  marriage  reached  the  ears  of  the  latter  by  the 
rcpjorts  of  travellers.  At  first,  he  was  incredulous :  but,  day 
after  <lay,  the  circumstantial  narrative,  in  all  its  terrible  mi- 
nuteness, afflicted  his  memory.  Jealousy  and  indignation  aug- 
mented his  delirium.  He  sends  to  her^  by  a  hunter^  a  letter  full 

K3  of 

126  DlsraeliV  Romance f. 

of  reproaches  and  despair :  she  replies  in  the  language  of  ar- 
dent and  eternal  though  disappointed  passion,  which  yields  a 
gloomy  consolation  to  the  distracted  wanderer.  From  his  re- 
treat in  the  desert,  he  is  suddenly  summoned  by  the  Effendi 
Ijebid,  his  aged  tutor,  who  calls  him  to  come  to  be  the  spec- 
tator of  his  father's  death.  He  returns  home;  and  after  hav- 
ing witnessed  that  afflicting  scene,  he  flies  once  again  to  soli- 
tude, Ifcaving  the  care  of  his  mother  and  tribe  to  the  Effendi 
licbid.  He  then  dispatches  a  messenger  to  ask  an  interview 
with  Leila.  Day  after  day  elapses,  and  no  messenger  returns  :  at 
last,  the  completion  of  his  sorrow  is  accomplished  ;  and  the 
melancholy  looks  and  faultering  answer  of  his  returning  friend 
*  announce  that  his  beloved  Leila  had  died  of  a  broken  heart. 
His  own  death,  which  quickly  succeeds,  is  pathetically  de- 
scribed ;  and  indeed  the  whole  of  the  concluding  scene  is  highly 

•  He  sat  upon  the  pQint  of  a  rock,  that  he  might  discover  the  ex- 
pected friend,  before  he  reached  him.  At  length  he  descries  one  ap- 
proaching :  he  ran  down  the  rock  and  met  lilm  on  the  plain.  It  waei 
his  friend,  who,  when  he  perceived  Mcjnoun,  approached  him  with 
slow  steps  and  heavy  looks.  The  heart  of  Mcjnoun  was  chilkd  at 
4he  aspect  of  so  mclaiicholv  a  messenger,  and  with  a  bewildered  air 
he  enquires  the  fate  of  Leiia.  His  friend  replied  but  with  a  profound 
f  igh.  "  Thy  gilence  well  becomes  thy  tale,"  said  Mejnoun  :  **  why  ia 
not  all  for  me  an  eternal  silence  ?  Here  I  have  waited  day  after  day  but 
to  hear  of  the  death  of  Leila.  Could  that  heart,  that  tender  heart, 
love  as  she  loved,  and  live  ?  A  thousai.d  times  already  have  I  mourned 
her  death,  and  when  the  world  told  me  she  yet  lived,  often  was  I  incre- 
dulous;."— "  Alas!"  replied  the  friend,  rejoicing  to  observe  the  calm- 
ness with  which  the  Mejnoun  spoke,  "  a  fixed  grief  preyed  on  her  soul 

and "' — "Talk  not,  talk  not,  (quickly  the  Mtjnoun  replied,  with 

eyes  that  emitted  sparks  of  passion,  while  his  hand  rudely  i-epulscd  his 
friend,)  **  did  I  not  commend  thy  silence  ?  Away  !  it  is  dangerous  tp 
commend  a  fool's  sikiicc  !  he  will  speak  at  last,  were  it  but  to  give 
a  fool's  thanks.  Away  !  I  am  sick  of  all  foolery  :  away  to  thy  world, 
to  thy  world,  fool." 

*  He  paused — his  troubled  heart  was  busied  with  gloomy  imagina- 
tions :  his  rapid  lips  muttered  low  and  inarticulate  accents :  his  eyes 
were  fixed  on  the  earth  :  he  sighed  and  said,  ^*  It  is  completed  !  it  wai 
bor:-,  and  it  has  died  1  the  flower  is  gathered,  let  the  leaves,  which  the 
lovely  stem  supported,  fall  and  rot  on  the  earth  1"  He  mused — terrible 
thoucrhts  were  in  his  mind,  and  the  blood  forsook  his  face.  He 
•bricks — he  rolls  himself  on    the    burning    sands  :     his    friend  ap- 

f roaches,  and  would  embrace  him,  but  he  hurls  him  to  the  earth, 
Ic  flics  up  the  perpendicular  rock.  He  howls,  and  the  echo  multi- 
plies  his  terrific  voice.  Some  hunters  join  his  friend.  Three  days 
they  patiently  watch  at  the  foot  of  the  rock.  On  the  second  day,  the 
voice  of  Mejnoun  was  only  heard  at  intervals.  On  the  third  niVht, 
in  the  gleam  of  the  moor,  they  perceived  a  spectre-man  descend mg. 


DlsracllV  Romances.  1 27 

The  (lying  form  paced  slowly  with  tottering  steps :  every  $tcp 
was  audible  in  the  vast  silence.  Their  hearts  shuddered.  The  Mej- 
Roun  looked  not  of  this  earth,  and  they  dared  not  approach  him.  He 
reached  a  hillock  of  sand  and  stretched  liimsclf  in  silence.  They 
hasten  to  the  Mejnoun.  On  his  murmuring  lips  they  h'stened  to  the 
name  of  Leila,  and  slowly  and  hollowly  they  heard  one  vast  and  feeble 
sigh,  and  it  ceased  to  respire.  His  friend  placed  lu's  hand  on  the 
bosom  of  Mejnoun,  and  his  heart  no  more  palpitated. 

*  7'he  last  solemn  office  of  friendship  was  paid  by  the  hands  of  hit 
unhappy  friends  and  the  grieving  hunters.  Returning  to  the  tents  of 
Ebn-selan,  he  summons  the  tribe,  and  tells  a  tale  often  interrupted  by 
his  moaning  auditors.  Even  the  obdurate  Emir,  in  whose  subdued 
breast  no  human  passion  now  beat,  but  that  of  pity,  vows  a  long  sad 
pUgrimage  to  Mecca,  and  thanks  the  prophet  that  he  is  old,  and  will 
soon  dit*  The  gentle  Ebn-sclan  rose,  and  wept,  and  spoke.  "  Sad 
messenger  of  disastrous  love  1  Another  and  a  final  duty  still  remains. 
Thou  knowest  not  that  the  dying  Leila  predicted  the  death  of  Mej- 
noun. He  lives,  she  said,  but  because  I  live ;  and  he  will  die  be* 
cause  I  shall  have  died.  It  was  their  last  prayer  that  their  ashes 
should  be  united.  Lead  us  to  his  grave  :  they  shall  meet,  though 
they  meet  in  death  ;  and  over  their  extinct  ashes  let  me  pour  my  liv- 
iiig  tears." 

*  The  tribe  of  Mejnoun  unite  with  the  tribe  of  Leila.  At  the  foot 
of  the  rock  which  the  Mejnoun  haunted  in  his  delirium,  thejr  raise  a 
tomb  to  the  memory  of  the  lovers,  and  there  depositing  the  bodies,  they 
plant  around  them  many  a  gloomy  cypress  tree.  Lebid  lived  to  com- 
pose the  verses  which  were  embor.sed  with  golden  characters  on  the 
black  marble.  Lebid  live^  to  lament  his  own  fostering  of  their 
loves,  Ahmed's  au .^terity,  and  the  Emir's  haughtiness. 

*  For  many  sucC"esiv<:  )ears,  the  damstls  of  the  two  tribes,  in  sym^ 
pathizing  groupcs,  annually  assembled  at  the  cemetry,  and  planted  in 
marble  vases  around  the  tomb  aromatic  flowers  and  herbs.  One  ni^ht 
in  every  year,  each  bearing  a  taper,  they  wailed  till  morning  the  fate 
of  the  lovers  ;  and  in  partmg  prayed  their  parents  to  be  merciful  in 
love.  The  caravans  of  Syria  and  Egypt,  which  traverse  the  desen, 
in  their  way  to  Mecca,  once  stopped  near  the  consecrated  spot.  The 
tender  pilgrim  once  leant  over  their  tombj  and  read,  and  wept :  the  spot 
is  now  only  known  by  tradition.  The  monument  has  left  of)  vestige, 
and  the  trees  no  more  wave  their  melancholy  bougiis  :  nothing  re- 
mains but  the  memory  of  the  lovers.' 

Wc  have  principally  noticed  the  story  of  Mejnoun  and  LelUj 
because  it  is  the  most  important  in  the  volume."  In  perusing 
this  production,  however,  we  have  to  lament  a  palpable  devia- 
tion from  Arabian  manners,  which  ought  to  have  been  scdu* 
lously  preserved  by  the  author.  Leila  is  sent  to  school,  in  a 
country  where  females  of  all  ages  arc  kept  in  severe  seclusion 
from  the  other  sex  -,  and  the  lovers  arc  taught  to  design^  an  ar- 
complishment  forbidden  by  the  prophet,  and  never  publicly 
taugnt  in  Mohammedan  seminaries; 

K  4  Z.'^-HT 

128  Stavoriniis'/  l^ojages, 

LotJe  and  Humility^  a  succeeding;  Romance,  13  clegaftt  and 
pleasing.  The  third,  called  the  Lovers,  or  the  Birth  cf  the 
Plea^ng  Arts,  is  very  ingenious  :  it  traces  up,  the  source  of 
music,  painting,  poetry,  architecture,  fyc.  &c.  to  the  attempts 
of  an  Arcadian  lover  to  please  his  mistress  ;  and  the  gradual 
progress  of  the  artist  ig  refinement,  if  not  philosophically 
true,  is  at  least  well  imagined,.  Our  limits  do  not  permit  us 
to  extract  from,  nor  circumstantially  to  analyse,  these  little 
pieces:  but  we  think  that  they,  as  well  as  the  former, 
,will  materially  add  to  Mr.  d'lsfaeli's  already  established  re- 
putation.  ^j^ 

^RT.  II.  Voyages  to  the  East  ItiJtes  ;  by  the  late  John  Splinter 
Stavorinns,  Esq.  Rear  Admiral  in  the  Service  of  the  States-Gc- 
peral.  Translated  from  the  original  Dutch,  by  Samuel  Hull  Wil- 
cocke.  With  Notes  and  Additions  by  the  Translator.  The 
Whole  comprising  a  full  and  accurate  Account  of  all  the  prefcnt 
and  late  Possessions  of  the  Dn^ch  in  India,  and  at  the  Cape  of 
Good  Hope.  Illustrated  with  Maps.  8vo.  3  Vols.  il.  48. 
Boards.     Robinsons.     1798. 

THIS  publication  contains  the  account  of  two  voyages  which 
the  author  made  to  the  East.  Indies,  as  commander  in  the 
service  of  the  Dutch  East-India  Company.  The  first,  which 
is  comprised  in  volume  I.  of  the  translation,  was  printed  in 
the  original  Dutch  in  two  volumes,  1793  ;  and  an  account  of 
it  was  given  in  the  Appendix  to  our  xiith  vol.  N.  S. 

The  second  voyage,  which  occupies  the  second  and  third  of 
the  present  volumes,  was  performed  between  the  beginning  of 
March  1774  and  the  month  of  July  1778.  To  the  informa- 
tion communicated  in  the  narrative,  great  additions  have  been 
made  by  the  translator,  particularly  respecting  circumstances 
of  more  recent  date.  In  a  preface,  he  'acquaints  the  reader 

•  With  respect  to  the  notes  and  additions  which  he  has  made,  they 
are  collected  from  every  authentic  source  within  his  reach  ;  froni  the 
accounts  of  other  travellers,  from  other  Dutch  writers,  from  authentic 
documents,  manuscripts,  and  statements,  and,  in  a  few  instances, 
from  oral  information:  the  work,  toj^et her  with  the  additions,  he 
flatteis  hiir.strif  will  be  found  to  contain  much  new  information  rc- 
spectinp;  the  actual  and  late  pos^esftions  of  tlic  Dutch  in  India,  which, 
in  the  present  fit  ration  of  affairs,  cannot  fail  of  being  extremely  in- 
teresting. He  liad,  for  some  tin:ic  previous  to  the  pubUcation  of 
these  vpya^^csj  collected  the  matenals  his  adclitions  have  beep 
made,  wit  a  an  idea  of  forming  them  into  a  general  account  of  the 
Dutch  Indian  settlements  ;  but  meeting  with  these  voyages,  and 
thinking  an  English  version  of  them  could  not  fail  of  being  accept- 


Stavorinus'/  Voyages.  ii^ 

able,  he  conceI<'cd  himself  more  adequate  to  the  task  •f  giving  a 
translation,  with  the  additional  information  required,  to  render  the 
whole  as  complete  an  account  of  the  Dutch  settlements  as  his  mate* 
rials  would  admit  of,  in  notes,  than  to  that  of  composing  an  ori- 
ginal work  himself  upon  the  subject/ 

Wc  shall  make  no  addition  to  the  account  which  wc 
formerly  gave  of  the  first  voynge,  otherwise  than  as  wc  may 
see  occasion  to  remark  on  the  notes  subjoined  by  the  translator. 

Qti  the  9th  of  Match  1774,  the  author  sailed  from  Europe 
on  his  second  expedition,  in  the  ship  Ouwcrkerk.  In  the 
outset  of  this  voyage,  we  have  a  strong  instance  of  that  negli- 
gence for  which  the  Dutch  have  been  so  remarkable  in  the 
conduct  of  their  marine;  and  which  is  extraordinary  in  a 
people  so  high  in  maritime  reputation,  and  who  had  attained 
to  80  great  a  degree  of  wealth  and  power  almost  solely  by  means 
of  their  naval  exertions  and  foreign  commerce.  So  ill-prepared 
were  they  to  encounter  the  hardships  of  a  long  voyage  in 
unhealthy  climates,  that  between  70  and  80  of  the  ship's  com- 
pany were  in  the  sick-list,  and  incapable  of  duty,  when  they 
quitted  their  native  country.  The  translator  has  given  an  ac- 
count of  the  adherence  bf  the  Dutch  seamen  to  many  practices, 
which,  by  other  maritime  powers,  have  been  discarded  for  more 
than  a  century  past.  The  great  mortality,  so  frequent  in  tlie 
Dutch  East-India  ships,  is  the  natural  consequence  of  this 
indolent  management.  In  the  course  of  the  narrative,  the 
author  frequently  complains  of  the  little  pains  bestowed  by 
his  countrymen  on  the  improvement  of  navigation.  He  ap- 
pears to  have  been  more  than  commonly  attentive  and  apxious 
to  preserve  the  health  of  his  seamen  :  but,  being  provided  in 
the  beginning  with  a  crew  in  so  sickly  a  state,  it  was  not  to  be 
expected  that  his  ship  sliould  escape  the  common  lot.  They 
stopped  at  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  but  for  so  short  a  time 
that,  in  their  passage  thence  to  Batavia,  the  scurvy  broke  out 
among  them,  and  was  followed  by  a  malignant  putrid  fever ; 
by  which  in  one  month  they  buried  42  men,  and  above  100 
of  the  remainder  were  in  the  sick-list. 

M.  Stavorinus  relates  many  particulars  concerning  the  cul- 
tivation of  the  soil,  &c.  at  the  Cape;  and  he  gives  the  follow- 
ing description  of  a  farm  which  he  there  visited  : 

*  About  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  we  came  to  the  farm  of 
Melk,  which  at  a  distance,  and  indeed  close  by,  appeared  like  a 
whole  village.  It  lies  among  the  mountains,  upon  the  gentle  decli- 
vity of  a  high  ridge,  and  on  the  banks  of  an  ever-runnincr  stream, 
which  he  has  hd,  along  his  farm,  between  two  brick  walls,  like  a 
canal,  and  which  turns  a  watcrmillj  for  thv  purpose  of  grinding  his 


J30  StavorinusV  Foyagff, 

♦  Hrs  dwelling-housc,  which  was  of  a  considerable  size,  had  forr 
or  Bve  large  and  handsome  rooms,  all  furnislied  in  a  neat,  and  even 
in  a  costly  style,  so  that  it  more  resembled  a  gentleman's  villa  thau 
the  mansion  of  a  farmer. 

*  Twenty-five,  or  thirty,  paces  from  the  corners  of  the  house, 
he  had  four  lar?e  barns,  or  warehouses,  each  one  hundred  and  fifty 
Ctct  long,  in  which  he  housed  hh  corn  and  wine.  Two  of  them  were 
BOW  empty  ;  in  the  third  were  full  one  hundred  and  fifty  leaders  of 
wine  ;  and  in  the  fourth  fifteen  or  sixteen  hundred  muds  of  corn, 
twenty-seven  of  which  make  a  Holland  last,  and  eighteen  a  last  of 
the  Cape  ;  each  muJ  being  calculated  at  one  hundr(^d  and  eighty,  or 
Binety,  pounds  weight  Amsterdam,  according  as  the  grain  be  heavy 
•r  light. 

*  Between  these  he  had  a  blacksmith's  and  carpenter's  workshop, 
and  a  cartwright's  manufactory,  together  with  other  work-people, 
mecessary  for  so  large  and  troublesome  a  concern.  But  few  of  them 
were  Europeans,  the  largest  number  were  oriental  slaves,  who  had 
cost  him  a  great  deal  of  money.  Among  others,  he  shewed  me  a 
slave,  who  understood  smiths*  work,  and  making  of  tires  on  wheel- 
bands,  whom  he  had  purchased  for  fifteen  hundred  rixdoUars,  or 
tkree  thousand  six  hundred  gilders  *. 

•  A  little  higher  up,  stood  a  range  of  buildings,  calculated  for 
the  shives,  of  whom  he  had  full  two  hundred  ;  for  he  declared  to 
wsttf.  that  he  did  not  know  the  exact  number. 

*  Every  one  had  a  separate  brick  dwelling  to  sleep  in.  Those  that 
were  married  were  kept  apart  from  the  others ;  and  every  possible 
precaution  was  taken  to  prevent  accidents  by  fire. 

•  A  little  farther  were  two  kraals ^  or  iuclosures  for  cattle  ;  they 
were  surrounded  by  high  stone  walls,  of  eight  or  ten  fett,  and  con- 
tained each  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  acres.  The  sheep,  the 
horses,  and  the  horned  cattle  were  confined  at  night  in  these,  for 
•ccurity  against  the  attacks  of  wild  beasts,  especially  of  wolves  and 
tfgers,  who  do  not  unfrequcntly  make  a  great  havock  here,  among 
tke  smaller-sized  cattle.  He  calculated  the  numbers  of  his  sheep 
by  thousands ;  and  respecting  his  horned  cattle,  a  small  proof  of  the 
ftttmerousness  of  his  herds,  was  his  infom.iug  me,  in  a  careless  manner, 
and  as  if  it  were  a  circumstance  of  no  consideration,  that  he  had 
lost  one  hundred  and  twenty  head  of  cattle,  a  few  days  before,  by 
the  diseases  called  the  klaanw  and  tongzicku  f . 

*  There 

■  *  Upwards  of  3C0/.  sterling.    T".' 

•  -f"  These  diseaics  of  the  cattle  arc  peculiar  to  the  Cape  of  Good 
IJope.  In  the  klaamvuche^  the  hoofs  of  the  cattle  grow  loOse,  so 
that  they  cannot  walk  ;  it  appears  to  proceed  from  the  summer- heats, 
especially  if  the  oxen  l.avc  been  driven  on  journies  in  the  daytime  ;  it 
M  thought  infectious,  and  whole  droves  are  successively  affected  by 
It ;  it,  however,  in  general,  leaves  the  cattle,  of  its  own  accord,  in 
the  course  of  one  or  two  weeks.  In  the  tong%iekte^  vesicles,  or  blad- 
ders, break  out  on  the  tongue,  discharging  a  thin  ichorous  matter ; 
in  copsequence  of  this  distemper,  the  cattle  cannot  eat,  but  erow 


StarorinusV  Voyages.  1  Jt 

«  There  were  several  other  smaller  outhouses  and  oSSces,  for  various 
purposes,  relative  to  the  economy  of  the  farm. 

•  Besides  this,  he  was  owner  of  seven  or  eight  other  fiarms,  upon 
which  he  had  placed  stewards,  who  managed  them  in  his  behali^ 
upon  hire.  Some  of  these  produced  com,  some  wine,  and  some 
were  simply  destined  for  pasturage. 

«  With  all  this,  Melk  could  neither  read  nor  write ;  but  having 
a  good  memory,  he  had  the  whole  in  his  head  of.  what  was  necessary 
for  the  due  management  of  his  extensive  concerns,  for  which  any 
other  would  require  a  number  of  books,  and  a  great  deal  of  writing.* 

This  accoant,  nevenheless,  shews  at  least  as  much  of  th^ 
spirit  of  monopoly  as  of  improvement. 

Owing  to  the  great  variety  of  the  soil,  each  vineyard  at  the 
Cape  (the  author  observes)  produces  wine  of  its  own  peculiar 
flavour.  The  translator  has  suggested  many  important  practi- 
cable improvements  ;  and  he  expresses  his  opinion  that,  in  the 
hands  of  a  nation  more  enterprising  than  the  Dutch,  the  in- 
trinsic and  territorial  value  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  would 
be  of  more  consequence  than  even  its  relative  importance  as  a 
place  of  refreshment  and  resort  in  the  navigation  to  the  Indies, 
In  a  note^  vol.  i.  p.  544.  he  informs  us  that 

lean,  and  sometimes  die  ;  the  farmers  are  accustomed  to  rub  thifc 
bladders  off  with  salt.  Besides  these,  the  cattle  are  liable  to  other 
diseases,  which  sometimes  prove  fatal.  The  blaary  or  hlBedxiekte^  is  m 
disorder,  in  which  tlie  veins  all  over  the  body  become  extremely 
tureid;  letting  of  blood  and  violent  exercise  are  said  to  be  serviceable 
in  it ;  the  flesh  of  the  cattle  who  die  of  it,  is  not  eatable.  The 
sbons%tehte  begins  by  the  swelling  of  the  foot,  which  proceeds  by 
degrees  to  the  whole  body  ;  tins  disorder  sometimes  lasts  for  threp 
days,  but  at  other  times  proves  fatal  in  as  many  hours ;  if  the  foot 
be  taken  off  immediately,  the  creature's  life  may  be  saved  :  the  flesh 
of  such  an  animal  is  likewise  not  eatable  :  it  seems  to  proceed  from 
no  other  cause  than  the  bite  of  some  serpent,  or  reptile,  which,  la 
this  warm  quarter  of  the  globe,  is  but  too  common.  The  larmlekte^ 
is  when  the  cattle  are  not  able  to  stand  ;  it  comes  on  gradually,  and 
is  slow  in  its  progress  ;  after  the  death  of  the  animal,  the  bones  of 
its  legs  are  found  to  be  without  marrow,  instead  of  which  they  arc 
filled  with  water.  The  horned  cattle,  as  well  as  horses,  are  afllicted 
with  the  strangury,  after  feeding  on  the  euphorbia  genUioiJtJy  whicii 
contains  a  milky  juice,  that  does  no  injury  to  the  stomach  and 
bowels,  but  corrodes  the  bladder,  and  especially  obstructs  the  urinary 
passages ;  if  the  penis  be  pressed,  this  viscid  matter  is  squeezed  out ; 
the  peasants,  therefore,  either  press  it  out,  or  with  a  straw  push  it 
back  again.  When  the  cattle  are  supplied  with  good  and  fresh  water, 
this  disease  cannot  get  the  upper-hand ;  but  in  summer,  when  the 
water  is  thick  and  impure,  so  that  it  cannot  dilute  the  peccant 
matter,  the  cattle  die.  As  a  remedv  for  thi^  distemper,  the  farmen 
give  their  cattle  a  teacup-full  of  powdered  ostrich  egg-ihcUs,  mixed 
with  vinegar.  T.' 

*  From 

t3Z  StarorlnusV  Voyages. 

•  From  1400  to  i6co  tons  of  wheat  used  yearly  to  be  exported 
from  the  CapCt  fur  the  consumption  of  Batavia  and  Ceylon  ;  besides 
large  quantities  of  pease,  beans,  butter,  and  wines :  and,  on  tlic 
other  hand,  Batavia  furnished,  by  a  yearly  ship  to  the  Capcy  a  quan- 
tity of  rice,  aiTack,  sugar,  and  prepared  timber.  In  the  year  177  I  > 
the  French  contracted  at  the  Capcy  for  the  use  of  their  colonics  at 
Mauritius  and  Bdurbon^  for  400,000  lbs,  of  Aour,  400,000  lbs.  of 
biscuit,  500,000  lbs,  of  salt  beef,  and  i,200  leac^ers  of  win..  Since 
the  Cape  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Enghsh,  in  September,  I795f 
many  cargoes  of  wheat  have  been  brought  thence,  to  this  country.  T* 

Qn  the  28th  of  October,  they  anchored  in  Batavia  Road.  In 
this  voyage,  the  author  gives  a  more  full  account  of  the  means 
by  which  the  Dutch  obtained  and  established  their  power  over 
the  difFcrcnt  parts  of  Java.  Divide  and  Conquer  has  been  the 
favorite  political  maxim  of  the  Dutch,  and  of  every  European 
power  which  has  aimed  at  establishing  itself  by  conquest  in 
India. — ^The  largest  portion  of  Java  was  under  the  dominion  of 
a  prince  called  the  Soesoekoenam.  Another  prince  of  the  impe- 
rial family  *  wanted  to  have,  as  an  appanagtr,  a  certain  territory, 
the  province  Mataram^  which  had  already  been  allotted  to  the 
hereditary  prince  Masseyd^  son  of  the  Socsoehoenam, 

«  This  Masseyd  was  of  a  short  stature,  and  an  excellent  dis- 
position ;  he  gloried  in  the  circumstance  that  he  had  never 
kUled  an  European,  except  in  battle.  Manko  Boeniy  on  the 
contrary,,  and  his  son  and  heir  apparent,  more  than  once, 
caused  the  captive  Europeans  to  be  pounded  in  their  rice- 
blocks,'  &c.  The  last  mentioned  was  of  a  cruel  and  blood- 
thirsty temper,  und  shewed  himself  an  implacable  enemy  of 
all  Europeans.— The  sense  of  gratitude,  and  the  desire  of  re- 
venge, were  equally  disregarded  by  the  Dutch.  They  en- 
couraged Manko  Boeni  in  his  claims ;  and,  when  a  war 
broke  out  in  consequence,  they  took  part  against  the  Soe^ 
soehoenam^  and  ;U  length  succeeded  in  splitting  his  empire  into 
three  parts,  one  for  Manko  Bocnl^  one  for  themselves,  and  a 
part  was  left  to  the  Soesoehoenam,  Thus  the  island,  which  was 
before  divided  into  three  separate  states,  was  thenceforwards 
divided  into  five.  The  Company  also  maintain  a  body  of  150 
men  in  the  service  of  each  of  the  princes,  nominally  as  a  body- 
guard in  honour  of  them.  The  prince  who  has  the  greatest 
right  is  not  appointed  heir  to  the  crown  without  the  consent 
^f  the  Company  ;  and  even  the  pnngorang  or  prime  minister  is 
nominated  by  them.  All  the  princes  are  likewise  under 
engagements  to  dispose  of  the  produce  of  their  respective  coun- 
tries to  the  Company  alone,  and  not  to  sell  to,  nor  enter  into 
any  connection  with,  any  other  nation. — The  power  obtained 
by  the  Dutch  was  not  yielded  by  the  Javanese  without  a  great 
Struggle.     In   1777,   the  author  estimates  the  population  of 


StavorinusV  Voyager.  1 3  j 

Java  to  have  been  912,084  souls  :  *  a  very  slender  number  of 
inhabitants  for  such  an  extensive  island.  According  to  the 
statement  of  the  population  made  in  the  year  1738,  the  number 
of  inhabitants,  in  the  territories  of  the  Soesoehoetiam  alone» 
amounted  to  1,858,200.  At  present  (1777)  the  same  lands 
contain  no  more  than  708,600  souls ;  making  a  difference  of 
more  than  one  Half,  which  would  appear  to  me  too  impro- 
bable, had  I  not  had  the  inspection  of  the  authentic  docu- 
ments  relative  thereto.*  This  desolation  has  been  produced  • 
only  in  a  part  of  the  island.  B'y  a  statement  given  in  VaUniyn*% 
account,  the  population  of  Java  in  his  time  was  reckoned  at 
3,31 1,250.  *  A  decrease,'  says  the  translator,  *  from  upwards 
of  three  millions  to  less  than  one  million  of  people,  in  about 
60  years,  is  an  amazing  instance  of  the  destructive  agency  of 

The  cruel  and  dishonest  policy,  by  which  the  Dutch  estab- 
lished their  empire  at  Batavia,  is  thus  concisely  stated.  *  The 
Company  possess  this  empire  by  right  of  conquest;  having 
taken  it  from  its  king,  who  was  obliged  to  yield  to  their  arms 
in  1619  :  and  Batavia  was  founded  on  or  near  the  site  cf  his 
capital  city  Jaccatra/  Another  right  is  set  up  by  the  Company  : 

*  All  these  princes  possess  their  dominions  in  the  qualit)'  of^vassals 
of  the  Company,  whose  pretensions  to  the  paramount  authority  arc 

Cunded  upon  a  voluntary  cession  of  all  his  dominions,  alleged  to 
e  been  made  in  favour  of  the  Company,  by  the  late  deceased 
Soesoehoenamy  upon  his  death-bed,  in  the  year  1 746  :  this,  at  least,  it 
what  is  pretended,  for  the  sake  of  appearance,  as  it  id  otherwise 
pretty  well  understood,  that  the  emperor  was  dead,  before  this  pre- 
tended cession  was  made  known  to  the  grandees  of  the  court ;  but 
this  is  kept  as  much  a  secret  as  possible  ;  though  what  could  they 
have  done  against  the  Company,  who  were  possessed  of  the  power  of 
maintaining  the  validity  of  the  cession,  by  force  of  arms  ?' 

The  decrease  of  population  is  not  attributed  by  the  author 
wholly  to  the  ravages  of  war.  He  represents  the  island  as  in  a 
state  of  continually  declining  population,  from  tlie  natural  ope- 
ration of  the  abject  state  of  depression  and  servitude  in  which 
the  common  pcopU  of  Java  live.  Tiiese  poor  islanders  *  are  not 
masters  of  the  little  they  seem  to  possess,'  and  are  obliged  to 
deliver  whatever  is  required  of  the  fruits  of  their  industry,  at 
such  grices  as  the  officers  of  the  company  please  to  allow  them. 
The  author  is  sometimes  frail  in  his  political  morality,  but^  */ 
pn  this  occasion,  he  inveighs  with  a  generous  warmth  / 
against  the  treatment  to  which  these  oppressed  islanders  arc 

The  price  given  by  the  Company  to  the  king  of  Bantam,  for 
pcpj)cr,  was  about  twenty-two  shillings  sterling  per  cwt. 


134  StavorinusV  Voyages* 

The  situation  of  Batavia  was  chosen  on  account  of  its  con^ 
^nicncc  for  water-carriage  :  but  for  this  the  Dutch  have  paid 
dear.  It  is  remarked  by  the  translator  that  the  climate  is  not 
so  fatal  to  the  women  as  to  the  men.  European  women  arc  less 
exposed  to  the  sun,  make  frequent  use  of  the  cold  bath,  and 
Kyc  more  temperately.  The  manner  of  living  of  both  sexes, 
however,  is  described  as  listless,  and  almost  wholly  void  of 
Enjoyment :  they  are  dispirited,  no  doubt,  by  the  constant 
mortality  that  prevails ;  it  being  reckoned  that  one  half  of  those 
who  arrive  from  Europe,  to  settle  at  Batavia,  die  in  the  first 
year.  The  Chinese,  before  the  barbarous  massacre  of  those 
unfortunate  people  at  Batavia,  had  the  best  quarter  of  the  city 
allotted  to  them*  Mr.  Wilcocke  has  given  the  particulars  ef 
this  transaction,  (in  vol.  i.  p.  263,)  from  Huyser's  life  of  Reinier 
de  Klerk.  Much  apprehension  was  afterward  entertained  by 
the  Dutch,  of  the  indignation  of  the  Emperor  of  China  j  and 
deputies  were  sent  to  China  to  endeavour  to  *  apologise  ;*  but 
the  Emperor  calmly  told  them  that  he  was  little  solicitous 
for  the  fate  of  unworthy  subjects,  who,  in  pursuit  of  lucre, 
had  quitted  their  country,  *<  and  abandoned  the  tombs  of 
their  ancestors  !'* 

Before  we  leave  Java,  we  shall  give  to  our  readers  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  combats  between  wild  beasts ;  which,  the  author 
says,  is  the  most  favorite  diversion  of  the  Javanese  Emperors. 

*  When  a  tiger  and  a  buffalo  are  to  fight  together  for  the  amuse- 
ment of  the  court,  they  are  both  brought  upon  the  field  of.  combat 
in  large  cages.  The  field  is  surrounded  by  a  body  of  Javanese,  four 
deep,  with  levelled  pikes,  in  order  that  if  the  creatures  endeavour  to 
break  through,  they  may  be  killed  immediately  ;  this,  however,  is 
not  so  easily  effected,  but  many  of  these  poor  wretches  arc  torn  in 
pieces,  or  dreadfully  wounded,  by  the  enraged  animals. 

*  When  every  thing  is  in  readiness,  the  cage  of  the  buffalo  is  first 
ppened  at  the  top,  and  his  back  is  rubbed  with  certain  leaves,  which 
have  the  singular  quality  of  occasioning  an  intolerable  degree  of 
pain,  ar.d  which,  from  the  use  they  are  applied  to,  have  been  called 
buffalo-leaves  by  our  people.  The  door  of  the  cage  is  then  opened, 
and  the  animal  leaps  out,  raging  with  pain,  and  roaring  most  dread* 

*  The  cage  of  the  tiger  is  then  likewise  opened,  and  fire  is 
thrown  into  it,  to  make  the  beast  quit  it,  which  he  does  gcnci-ally 
running  backwards  out  of  it. 

*  As  soon  a3  the  tiorer  perceives  the  buffalo,  he  springs  upon  him  ; 
kis  huge  opponent  stands  expecting  him,  vnih.  his  horns  upon  the 

f  round,  to  catch  him  upon  them,  and  throw  him  in  the  air  :  if  the 
uffalo  succeed  in  this,  and  the  tiger  recovers  from  his  fall,  he  gene- 
tally  loses  every  v.'ish  cf  renewing  the  combat :  and  If  the  tiger  avoid 
this  lirst  attempt  oF  the  buffalo,  he  springs  upon  him,  and  seizing 
him  in  the  neck,  or  other  parts,  tears  his  fiesh  from  his  boQCS :  in 
IDOst  cases,  however,  the  buffalo  has  the  better. 


StaroritiusV  V$yageu  135 

.  *  The  Jaranese  who  must  perform  the  dangerbut  office  of  inakio^ 
tiic8c  animals  quit  their  cages,  may  not,  when  they  have  done,  not- 
withstanding toev  are  in  great  danger  of  being  torn  in  pieces  by  the 
enraged  beasts,  leave  the  open  space,  before  they  have  saluted  the 
emperor  several  times,  and  his  majesty  has  given  them  a  signal  to 
depart ;  they  then  retire  slowly,  for  they  are  not  permitted  to  walk 
fast,  to  the  circle,  and  mix  with  the  9ther  Javanese. 
.  *  The  emperors  sometimes  make  criminals  condemned  to  deatli 
fight  with  tigers.  In  such  cases,  the  mau  is  rubbed  with  born,  or 
turmeric,  and  has  a  yellow  piece  of  cloth  put  round  him,  a  iris  h 
then  given  to  him,  and  he  is  conducted  to  the  field  of  combat. 

«  The  tiger,  who  has,  for  a  long  time,  been  kept  fasting,  falb 
ttpon  the  man  with  the  greatest  fury,  and  generally  strikes  him  down 
at  once,  with  his  paw,  but  if  he  be  fortunate  enough  to  avoid  this, 
and  to  wound  the  animal,  so  that  it  quits  him,  the  emperor  tlien 
commands  him  to  attack  the  tiger  ;  and  the  man  is  then  generally  the 
victim :  and  even  if  he  ultimately  succeed  in  kllHng  his  ferocious 
antagonist,  he  must  suffer  death,  by  the  command  of  the  emperor, 

*  An  officer  in  our  Company's  service,  who  had  long  been  Stationed 
at  the  courts  of  the  Javanese  emperors,  related  to  me,  that  he  was  once 
H'itness  to  a  most  extraordinary  occurrence  of  this  kind,  namely,  that 
a  Javanese  who  had  been  condemned  to  be  torn  in  pieces  by  tigers^ 
and,  for  that  purpose,  had  been  thrown  down,  from  the  top,  into  m 
large  cage,  in  which  several  tigers  were  confined,  fortunately  fell 
exactly  upon  the  largest  and  fiercest  of  them,  across  whose  back  he 
sat  astride,  without  the  animal  doing  him  any  harm,  and  even,  on 
the  contrary,  appearing  intimidated ;  while  the  others  also,  awed 
by  the  unusual  posture  and  appearance  which  he  made,  dared  not  at- 
tempt to  destroy  him  ;  he  could  not,  however,  avoid  the  punishment 
of  death,  to  which  he^had  been  condemned,  for  the  emperor  com* 
manded  him  to  be  shot  dead  in  the  cage.' 

From  Batavia,  the  auihor  was  ordered  to  Macasscr  and  to 
Amboyna. — The  inhabitants  of  Celebes  are  by  most  writers  de- 
scribed as  a  very  enterprising  and  capable  people.  The  Captain 
has  given  an  account  of  some  of  the  kingdoms  into  which  the 
southern  part  of  Celebes  is  divided  ;  and  he  has  also  related  the 
manner  in  which  his  countrymen  established  themselves  or^ 
the  island  :  which  appears  to  have  been  effected  by  a  system  of 
interference  in  the  quarrels  of  the  different  chiefs,  similar  to 
that  which  they  practised  at  Java.  Some  of  the  small  states 
in  this  island  have  been  described  as  under  a  republican  form 
of  government,  or  rather  under  an  aristocracy.  The  king  of 
Goach,  who  is  tributary  to  the  Company,  the  author  tells  us, 
is  subject  to  the  laws  of  the  land,  and  miy  not  perform  any 
important  regal  functions,  without  the  concurrence  and  appro- 
bation of  the  body  of  the  nobility.  Crimes  are  punished  ac- 
cording to  laws,  &q. 

The  authority  of  the  Dutch  Compnny  in  Cefcbcs,   in  the 

author*^  time,   had   considerably  declined,      in    the  disputes 

12  bccweca 

13^  Stahrorinu$V  Vojtigef. 

between  the  kingdoms  of  Macasser  and  Boniy  the  former  being 
the  more  powerful,  the  politics  of  the  Dutch  led  them  to  assist 
the  people  of  Boni,  and  for  a  long  time  it  \ua6  an  adopted 
maxim  that  Macasser  should  be  continually  kept  under.  This 
snaxim,  says  the  Captain,  was  so  strictly  observed,  that  Boni 
has  been  rendered  so  great  and  powerful,  that  it  is  at  present 
out  of  all  question  to  prescribe  bounds  or  rules  to  that  kingdom* 
Wadjo,  another  kingdom,  to  the  north  of  Boni,  likewise  main" 
tains  itself  independent.  The  author  characterises  the  people 
as  living  very  peaceably  among  themselves  ;  and  as  •  being  the 
greatest  merchants  of  Celebes,  and  at  present,  also,  the  richest 
and  most  redoubted  nation  of  the  island.  They  pay  no  regard 
to  any  engagements  either  with  the  Company  or  with  Boni^ 
alleging  that  they  have  been  cancelled  by  the  last  war.* 

Tlie  principal  production  of  Celebes  is  rice ;  of  which  th« 
island  yields  more  thin  a  sufficiency  for  its  inhabitants,  though 
they  are  very  numerous.  A  slave- trade  is  likewise  carried  on 
here;  and  Batavia,  and  many  of  the  eastern  Dutch  settlements, 
are  provided  with  slaves  from  Celebes.  *  They  are,  in  general, 
kidnapped  and  sold  in  secret  to  the  Europeans,  who  carry  them 
away  in  their  ships.* 

The  scenes  of  cruelty  and  cool  villainy,  which  arc  so  fre- 
quently laid  open  in  the  narrative  of  this  voyage,  cannot  fail 
to  produce,  in  every  considerate  and  humane  mind,  a  senti- 
ment of  shame  and  indignation,  at  the  callous  and  depraved 
conduct  of  our  fellow-creatures.  Many  of  the  East-Indian 
nations  (not  exempting  the  Malays)  arc  violent  in  the  pursuit 
of  their  revenge,  and  but  little  restrained  by  principle  in  the 
pursuit  of  their  interest.  The  picture  here  exhibited  of  the 
European  represents  a  character  less  addicted  to  revenge,  and 
more  steadily  hitent  on  his  interest :  but  capable  of  deliberately 
destroying  others,  or  of  inflicting  on  them  any  misery  which 
he  conceives  will  conduce  to  that  interest. 

In  the  passage  from  Celebes  to  Atnboyna,  the  remarks  and 
directions  in  a  navigation  so  little  frequented  by  any  Europeans, 
except  the  Dutch,  will  be  the  more  useful,  as  the  common 
charts  are  supposed  to  be  remarkably  incorrect ;  many  errors 
and  omissions  being,  the  author  thinks,  intentionally  continued 
through  the  policy  of  the  Dutch  India  Company.  The  Captain 
says  of  the  island  Bouton,  near  to  which  they  sailed,  that  the 
•^king  of  this  island  is  in  alliance  with  the  Company,  who  pay 
him  a  yearly  sum  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  rixdollars  in  new 
Dutch  coin,  upon  condition  that  he  should  not  only  permit 
the  extirpation  by  the  Company  of  all  the  clove-trees  in  thk 
and  the  neighbouring  islands,  but  also  assist  them  in  effecting 
it«     For  this  purpose,  the  Company  annually  send  out  a  ser« 


StavormUs*/  Vtyagih  137 

fmmty  W^o  is  styled  the  txilrpator^  and  wbo  goes  through  the 
woods  in  all  the  islands,  and  causes  all  the  dove-trees  which  h^ 
meets  With  to  be  cut  down/ 

This  system  of  extirpation  has  heert  Carried  by  the  Dutch 
to  a  prodigious  extents  The  translator  has  giyen  the  followin[( 

'  A  shoirt  time  WotHe  the  c!oming  of  the  Portuguese  In  jtmhyna^ 
the  Cerammcrs  of  Cambellp  secretly  brought  some  mother-doves  19 
lioUpW  bamboos  from  Maclnan^  whence  they  were  propagated  all  over 
CeroMf  jimioyHOj  aod  the  neighbouring  islands^  and  in  the  space  of 
fifty  or  sixty  years  the  whole  or  Hoewatnoeh'ti  was  covered  with  thcmi 
This'  was  told  to  the  Dutch  when  they  first  Came  to  Cambetlo^  and 
some  of  the  trees  first  planted  wtre  shewn  to  them,  behind  the  hill 
of  MmsM  ;  the  memory  of  It  is  likewise  preserved  in  the  tradi- 
tionary songs  of  the  Amboynese.  The  brave  and  cnterpnzing  in- 
habitants of  Cambello  were  rewarded  for  the  openness  with  which 
thev  shewed  the  Dutch  their  treasures^  by  the  destruction  of  all 
their  cJovc-trecs,  and  the  deprivation  of  the  fruits  of  their  industry^ 
and  exertion  ;  the  implacable  enmity  which  they  in  consequence  enter* 
taaoed  for  the  Dutch,  and  their  repeated  attacks  upon  the  forts,  which 
their  enemies  established  in  their  country^  have  been  stiVmatized  by 
the  Dutch  writers^  at  a  base  and  wicked  spirit  of  disobedience^ 
and  an  unjust  and  cruel  lust  of  blood  and  warlare  ;  "  so  that,"  says 
VaLisTTTH,  "  it  would  have  been  better,  if,  instead  of  extirpating 
their  trees  alone,  we  had,  at  the  same  time,  exterminated  this  revenge* 
fill  and  sanguinary  nation.'*  T,* 

At  Amboyna,  the  growth  of  spices  is  likewise  limited.  Oil 
some  extraordinary  oflencc  being  given  to  the  natives  there, 
they  threatened  to  destroy  all  the  remaining  trees,  and  to  with- 
draw from  their  habitations  to  the  mountains  ;  and  this  threat, 
it  is  said,  would  have  been  executed,  if  they  had  not  been 
speedily  satisfied.  Particular  descriptions  are  given  in  this 
work  of  the  clove  and  nutmeg  trees  *,  with  an  account  oV  the 
quantities  of  spices  collected  by  the  Dutch  in  different  years> 
and  of  the  various  methods  practised  by  them  to  restrain  the 
growth :  the  cultivation  being  transferred,  and,  by  force  of 
arms,  confined  to  Amboyna.  When  we  read  of  three  heaps 
of  nutmegs  being  burnt  at  one  time,  each  of  which  was  more 
than  an  ordinary  church  would  hold,  we  cannot  reconcile 
practices  so  repugnant  to  principles  of  general  benefit,  with 
any  other  than  mistaken  as  well  as  most  sordid  ideas  of  self* 
interest.  Spices,  after  having  been  transported  from  such 
distant  climes,  have  been  burnt  at  Amsterdam,  on  each  ofvtwo 
successive  days,  to  the  value  of  a  million  of  livres.  Yet,  however 
a^iduous,  the  translator  observes,  the  Dutch  are  in  the  destruc« 
tion  of  the  spice-trecs,  they  never  have  succeeded,  nor  can  sue- 

lUv.  JuNs,  1799*  L  cced^ 

13  i  Stai'orinusV  Voyages. 

cecd,  in  extirpating  them.  They  grow  in  many  places  inacces* 
sible  to  the  destructive  axe  of  the  extirpator ;  and,  notwith- 
standing all  the  care  of  the  Dutch,  they  are  cultivated  by  the 
natives  in  different  islands. 

Among  the  inhabitants  of  Amboyna,  the  author  mentions 
the  Alfoers  or  Alforesty  whom  he  believes  to  be  the  most  antient 
inhabitants  of  these  countries.  His  description  of  these  people 
seems  worth  transcribing  : 

*  The  few  which  I  saw  of  this  nation,  appeared  to  mc  not  so 
dark  in  colour,  and  both  handsomer  and  more  sinewy  than  the  Am- 

*  I  met  with  the  following  account  of  them,  in  the  description  of 
^w^cjntf  composed  by  Rumphjus,  wliich,  having  been  prohibited 
by  the  government  at  Batavia^\iA&  never  been  printed,  but  of  which 
a  manuscript  copy  is  preserved  ixi  the  secretary's  of&ce  at  Amhoyna. 

"  Most  of  the  Alforcsc  inhabit  the  wild  mountains  and  intcnor 
parts  of  Ceram.  They  are  large,  strong,  and  savage  people,  in 
general  taller  than  the  inhabitants  of  tlic  sea-shores  ;  they  go  mostly 
naked,  botli  men  and  women,  and  only  wear  a  thick  bandage  round 
their  waijt,  which  is  called  chiaaca^  and  is  made  of  the  milky  bark 
of  a  tree,  called  by  them  sacha  (being  the //Vjiworfi/  alba)*  They 
tie  their  hair  upon  the  head  over  a  cocoa-nut  shell,  and  stick  a  como 
in  it ;  round  the  neck  they  wear  a  string  of  beads. 

**  Their  arms  are,  a  sword  made  of  bamboo,  together  with  a  bow 
and  arrows. 

**  They  are  sharp-sighted,  and  so  nimble  in  running,  that  they 
can  run  down  and  kill  a  wild  hog,  at  its  utmost  speed. 

•*  An  ancient,  but  most  detestable  and  criminal  custom  prevails 
among  them,  agreeable  to  which,  no  one  is  allowed  to  take  a  wife, 
before  he  can  shew  a  head  of  an  enemy  which  he  has  cut  off:  in 
order  to  obtain  this  qualification  for  matrimony,  six,  eight,  or  ten 
of  them  go  together  to  a  strange  part,  where  they  stay  till  they- 
have  an  opportunity  of  surprising  some  one,  which  they  do  with 
great  dexterity,  springing  upon  the  unwary  passenger  like  tigers  ; 
'they  generally  cover  themselves  with  branches  of  trees  and  bushes, 
80  that  they  are  rather  taken  for  brakes  and  thickets  than  for  men  ; 
in  this  posture  they  lie  in  wait  for  their  prey,  and  take  the  first  op- 
portunity that  presents  itself  of  darting  their  tor  an  or  sagoe  (a  sort 
of  missile  lance )  into  the  back  of  a  passenger,  or  spring  upon  him 
at  once,  and  cut  off  his  head,  with  which  they  instantly  decamp, 
and  fly  with  speed  from  the  scene  of  their  wanton  barbarity.'* — 

**  Among  these  Alforeie,  there  is  another  kind  of  savage  people, 
^  who  do  not  dwell  in  any  houses  or  huts,  but  upon  high  nuartnje^ 
^  and  other  trees,  which  spread  their  branches  wide  round  :  they  lead 
and  inte:-lwine  the  branches  so  closely  together,  that  they  form  an 
easy  re^'ting-place  ;  and  each  tree  is  the  habitation  of  a  whole  fa - 
"  Billy  :  tlicy  adopt  this  mode,  because  they  dare  not  trust  even  those 
"  of  their  own  nation,  as  they  Mirpri/.c  e^ach  other  during  the  night, 
,  and  kill  whocvtr  lhe\'  take  hold  of/' 

•   Various 

StavorinusV  Voyages.  *  l^J 

•Various  particulars  respecting  these  islands  are4idded  by  the 
translator^  from  information  obtained  since  they  came  into  our 
possession.  If  we  retain  them,  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  a  more 
just  and  generous  system  of  management  will  be  adopted,  than 
that  to  which  they  have  hitherto  been  subjected. 

After  the  author's  return  to  Batavia,  his  ship  was  ordered 
to  Surat ;  and  he  gives  an  account  of  the  state  of  the  European 
factories,  when  he  viGted  at  that  place.  He  complains  greatly 
of  the  conduct  of  the  English  towards  the  Dutch,  not  only  at 
Surat,  but  at  other  parts  of  the  Malabar  coast ;  and  he  gives 
an  account  of  the  manner  in  which  they  made  themselves 
masters  of  Surat,  less  to  the  credit  of  our  countrymen  than 
the  account  published  by  themselves.  We  cannot*  pretend  to 
determine  which  relation  is  the  most  correct :  but  it  may  be 
naturally  conjectured  that  the  English  should  give  the  transac- 
tion as  good  a  colouring  as  it  would  bear ;  and,  on  the  con- 
trary, that  an  officer  zealous  in  the  service  of  the  Dutch  East- 
India  Company  would  be  little  inclined  to  favour  the  English. 
Certain  it  is  that  the  English  and  Dutch  have  never  been  well 
inclined  towards  each  other  in  the  East  Indies. 

Among  the  curiosities  described  at  Surat,  we  find  several  re- 
markable instances  of  the  extreme  solicitude  of  the  Gentoos  to 
avoid  injuring  animals,  or  even  the  smallest  insect.  Several 
wore  pieces  of  gauze  before  their  mouth,  lest,  by  their  breath- 
ing, any  little  creature  might  be  deprived  of  life.  An  hospital 
was  erected  more  than  a  century  ago,  to  provide  for  the  wel- 
fare of  animals,  which  is  maintained  by  contributions  from  the 
Banians  and  Gentoos  ;  and  it  is  said  that,  to  maintain  vermin 
with  the  *  choice  diet'  to  which  they  have  been  used,  a  man  is 
occasionally  hired  to  lodge,  during  the  whole  night,  in  the  cot 
or  bed  in  which  the  vermin  are  put. 

The  author  gives  many  particulars  respecting  the  manner  o£ 
ship-building  at  Surat.  He  mentions  a  vessel  wnich  was  known 
by  the  appellation  of /^^  Holy  Sh'tp^  the  age  of  which  was  not 
ascertained  any  farther  than  that,  in  a  letter  written  by  the 
Dutch  director  at  Surat  in  the  year  1702,  it  was  then  called 
the  Old  Ship:  and  from  that  time  to  the  year  1770,  it  per- 
formed an  annual  voyage  to  the  Red  Sea.  This  ship,  however^ 
while  the  author  was  in  India,  got  on  shore  near  Surat ;  after 
which  she  was  not  thought  capable  of  being  repaired  so  as  to 
be  again  made  serviceable.—  In  another  part  of  the  voyage,  the 
Captaiu  hijs  described  a  Chinese  junk  on  board  of  which  he 
went: — its  length  was  140  feet:—the  interior  of  the  hull  was 
separated  into  as  many  different  divisions  as  there  were  mer- 
chants on  board ;  each  having  a  distinct  place  for  the  stowage 
of  lus  commodities  j^-^^and  exactly  in  the  middle  of  the  vessel 

L  2  was 

t49  SttvorinusV  Vpyagir. 

was  a  kind  of  chapel,  in  which  their  jqss  or  idol  was  placed. 
At  the  end  of  every  voyage,  the  idol  is  brought  on  shore  and 
deppsited  in  one  of  their  temples,  and  a  new  one  is  taken  into 
the  ship.  They  never,  at  any  place,  begin  to  land  any  part  of  the 
cargo,  until  the  image  of  this  idol,  which  is  made  of  gold^ 
and  is  about  four  inches  high,  has  been  sent  on  shore  out  of 
the  junk. 

From  the  coast  of  Malabar,  the  Ouwerkerk  returned  to  Ba- 
tavia,  and  was  again  sent  to  Surat.  In  the  latter  part  of  thts 
year  1777,  she  was  appointed  to  return  to  Europe;  and  the 
author  sailed  homewards,  in  company  with  several  other  ships* 
As  a  proof  of  the  opinion  which  they  entertained. of  the  sailing 
in;  tructions  given  by  the  Company,  we  find  that,  though  their 
orders  were  that,  from  the  island  Ascension,  the  course 
steered  shall  be  N.  W. ;  yet,  on  a  consultation  among  the 
commanders,  it  was  agreed  to  steer  a  N.  W.  by  N.  course^ 
but  that  the  course  should  be  noted  down  in  the  ship's  jour- 
nals N.W.— On  the  13th  of  July  1778,  the  author  arrived  at 

The  foregoing  account  will  convince  the  reader  that,  besidei 
the  entertainment  which  the  perusal  of  this  work  affords,  it  is 
replete  with  useful  knowlege  collected  from  authentic  docu- 
ments. The  author  appears  to  have  been  a  man  of  veracity^ 
and  of  diligent  observation ;  and  the  notes  of  the  translator^ 
which  add  greatly  to  the  value  of  the  work,  are  evidently  the 
result  of  much  study  and  information  on  the  subject.  Several 
particulars  in  the  manners  of  various  people,  however,  are  re-> 
lated  by  the  author  with  a  grossness  which  the  translator  should 
not  have  contented  himself  with  softening : — thejr  might  have 
heen  wholly  omitted. 

In  an  Appendix,  are  contained  many  particulars  of  regula- 
tions respecting  the  Company's  servants;  accounts  of  ships 
employed,  dividends  on  India  stock,  returns,  and  many  other 
statements  relative  to  the  Company's  afiairSj  from  the  estab- 
lishment of  it  in  1^02  to  the  year  1780  : — with  an  abstraet 
of  the  Herbarius  Fivusy  or  Herbal  of  Henry  Bernard  Oldehrdy 
aaperintendant  of  the  Company's  garden  at  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope»  in  the  year  1695  ;  and  a  sketch  of  the  life  of  Reinier 
de  Klerhy  late  Governor  General  for  the  Dutch  Company  in 
India,   from  Huyser*s  life  of  that  officer^  published  iti  Araster- 


Art.  III.  A  Vocahulrrp  of  such  tTorib  in  the  EngSsh  Langwige  0§ 
mre  of  dubious  or  tmsettled  Accentuation  ;  f n  which  tlie  Propiknciatioa 
of  Shendtn^  Walker,  and  other  Orthocpiits,  it  compared.  9ro* 
43.  Boards.    Rivingtons  &e.     1797* 

X17HEN  eeneral  practice  lias  established  any  given  manner  olf 
^'^  writing  or  uttering  a  word,  this  usage»  even  if  inconsist« 
€Dt  with  analogy  or  internal  etymology,  ought  perhaps  to  be 
considered  as  the  binding  law,  and  at  ascertaining  the  ortho« 
graphy  or  orthoepy  of  such  word  ;  because  uniformity  in  lan« 
guage  is  of  more  value  than  propriety  :— but«  when  the  prae* 
Cice  of  distinguished  writers  and  speakers,  of  popular  and  o£ 
learoed  authoritiesi  is  at  variance,  it  becomes  ot  importance 
for  grammarians  to  discuss  on  theoretical  principles  the  hst. 
tnode  of  speaking  and  spelling  a  word,  in  order  that  future 
usage  may  favour  improvement^  and  may  ultimately  station 
every  equivocal  term  in  the  ranks  of  regular  phraseology.  Oat 
vocabularies  are  crowded  enough  with  an  undisciplined  rabble 
cf  anomalies  and  solecisms. 

Pronunciation  is  much  more  fluctuating -than  spelling.  la 
ptoportion  as  the  taste  for  reading  gains  ground,  literature 
dictates  to  conversation,  and  utterance  approximates  more  and 
more  to  the  written  forms  of  our  languaee :  thus  we  now  pro*' 
nounce  almondf  not  amond^  although  the  /  ought  never  tb  have 
Intruded  itself  among  the  component  letters.  In  proportion  as 
the  knowlege  of  foreign  languages  gains  ground,  a  more  distinct 
vowel  enunciation  is  cultivated,  and  we  no  longer  articulate  as 
rlumes,  beard'^erd,  bear d-^  bird,  absurd-^gourd.  Formerly, 
all  our  accentuation  was  accomplished  by  emphasis  alone: 
now  we  are  gradually  admitting  differences  of  quantity.  A 
habit  of  producing  the  sound  of  those  accented  vowels  whidi 
terminate  syllables,  and  of  attracting  by  prolongation  that  pre^ 
ference  of  attention  which  has  hitherto  been  secured  by  stress, 
has  travelled  from  the  theatre  to  the  church,  and  begins  to  be  ej(<- 
pected  in  solemn  recitation.  An  actor,  a  preacher,  a  barrister, 
a  demagogue,  of  popularity,  is  speedily  aped  by  the  lip  of 
fiashion;  and  his  example  suffices  to  naturalize  a  colony  of  new 

In  these  circumstances,  it  is  more  important  to  indicate 
those  general  rules  of  analogy  which  ought  to  subject  progres* 
sively  the  refractory  words,  fas  has  bcf n  done  by  Mr.  Nares,)' 
than  to  chronicle  those  casual  aberrations  from  them  of  which 
the  vocabularly  now  before  us  offers  a  catalogue.  We  have 
up  hesitation  in  preferring  acceptable^  ccmm  tidable^  co^ishtorjy 
tmvintkUf  dissyllable^  excavate^  &c.  to  the  cacophonous  and 
heteroclite  practice  here  recommended.    In  polysyllables,  our 

h  3  *      language 

142  A  Vocabulary  efdubuuslj  accented  Words* 

language  tends  very  strongly  to  the  antepenult  accent.  In 
like  manner  we  prefer  sounding  the  /  in  /j/rwj,  calm^  painty 
qualm,  to  the  inarticulate  vulgarity,  the  calfs  blatc  of  chose 
speakers,  who  drawl  out  their  aim^  cadniy  paam^  quaam,  as  if 
denied  the  power  of  Siounding  well  the  most  mellifluent  of  the 
liquid  letters.  Environs^  if  already  naturalized,  as  we  con- 
ceive it  to  be,  should  have  the  accent  on  the  first  syllable ;  if 
yet  an  alien,  it  should  be  expressed  in  our  author's  literal  nota- 
tion by  6ng-v<^-r6'ngz  :  the  same  remark  holds  good  respecting 
envelope.  In  short,  we  observe  every  where  more  of  caprice  than 
of  system  in  our  author's  decision.  The  cases  by  him  col- 
lected are  avowedly  all  pending  and  unsettled :  '  he  ought, 
then,  to  have  directed  us  towards  analogy,  derivation,  or  eu- 
phony ;  or  towards  an  imitation  of  the  orthography,  instead  of 
authorising  the  provincialism  sometimes  of  a  Cockney,  some- 
times of  a  Scot,  and  sometimes  of  an  Irishman,  without  stating 
any  adequate  motive  of  choice. 

The  letter  K  will  afford  a  sufficient  specimen. 

*  Hk  ;  hite  ;  b41I.  ^  Kt  ;^  b^ar ;  bcdr.    Fit ;  fight ;  field.    Nit  j 

n6te;  noftse.     But;  bush;  blue.    Lovc-1) ;  ly^c.    T'i&in;  this. 

•To  KEELHALE,   k^l-hal.  y.A.    IkceUnA  baU.-}     To  pu- 

nish  in  the  seaman's  way,  by  dragging  the  criminal  under  water  on 

one  side  of  the  ship  and  up  again  on  the  other. 

*  I  have  marked  this  word  like  Mr.  Sheridan  ;  Mr.  Walker,  though 
he  marks  it  k^^l'-h^le,  observes  aftenvard,  **  This  word  is  more  ge- 
nerally, and  more  properly,  pronounced  Keel-hawL^^  The  latter  is 
the  same  as  Mr.  Sheridan,  and  undoubtedly  the  best  usage.  See  To 

*  KEY,  kl.  [coey*  Sax.  J  An  instrument  formed  with  cavities 
correspondent  to  the  wards  of  a  lock  ;  an  instrument  by  which  some- 
thing is  screwed  or  turned  ;  an  explanation  of  any  thing  difficult ;  the 
parts  of  a  musical  instrument  which  are  struck  with  the  fingers ;  in 
musick,  is  a  certain  tone  whereto  every  composition,  whether  long  or 
short,  ought  to  be  fixed.  11.  A  bank  raised  perpendicular  for  the  case 
of  lading  and  unlading  ships.  .  ' 

*'  Now  tumM  adrift,  with  humbler  face. 
But  prouder  heart,  his  vacant  place 
Corruption  fills,  and  bears  the  key  ; 
No  entrance  now  without  a  fee."         Churchill. 

*  Mr.  Walker  pronounces  this  word  as  I  have  marked  it  above, 
whether  it  signifies  the  latter  or  the  former  sense.  Mr.  Shendaif 
sounds  It  the  same  when  it  means  the  former ;  but  when  the  latter  he 
marks  it  ki  ;  and  this  I  take  to  be  the  best  usage. 

*  KNOWLEDGE,  nol  -lidzh.  S.  [from  cnapan,  Saxon.]  Ccr- 
tain  perception ;  learning,  illumination  of  the  mind ;  skill  in  any 
thing  ;  acquaintance  with  any  feet  or  person  j  cognizance,  notice  ; 
information,  power  of  knowing.    '  ... 


ScfiiJIcrV  Don  Carr<fs::  ^f 

«If  rudeness  be  the  effect  of  iiM>w&3^/, .  .  .  » 
My  son  shall  never  see  a  college."  .  Svift. 
'  I  have  sounded  this  word  like  Mr.  Sheridan^  who  is  supported  bf 
Dr.  Ktnricky  Mr.  Nares,  and  Mr.  Scott.  Mr.  Walker  marks  it 
nU'-l^dge,  or  n6'-l^dje9  aod  observes,  that  scarcely  any  word  hat 
occasioned  tporc  altercation  among  verbal  critics, than  this.  He  seemi^ 
however,  to  favour  the  pronunciation  of  Mr.  Sheridan,  as  docs  also? 
Mr.  Perry,  who  gives  both  ways  of  sounding  it  likewise.  Mr.  W. 
Johnson,  and  Mr.  Buchanan  pronounce  it  n6  -Iddjc.^ 

Of  these  three  articles,  the  first  would  authorise  a  vicious 
spelling,  iak  for  iawly  which  last  is  most  convenient;  as  wei|^ 
on  account  of  the  sound,  as  in  order  to  distinguish  it  from. 
tale,  healthy.  The  second  erroneously  supposes  Churchill  to 
use  hy  for  quay,  a  wharf;  which  word  is  now  sounded  as  in^ 
French.  The  third  encourages  a  defective  and  negligent  pro*. 
Qunciation  of  the  short  e  as  if  it  were  a  short  /. 

Right  pronunciation  is  in  our  opinion  a  work  of  reason,  not 
Qf  instinct :  to  be  decided  in  questionable  cases  by  argument,, 
not  by  the  ear  even  of  an  orator.  Cicero,  however,  is  of  a 
contrary  sentiment;  and,  for  our  author's  consolation,  we  shall 
transcribe  his  opinion.  Et  tamen  omnium  longitudinum  ac  bre» 
vitatum  in  sonis  sicut  acutarum  graviumque  vocum  judicium  ipsa^ 
natura  in  auribus  nostris  collocavit.'-^Aures  enim,  v^l  animus  au* 
rium  nuntio  naturaUm  quondam  in  sc  contimt  vocum  onpnium  mcn^ 
sionem.     Orator.  $.51 — 53,  Vp9CT^ 

f^%T,  IV.  Don  Carlos y  Prince  Royal  of  Spain  :  an  Historical  Drama, 
from  the  German  of  Frederick  Schiller.  By  the  Translators  of 
Fiesco*.     8vo.     pp.327.     5s.  Boards.     Miller.    1798. 

Art.  V.  Don  Carlos ;  a  Tragedy.  Translated  from  the  German 
of  Frederick  Schiller.  870.  pp.  320.  5s.  5o.ards.  Richardson, 
^c.    1798. 

A  T  length  the  English  public  possesses  all  the  tragedies  of 
•"-  Schiller,  which  he  h^s  thought  it  proper  to  complete.  Iqi 
the  Robbers \ J  his  fqrce ;  in  Fie^coX^  ^^^  discrimination  and  range 
of  character;  in  Cabal  and  Love\\^  his  feeling;  and  in  i^^^ 
Carlos f  his  dramatic  art ;  -  are  excellently  displayed.  Twq 
translation^  of  ^he  lattejr  .into  English  now  demand  our  attenr 

Otway  has  written  a  tifagedy  in  rhime  on  the  story  of  Doa 

Carlos.     With  him  the  love, pf  the  Prince  for  his  step-mother 

'  "  ■       >■■?■■•  "  .  — 

♦  The  Preface  is  subscribe  by  G.  H.  Noehden  and  J.  Stoddi^rt," 

f  M.  Rev.  vol.  ix.  1^.  S.  p. '266.  X  xxii.  p.  20^ 

y  xxiv.  p.  150. 

is  made  the  point  of  interest.  Philip*!  jcabosf  df  hU  son,  Ir- 
ritated by  ffie  Princess  EboU,  from  motives  of  feminine  piquc^ 
induces  him  to  order  poison  to  be  administered  to  the  Quech^ 
and  the  veins  of  the  Prince  to  be  opened.  Their  innocence  is 
dis.covered  after  their  doom  is  become  irrevocable.  This  whole 
Ijicce  is  in  the  worst  style  of  Spanish  tragedy,  full  6f  the  chi- 
valrous and  extravagant  in  sentiment  and  incident,  and  worthier 
of  Cbfiieilie  than  Olway,  The  soliloquy  which  opens  the  fifth 
act  is  perhaps  the  best  speech  in  the  play, 
'  Sdiiller  has  chosen  to  concentrate  our  attention,  on  interests 
df  a  higher  order  than  the  fortunes  of  a  sentimental  passion^ 
<fr  thp  relentings  of  an  unkind  father.  By  connecting  with  the 
Existence  of  Don  Carlos  the  eventual  freedom  of  opinion  in  a 
vast  empire,  and  the  liberties  of  the  Netherlands,  he  has  given- 
Stki  importance  to  the  action  of  his  drama  which  had  hitherto 
seldom  been  attained  even  in  the  epopea.  ^W  his  characters 
have  a  colossal  dignity,  proportioned  to  the  grandeur  of  the  in«r 
tcrests  which  they  involve.  It  is  truly  an  heroic  drama,  an 
assemblage  of  no  common  men.  Other  dramatic  writers,  in 
treating  the  conspiracy  of  Venice,  or  the  death  of  Charles  I, 
had  been  content  to  seek  in  family  distress  and  individual  suf- 
fering for  the  more  prominent  touches  of  pathos,  which  wer^ 
fo  affect  their  auditors :  but  with  Schiller  the  saaifice  of  a  long 
xhibosomed  love,  and  the  hazard  of  an  exalted  friendship, 
f';'f  heart-probing  as  they  are,  w^re  to  form  but  secondary  and  sub- 
'  ordinate  sources  of  interest }  and  to  be  ornaments  only  of  the 
majestic  march  of  an  event,  of  which  the  catastrophe  makci 
tvery  friend  to  mankind  shudder. 

Of  the  characters  in  this  play,  the  newest,  the  most  peculiar, 
and  the  most  heroic,  is  that  ot  the  Marquis  Posa :  the  •  boast 
If  not  the  glory  of  th-  author.  It  is  a  fine  attempt  to  delineate 
the  enthusiast  of  human  emancipation,  the  patriot  of  the  world, 
the  disinterested  friend  of  mankind.  Conscious  of  the  taleut 
and  the  will  to  bless,  this  great  man  is  described  as  pursuing 
it'ith  undcviating  resolution  the  sacred  end  of  improving  the 
Condition  of  his  countrymen,  by  removing  every  barrier  to 
Jrecdom  of  sentiment,  aad  by  favouring  every  institution  that 
inzy  be  beneficent  to  the  people.  In  his  very  boyhood,  the  in* 
herent  ascendancy  of  his  worth  had  attracted  the^fricndship  of 
Don  Carlos:  but  his  philanthropy,  more  powerful  than  any 
individiial  affection,  never  forgets  in  his  young  companion  the 
future  sovereign,  but  studiously  engtaris  on  the  mind  of  the 
Prince  his  own  pure  i<iea  of  the  higheit  practicable  happiness 
of  i  nation.     Conscious,  from  the  beginning,  of  his  natural 

*  See  BHefe  ubn  Bon  Carlos. 


SclulIecV  Don  Carhn  145 

tuperiority,  Pota  is  the  reluctant  friend  ;  and  when  at  kngtb 
woo  to  the  acknowlegement  of  esteem  by  the  generosity  oC 
Carlos,  he  thinks  of  making  a  rctorn  only  in  public  services  : 
*  This  debt  will  I  tep2y  when  thou  art  king.'  Consulted  by 
the  Princt  about  the  interests  of  his  passion,  Posa  no  longer 
recognises  Us  Carlos,  the  pupil  of  his  tuition,  the  mirror  of  hit 
plans,  the  right-hand  of  his  intentions  : 

*  *  Msrqms.   In  these  words  I  do  not  trace  my  Carlos ;  I  do  t&t 
trace  the  noble  youth,  Who,  in  the  genera]  corruption,  alone  renuiiii'4 

Is  this  lie,  who  freed  insulted  humanity  from  the  gripe  of  priestcraft, 
from  dissembled  kingly  sanctity,  and  from  the  zedot  fury  of  a  super* 
stitious  nation  ? 

*  Carlos.  Speak  est  thou  of  me  ?  Mistaken  man !  I,  too,  once  pic* 
tured  to  myself  a  Carlos,  in  whose  cheek  the  very  name  of  fpeeaom* 
kindled  a  ready  flame.  But  he's  no  more ! — The  Carlos,  whom  thosr 
flcesti  ie  not  the  same,  who  hade  thee  adieu  at  Akala.  Nor,  he 
whose  youthful  holdness  whispered  him,  that  Spain  heneath  hii  sway 
might  emulate  the  paiadise  of  God.  Oh  !  vain,  indeed,  were  such 
ideas  !— Yet  they  were  lovely — but  the  dream  is  fled ! 

•  Marquis.   The  dream,  Prince !  And  was  it  but  a  dream  ?* 

He  is  alarmed  rather  for  the  expected  benefactor  of  hit 
countrymen,  than  for  the  suffering  friend ;  and  when  he  hat 
heard  the  confession  of  this  dangerous  passion  for  the  wife  of 
Philip,  he  seems  rather  intent  on  increasing  by  means  of  it  hit 
influence  orer  the  Prince,  than  on  weaning  him  from  so  pre« 
posterous  a  pursuit.  This  facility  is  almost  unnatural ;  parti« 
cularly  as  tlie  Marquis  does  not  appear  to  be  in  possession  of 
Sufficient  grounds  for  believing  that  the  Queen  would  aasiit 
him  in  the  best  possible  direction  of  the  passions  of  Carlos^ 
and  as  his  self-command  and  judgment  so  habitually  outweigb 
the  inclinations  of  his  aflRsction,  that,  when  the  Prince  asks 
*  What  could  force  thee  from  my  heart,  if  woman  could  not^ 
Posa  calmly  answers,  *I  could  myself.'  This  superiority  tQ 
his  friendship,  this  exclusive  value  for  those  qualities  of  Carlot 
which  are  the  concern  of  the  world,  thus  again  breaks  out : 

'  Oh  !  what  ideas  must  I  now  resign  !  Yet,  once— once  tt 
otherwise.  Once  thy  heart  was  warm  and  hountcous  ;  it  could  cm 
brace  a  world.  But  that  is  past,  'tis  swallowed  up  in  one  poof 
elfish  passion,  and  all  thy  feehngs  are  extinct.  No  tear  hast  thoii 
for  the  uriiappy  fate  of  a  whole  suffering  people.  No,  not  a  tear*-— 
O  Carlos,  how  popr,  bpw  beggarly  art  thou  become,  by  loving  no 
#ne  but  thyself!' 

■Jl!         ■     L    lU    ■■—■■■■-'■■        "  ■  -     ■   ■     ^     ^  ■■  ■  ,  »  In 

^  Wc  quote  from  the  tijMisbitioa  printed  /or  MJUer. 


TA6  Schil/cVV  DopI  Carlos.* 

The  republican  spirit  of  Pdsa  becomes  more  than  ever  ap* 
parent  in  the  very  fine  scene  of  the  third  act,  in  which  he  is 
introduced  at  court,  and  assails  the  monarch's  ear  with  the 
novel  language  of  courageous  and  enthusiastic  virtue. 

In  the  subsequent  interviews  with  the  Queen,  with  Don 
Carlos,  and  with  the  King,  Posa  evidently  shews  himself  ca- 
pable of  trampling  with  ruthless  despotism  on  the  safety  even 
df  his  friend,  if  the  great  interests  of  humanity  were  in  his 
apprehension  to  require  the  sacrifice.  This  is  not  a  pleasing 
trait  in  his  character :  but  it  is  a  trait  very  common  in  those 
men, .  who  have  attained  a  disinterested  love  of  specific  re- 
formations. Such  persons  are  often  found  to  hazard  their 
own  lives,  and  those  of  others,  for  the  chance  of  realiz- 
ing the  speculations  of  their  philanthropy.  Where  personal 
advancement  or  personal  reputation  is  the  object  of  public  con- 
duct, a  thousand  personal  considerations  influence  and  restrain 
the  actions :  but  where  the  attainment  of  some  useful  innova- 
tion is  itself  the  ruling  principle,  the  importance  of  individuals 
is  of  very  different  weight  in  the  baLince.  Imaginations  again, 
vhich  are  familiar  with  sublime  schepies  and  lofty  ideas  of 
human  perfection,  are  thereby  predisposed  to  rccnr  to  roman- 
tic and  heroic  remedies  in  difficulty.  These  exalted  characters 
more  often  seek  to  cut  than  to  untie  the  Gordian  knot  of  ob- 
stacle, which  obstructs  their  speedy  conquest  of  the  terrestrial 
paradise  which  they  have  projected.  Their  impatience  pf  de- 
lay is  proportioned  to  the  beauty,  and  their  impatience  of  con- 
tradiction is  proportioned  to  the  deliberation,  with  which  their 
plans  have  been  shapen.  It  is  at  least  in  some  such  way  that 
we  must  endeavour  to  account  for  the  desperate  conduct  of 
Posa  in  arresting  the  Prince ;  and  especially  in  drawing  a 
dagger  agaijist  the  Princess  EboH.  ^  A  woman's  life  (says  he) 
against  the  destiny  of  Spain  !  This  blow,  O  God,  Til  justify 
before  thy  judgment-seat.*  The  enthusiast  only  reasons  thus. 
When,  after  some  reflection,  he  calls  out  *  'T would  be  as 
cowardly  as  barbarous,'  this  is  less  from  moral  taste  or  fron^ 
any  qualm  of  conscience,  than  because  he  has  discovered  that 
•  there  is  another  way.'  He  would  not  bayc  he3itatc4  abpu( 
accomplishing  his  end  at  any  price. 

This  rash  but  fine  fanaticism  of  Posa  breaks  out  in  all  it5 
lustre  through  the  j^lowing  and  harrowing  dialogue  with  the 
Queen ;  when  he  finds  that  he  has  missed  his  ajm,  and  cax^ 
only  bequeath  a  farewell  counsel  to  the  friend  of  his  hopes : 

*  Mnrnuis,  I  have  yt  t  one  thing  to  communicate  to  him.  1^  your 
Kinds  J  -deposit  it. — My  lot  was  such  as  few  possess.  I  loved  a 
.monarch's  son.  In  thnr  one  object  my  heart  embraced  the  world.  I 
IbrmM  in  CarTufc'  soul  a  paradise  for  millions.     O  lovely  thought  1 


Schiller^/  Don  Carhf,  t^y 

'But  it  has  pleased  eternal  Wisdom  to  call  me  from  my  beauteoui 
5vork — Rodrigo  soon  will  be  no  more  :  and  all  the  rights  of  friend* 
ship  will  be  transferred  to  love.  Here,  therefore,  here,  upon  thk 
holy  altar,  upon  the  heart  of  his  dear  sovereign,  do  I  place  my  last 
bequest.  Here  let  him  find  it,  when  I  am  no  more.  (He  turns  avugf 
— ^Zf  voice  choaked  with  grief, ) 

*  ^een.  These  are  the  accents  of  a  dying  man — ^They  surely  flo# 
only  from  agitated  feelings — Yet,  if  they  have  indeed  a  meaning . 

*  Marquis.  (Having  endeavoured  to  collect  himself  continues  in  a 
firmer  tone.) — Oh!    tell  him  to  be  mindful  of  the  oath,  which  in  our 

young  cnthusiatic  days  we  swore,  when  on  the  high  altar  we  broke 
betwixt  us  the  consecrated  wafer.     I  have  accomplished  mine,  hare 

jremain'd  faithful,  even  to  death — Let  him  remember  his 

«  ^en.    To  death  ! 

*  Marquis.  O  bid  him  realise  the  vision — the  glowing  vision  whicli 
friendship  pictured  of  a  perfect  state.  Bid  Ukn  with  a  daring  hand 
essay  to  sculpture  the  yet  unshapen  marble.  Bid  him  attempt  it^ 
though  he  fail — For  centuries  shall  pass,  ere  Providence  again  wiU 
seat  upon  a  throne  a  prince  like  him — will  animate  again  a  favoured 
son  with  such  a  godlilcc  spirit.  Bid  him,  in  manhood,  cherish  those 
virtuous  dreams  of  youth.  Let  not  the  canker  of  boasted  policy 
corrode  the  blossom  of  this  heavenly  flower :  nor  let  the  wisdom  of 
the  dust  contend  against  the  inspiration  of  the  Almighty. 

*  ^ueen*   How,  Marquis!  whither  tend  these  words  ? 

*  Marquis.  Tell  him,  that  I  lay  upon  his  soul  the  happiness  of  mil- 
lions ;  that  dying,  I  demand  it  of  him — and  I  am  well  entitled  to  de- 
mand it.  I  might  have  risen  like  the  god  of  day,  and  beam'd  ncsr 
ipoming  light  upon  this  empire.  Philip  had  open'd  to  me  all  hia 
heart  He  call'd  me  son.  He  bade  me  bear  his  seal — and  Alva's 
power  was  no  more.  (He  stopsy  and  hois  for  a  few  moments  at  the 
^ueen^  in  silence.)  You  weep — Oh  !  these  arc  tearsof  joy— But  it  is 
past ;  the  glorious  prospect's  past  I  yielded  it  to  Carlos.  Sudden' 
and  awful  was  the  resolution.  One  of  us  must  perish  ;  and  I  will  bc 
that  one.     Seek  to  know  no  more.* 

In  this  last  speech,  again,  we  Hnd  that  Posa  had  deliberated, 
about  sacrificing  Carlos  altogether: — about  immediately  accpm* 
plishingy  by  means  of  Philip,  many  of  his  useful  ends^-^  and 
that  be  had  dismissed  this  idea,  not  so  much  out  of  friendship 
to  Carlos,  as  because  he  considered  that  the  surer  course  was 
to  rely  on  the  Prince.  He  almost  doubts  the  alfowableness  oij 
bis  delay.  *  Woe  to  us  both  if  I  have  chosen  wrong  — if  I  ha?c 
opposed  the  will  of  Providence  in  yielding  to  him  the  throne.' 
When,  therefore,  at  last,  Posa  thinks  that  he  has  obtained,  bjT 
the  sacrifice  of  his  own  life,  the  independence  of  Don  Carlos 
and  his  departure  for  the  Netherlands^  he  acquires  the  self* 
sufBcieiit  exultation  of  a  martyr.  Careless  of  reputation,  his 
last  act  has  been  to  charge  himself  with  an  exceptionable  pas* 
sion  for  the  Queen.  His  last  commands  to  Carlos  are :  *  Re- 
ferye  thyself  for  Flanders.  Upon  thy  life  depends  the  fate  of 
:  •  .  nations. 

t48    Comte  de  Fouchcconr*/  French  Translation  of  Rasselas. 

pations.  My  duty  is  to  die  for  thee/  It  is  not  the  Orcstai 
offering  his  own  life  to  save  that  oi  his  friend  :  but  the  phi* 
hnthropei  who  claims  the  survival  of  that  individual  to  whom 
circumstances  intrust  the  highest  powers  of  utility.  It  is  ever 
die  enthusiast  conscious  of  the  immeasurable  ralue  of  his  lofty 
iriews,  and  desirous  of  dying  for  them  in  such  circumstances 
as  may  most  contribute  to  secure  the  trust  of  their  rcraJizition. 
Jt  is  not  Pythias  marching  to  execution  for  Damon  \  it  is  Ly« 
eurgus,  after  having  exacted  the  oath  to  keep  sacred  his  laws 
lintU  his  return,  burying  himself  in  the  sea  at  a  distance  from 
Sparta,  in  order  to  impress  their  lasting  obligation 

Of  the  other  characters,  none  seem  to  rei|uire  analysis  ;  be- 
cause none  are  liable  to  misconception.  Don  Carlos,  Philip, 
Alva,  even  Lerma,  and  the  Grand  Inquisitor,  are  each  in  their 
#ay  masterly  drawings.  Thv  female  characters,  as  is  usual 
with  Schiller,  are  less  successful ;  especially  the  Princess  Ebpii^ 
whose  episodical  love  for  Carlos  occupies  a  displeasing  extent*. 
In  the  first  half  of  the  piece,  the  reader  is  not  enough  prepared 
for  an  interest  so  wholly  of  the  political  kind,  as  that  which 
ultimately  absorbs  every  other. 

In  our  opinion,  considering  the  elevated  cast  of  this  tragedy, 
the  blank  verse  of  the  original  has  been  unwisely  exchanged 
for  prose.  The  translators  of  Fiesco  have  preserved,  we  thixik^ 
'in  a  greater  degree,  the  peculiarities  of  the  original  and  the  taste 
of  the  soil,  than  is  accomplished  in  the  more  polished,  more 
English,  Rvore  frte,  and  more  castrated  work  of  die  rival 

This  tragedy  was  first  published  at  a  time  when  a  leader  of 
ihe  British  opposition  appeared  to  enjoy  the  friendship' of  the 
heir  apparent  \  and  it  was  supposed,  on  the  continent,  to  con* 
tain  many  portraits  from  the  life.  f*T 

JBlxt.  VI.  RaiselcUi  Prince  d^Abuitnte.  Roman  tfaditii  de  Pjfnghh 
fk  Dr.  Johnson.  Rassclas,  Prince  of  Abyssinia,  a  Novel,  translated 
frwn  the  English  of  Johnson,  by  the  Comic  dc  Fouchecour.  T2mo» 
pp.  317.     With  Plates.     4s.  Boards.     Lackington.     1798* 

^  HE  language  of  France  is  probably  ilL-adapted  for  transla* 
^  tion.  It  wants  plasticity,  and  cannot  easily  adopt  the 
idioms,  the  metres,  or  the  bolder  turns  of  phrase,  in  use  among 
Other  nations.  There  is  l^ss  variety  of  style  in  French  than  in 
any  cultivated  language.  Homer,  Tasso,  Qssian  *,  all  assume 
the  same  form  as  the  Telemaque  of  Fenelon,  and  the  Iiica« 

*  If  the  reader  should  scruple  to  admit  the  name  of  Ossiaii)  he  ii 
ycloome  to  make  use  of  that  of  Macphersoiu 

5  of 

Gomte  de  FotLchecour'/  Frtnch  Tramlation  rfRasselas^   149 

irf  Marmontel.  This  usual  dress  is  however  veil-suited  to 
the  Rassehs  of  Johnson  ;  which  was  originally  composed  in 
^ttinulant  and  impressive  prose,  in  an  eloquent  and  almost  ori- 
ental vein  of  narrative,  in  a  gorgeous  and  pompous  diction,  witll 
a  formal  rhythm  of  arrangement,  and  a  swelling  solemnity  of 
period.  Its  phrases  strut  in  the  trappings  of  metaphor,  and 
|ronounce  every  sentiment  with  oracular  significance.  It  pre^ 
'  ters  grandeur  to  propriety,  and  resembles  the  colossal  garden  ia 
which  its  hero  is  confined,  where  elephants  repose  beneath  cen- 
tennial palms,  and  the  massy  gates  of  entrance  are  unfolded 
only  by  an  engine.  It  has  accordingly  been  not  unsuccessfully 
rendered  by  the  Comte  de  Fouchecour,  as  an  extract  will  con- 
vince the  reader ;  although  we  doubt  the  perpetual  purity  of  hi^ 
dialect,  and  fancy  that  we  can  detect  some  latent  anglicisms*   . 

*  Unjour  RasuUu  fui  »c  croyoU  aul^  ayantjixe  les  ytux  sur  des  ekev^ 
us  fui  hrmttoieni  pamu  les  roc  hers  ^  eompara  leur  condition  awe  la  sieone* 

*  Em  cucif  Mt'Uf  les  homwus  Sfferent-Us  done  du  reste  des  ammaux  9 
iotties  les  betes  out  errent  a  mes  eotes  ont  les  memes  hesoins  corporels  que  moi^ 
menu.  Ont'elles  /aim  ?  elks  sofit  an  nuSeu  des  pdturages  :  ont-elUs  soiff 
iUa  hhoeni  teau  d*un  clair  ruisseau*  Leur /aim  et  leut  soi/ sont^ellet 
^ffastees  t  zlles  sont  satisfaites  et  dorment  en  faix.  Le  hetmn  se  fak'U 
senhr  de  nouveau  a  leur  reveil?  eUes  se  repmsseni  encore  et  se  reposenK 
C9mme  eUes^j^mfaim  et  soif;  mats  quandfai  M  et  mange^je  n^ai  pas  Jk 
fspos*  Je  leur  ressemble  par  mes  iesoinsf  mats  je  ne  sms  pas  comme  eUm 
taiisfmttfuandje  stas  rasicuie*  Les  heures  aui  s^ecoultnt  entre  ma  repa^ 
swt  semes  d'ennms  et  de  tristesse.  Alorsje  desire  de  aouveau  d'eproxvar 
la  faimf  pottr  donner  une  nouvelle  activite  a  mon  attention.  Les  oiseawf 
Ucgnetetft  Us  plains  de  bled  dans  les  champs y  et  vite  ils  s*envolent  au  tmlUm 
des  boisf  o«  us  seperchent  sur  les  branches  des  arhres  et  baroissent  hcureux^ 
lis  peusent  tonte  leur  vie  a  moduUr  les  menus  airsy  et  toujours  avec  la  meme 
sippareme  de  satisfaction,  II  at  vrai  que  je  puis  aussi  me  procurer  dea 
toneerts  ;  wusis  les  chants  qui  meplmsoient  le  plus  hier,  m*ennuyent  aujoord* 
^,  et  me  dephdront  encore  d*avantage  demain,  II  me  semble  queftprouve 
t^ifei  les  sensations  de  plaisir  doni  mon  etre  est  capable^  et  cependantje  $st 
me  troane  pas  heureux.  Certes  il  y  a  dans  Vhomme  quelque  sens  cacbe^ 
four  qui  ee  sejour  n*a  point  dejomssaace  ;  ou  quelques  desirs  distinguts  dt$ 
sens  qui  doivent  etre  satisfaits^  avant  qu'ilpvisse  gouter  le  bonheur, 

*  ji  ces  mots  il  leva  la  tete  ;  et  voyant  la  lune  qui  commencoit  a  paroUre^ 
Uretourna  vers  le  palais.  En  passant  a  t ravers  les  chambs^  et  n^apper* 
tevant  suttour  de  lui  yfse  des  anhnaux  ;  vous  etes  heureux^  leur  ditAU  ^  a^ 
deve%  pas  n^envter  la  promenade^  que  je  fats  au  milieu  de  vous  charge  dk' 
foids  de  mus  etmuis  ;  et  mosje  n^envie  point  non  plus  votre/elicite^  ear  eUe 
Sliest  pat  celle  de  Phomme.  J^ai  bien  des  miser es  dont  vous  etes  eiffranchis. 
Sije  a^ai  pas  de  peines  actuelles^  j*en  eprouve  la  crainte,  Jefaissoniu  att 
{ouvenir  des  maux  passes^  ainsi  qu'a  I* idee  de  ccux  qui  me  sont  riservei. 
Surement  la  Providence  toujours  juste  et  toujours  equitable^  compense  les 

'  souffr antes  de  la  vie  par  de  certaines  jovissances. 

*  Le  Prince  en  revenant  s*amusoit  par  ces  qbservaiionsf  en  les  pronon* 
font  d^wue  voix  plaint tve^  mats  d^un  air  c ^pendant  qid  laissoit  enirevoir  la 


I  JO  PalmcrV  TnatUe  on  Heliographj^ 

imi^hdsdnct  ittteruare,  qu'il  irouvoh  dam  sa  propre  penetrailMf  et 
tapece  d*adouclssement  aux  mueres  dc  la  mty  qui  rhulloU  pour  lot  dc 
la  deTtcatesie  de  sa  sou  it  Hit  e  et  de  Ve'oquence  de  ses  plaintes,  II  te  nula 
gaiement  aux  platsirs  du  loir,  tout  rcjoui  de  trouver  son  caur  soula^eJ 

The  press  has  been  carelessly  corrected  ;  many  superfluous 
capital  letters  having  been  retained.  The  plates  art  not  ex« 
edleau  rjt 

Aiif .  VII.  j1  treatise  on  the  sulVwie  Science  of  HeTiography^  satis^ 
factorfly  demonstrating  our  great  Orb  of  Light,  the  Sun,  to  be 
absolutely  no  other  than  a  Body  of  Ice  !  Overturning  all  the  rc» 
ceived  Systems  of  the  Universe  hitherto  extant ;  proving  the  cele- 
brated and  indefatigable  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  in  his  Theory  of  the 
Solar  System,  to  be  as'  far  distant  from  the  Truth,  as  any  of  the 
Heathen  Authors  of  Greece  or  Rome.  By  Charles  Palmer,  Gent. 
8vo.    pp.  42.     3s.    Ginger,  &c. 

LORD  Bacon,  in  his  Novum  Organum^   mentions  how  liable 
to  error  the  popular  opinion  is  in  matters  of  philosophy. 

Many  opinions  have  been  formed  concerning  tlic  Sun,  which 
philosophers  have  sometimes  ridiculed,  and  sometimes  seri* 
ously  refuted.  To  shew  the  absurdity  and  ignorance  of  past 
ages,  they  quote  the  Poet  asserting  that  the  Sun  might  be  heard 
to  hiss  as  he  descended  into  the  western  ocean  ;  and  poor  Anaxa* 
goras,  condemned  to  death  by  the  people  for  asserting  that  the 
Sun  was  bigger  than  the  Peloponnesus.  The  people,  however, 
arc  now  more  enlightened  and  tolerant ;  they  even  suffer  to  live 
quietly  a  philosopher  *,  who  has  attempted  to  prove  that  the 
Sun  is  not  a  luminous  and  igneous  but  an  opaque. body : — but 
what  will  they  say  to  the  present  authpr,  who  out- Herod's 
Herod ;  and  resolving  not  to  be  outgone  in  paradox  by  any  of 
the  philosophers,  not  only  denies  that  the  Sun  is  a  body  of  fire, 
but  asserts  it  to  be  a  body  of  ice!!!  'biihtl  tarn  ahsurdum  «c» 
cogitari  potesty  quod  dictum  non  jrt  ah  aliqt40  philosophorum. 

Well !  if  philosophy  reasons  the  Sun  out  of  the  universe,  we 
hope  that  we  shall  nevertheless  receive  our  usual  remittances 
of  light  and  heat. 

Mr.  Palmer  excludes  from  the  common  number  of  the  ele- 
ments, one ;  because,  says  he.  Nature  is  in  all  her  ways  tri- 
tne  ; — ihe  Sun,  according  to  him,  cannot  be  the  cause  of  lighti 
for  Moses  relates  that  there  was  light  in  the  first  moment  of 
creation,  whereas  the  Sun  was  not  made  till  the  fourth  day  :— 
the  Sun  is  called  *  the  organic  rotatory  of  the  Deity,'  *  the  spc^ 
culum  of  ethereal  delegation,'  and  is  *a  medium  to  reduce,  the 

*  Dr.  HcrscheU. 


BrownV  Oisfrvatifins  on  'D2Twin*Si2^9nomku  1 5 1 

rays  of  light  to  an  acceptation  of  the  optic  perception  of  men 
and  animals  in  this  transitory  world/  According  to  our  au- 
thor, the  Apostle  made  a  tridy  philosophical  allusion,  when  tfc 
said,  "  Now  wc  see  through  a  glass  darkly."  What  led  tQ 
the  important  discovery  of  the  Sun  being  ice  is  thus  related : 

*  The  first  thought  I  had  of  the  Sun  being  a  body  of  ice  was  from 
experiments  in  natural  philosophy  with  a  convex  glass,  commonly 
called  a  burning  glass ;  I  prepared  tobacco  as  combustible  matter^ 
then  the  glass  receiving  the  rays  of  the  Sun,  collected  the  heat  of  the 
floating  atoms  of  the  radius  and  refracted  that  heat  to  the  focus, 
where  by  the  friction  of  those  rays  they  set  the  combustible  matter 
on  fire ;  or  in  other  words  on  atomatical  agitation ,  for  friction  al« 
ways  produces  fire. 

<  It  a  lump  of  ice  could  be  placed  so  as  to  receive  the  rays  of  Kgbt 
from  the  sun,  it  would  act  the  very  same  as  the  glass. 

*  If  we  admit  that  the  Sun  could  be  removed,  and  a  terrestrial 
body  of  ice  placed  in  its  stead,  it  would  produce  the  same  effect. 

*  The  Sun  is  a  crystalline  body  receiving  the  radiance  of  God,  aQ4 
operates  on  this  earth  in  a  similar  manner  as  the  light  of  the  Sun  dotfg 
when  applied  to  a  convex  miiTor,  or  glass,  reflecting  the  heat  of  the 
Earth  to  itself,  which  we  feel  more  especially  when  under  the  influ- 
ence of  its  focus,  increasing  in  proportion  the  more  or  less  it  is  situ- 
ated from  the  horizon. — The  summer  more  intense — the  winter  lets 
fo. — Its  effect  will  be  described  in  the  folIowin;j  section.* 


Mn  P.  very  candidly  allows  Sir  Isaac  Newton  to  have  been 
a  great  man :  but  he  was  engaged,  he  says,  *  very  deeply  and 
assiduously  in  a  bad  cause'!!! 

Art*  VIII.  Observations  on  the  Zoonomta  of  Erasmus  Darwin^  M.  D. 
By  Thomas  Brown,  Es^q..  (Edinburgh.)  8vo.  pp.  560.  8s. 
l^oards.    Johnson,  &c.     1798. 

IN  the  present  state  of  medical  knowlege,  it  could  not  be  ex-^ 
pccted  that  the  daring  efforts  of  the  author  of  Zoonomia, 
in  attempting  to  reduce  to  a  permanent  arrangement  the  im- 
mense chaotic  mass  of  physiological  and  pathological  facts, 
should  be  marked  with  no  controversy,  ai;d  disputed  by  no 
rivaL  "We  are,  therefore,  less  surprised  that  a  book,  which 
professed  to  change  the  opinions  of  the  medical  world  on  80 
many  important  subjects,  should  be  opposed,  tlian  to  find  that 
Mr.  Brown  is  the  first  formidable  antagonist  whom  the 
novelty  of  Dr.  Darwin's  theories  has  provoked.  He  has  ca* 
tcrcd  on  this  investigation,  however,  with  all  the  respect  duo 
toriie  great  talents  and  extensive  knowlege  of  the  author  whom 
he  criticises;  and  whatever  may  have  been  our  partiality  to 
the  beautiful  fabric  wliich  he  attempts  to  overthrow,  wc  must 
1 3  consider 

%fl         BrolmV  Oirtrmitmr  on  DarwinV  7io$nmia. 

consider  him  as  a  champion  worthy  of  being  admitted  to  the 

For  the  investigation  of  the  Zoonomia,  a  degree  of  meta«- 
'physical  kno\i^lege  is  requisite,  which  is  not  often  possessed  b|r 
medical  men,  and  in  which  the  present  author  displays  un- 
'common  proficiency.  If  he  be  inferior  to  Dr.  Darwin  in  bril- 
Sancy  of  imaginationi  or  in  elegance  of  expression,  he  ex« 
^hibits  much  logical  acuteness  and  general  information ;  and 
though  an  unsparing,  he  appears  to  be  always  an  honourable 
and  candid  antagonist.     The  metaphysical  part  of  the  Zoono- 

fiia  forms,  indeed,  the  principal  object  of  his  attack ;  he  con- 
nes  himself  to  an  examination  of  the  first  volume  \  and  we 
jihouid  suspect,  from  various  passages,  that  he  has  studied 
medicine  only  as  a  branch  of  general  science. 

We  shall  extract,  from  the  preface,  his  observations  on  the 
^nature  of  system ;  they  will  arrest  the  attention  of  every  intelli- 
gent reader : 

«  To  philosophize  is  nothing  more,  than  to  rcetater  the  appear- 
anoes  of  nature,  and  to  mark  those,  which  each  is  accustomed  to 
succeed  ;  ami,  though  we  have  words,  which  seem  to  express  causa- 
;|jon,  we  shall  find,  if  we  examine  the  ideas  signiHed,  that  they  merely- 
state  the  existence  of  a  change.  W^  say,  that  a  body  h  moved,  by  im* 
pulse,  bygravity,  bychcmicalaffinity ;  but  we  only  state  the  fact  of  mo- 
tion, in  different  circumstances.  While  we  confine  ourselves  to  the  order 
^f  auccession  of  observed  changes,  no  evil  can  result  from  systems;  but^ 
if,  between  observed  changes,  w^e  suppose  another,  we  do  n^t  ren- 
der the  production  of  the  last  cliange  more  explicable  :  we  only  add 
to  it  another  inexplicable  change.  When  Newton  applied  to  plane- 
tary motion  the  principle,  by  which  bodies  fall  to  the  ground,  he  did 
not  form  an  hypothesis ;  because  he  did  not  attempt  to  explain  the 
cause  of  the  motion,  in  either  case.  He  merely  stated  a  known  fact» 
and  placed  out  of  view  the  hypotheses,  that  had  obscured  it.  A 
^body  falls  to  the  ground :  to  this  we  give  the  name  of  grivitation. 
The  curvilinear  direction  of  the  planets  shews  them  to  be  acted  upon^ 
by  different  forces,  by  one  of  which  alone,  they  would  fall  to  the  sun. 
This  effect  being,  in  no  respect,  different  from  the  fall  of  bodies,  on 
our  earth,  the  same  is  given  to  it.  In  this,  there  is  no  hypothesis. 
We  do  not  consider  the  fall  of  bodies,  on  the  earth,  as  the  cause,  by 
which  planets  arc  retained,  in  their  orbits  :  v^-c  ire  merely  led  by  the 
•ne,  to  observe  the  other,  and  register  them,  as  similar  appearances.' 

It  is,  however,  impossible,  without  altering  the  whole  struc- 
ture of  language,  to  carry  on  the  affairs  of  life,  or  even  to 
write  a  philosophical  book,  without  employing  the  hypothesis 
'  of  the  connection  between  cause  and  effect.  The  author 
himself,  in  the  course  of  his  work,  is  compelled,  on  many 
occasions,  to  use  those  terms  according  to  their  common  ac- 


Brown'/  Observations  $n  DarwmV  Zoonomia*  153 . 

Mr.  B/s  application  of  the  principles  of  Berkeley  and  Hume, 
to  the  doctrines  of  the  Zoonomia,  gives  him  a  great  advantage 
,  over  Dr.  Darwin  ;  who  had,  perhaps,  conceded  in  appearance 
what  a  rigorous  adhesion  to  his  system  must  take  away  in 
cfftct.  We  allude  to  his  distinction  between  spirit  and  matter, 
which  stands  at  the  head  of  his  book,  but  is  never  brought 
ioto  action  in  the  subsequent  part  of  his  theory.  On  this  sub- 
ject, Mr.  Brown  has  made  some  important  remarks,  which 
our  readers  will  be  pleased  to  see. 

*  The  systems  of  matenalism  chiefly  owe  their  rise  to  the  groutidlesi 
belief,  that  we  are  acquainted  with  the  nature  of  causation.  In  the 
external  world,  we  merely  know  a  change  of  position.  Oxygene, 
hvdrogene,  and  caloric  exist :  they  change  their  place :  water  exists, 
when  one  of  the  ingredients  of  a  compound  substance  is  added  to  the 
others,  we  term  it  the  cause  of  the  compound  ;  because,  when  it  is 
added,  the  compound  exists.  Thus,  evaporation^  we  say,  is  caused 
by  heat ;  because,  when  a  certain  quantity  of  the  matter  of  heat  is 
added  to  water,  vapour  exists.  In  like  manacr,  when  one  of  the  in- 
gredients is  withdrawn,  we^ consider  this  privation,  as  the  cause  of 
the  remaining  compound.  Thus,  we  say :  rain  is  occasioned  by  cold* 
Whenever,  therefore,  we  observe  addition,  or  subtraction,  we  think, 
that  we  have  discovered  a  cause ;  and,  to  observe  addition,  or  suK- 
tractioo,  it  is  necessary,  that  we  know,  not  merely  a  single  change, 
but  a  series  of  changes.     Thus,  were  it  possible  for  us,  to  sec  oxy- 

Ce,  and  hydrogene,  alone,  and  water  instantly  formed,  without 
iwing  the  existence  of  caloric,  the  change  would  appear  inexpli- 
cable ;  but  the  mystery  would  vanish,  if  the  addition  of  caloric,  the 
intervening  change,  were  pointed  out.  As  the  material  phenomena 
attract  our  chief  attention,  and  as,  in  them,  we  are  able  to  trace  a 
series  of  additions,  or  subtractions,  which  we  are  erroneously  accus- 
tomed to  consider,  as  a  series  of  causes,  we  endeavour,  m  every 
change,  to  find  something  intervening.  But,  in  perception,  there  is 
no  addition,  nor  subtraction  :  light  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  sensa- 
tion of  vision,  nor  ah*  in  the  sensation  of  sound  :  nothing  intervenes. 
But  causation  means  the  intervention  of  something  ;  and,  therefore, 
as  nature  does  not  present  a  series  of  changes,  we  invent  one.  A 
subtile  fluid  is  best  adapted  to  quick  changes  ;  and  we  accordingly  re- 
solve perception,  into  vibrations,  or  vibratiuncles,  or  direct  motion. 

*  Had  we  been  accustomed,  to  consider  phenomena,  as  a  series  of 
changeif  rather  thztk<if  effects 9  it  is  probable,  that  no  system  of  mate- 
rialism would  have  been  formed.  We  shcnild  then  have  known,  that 
all  changes  are  equally  inexplicable,  and  that  the  philosopher,  who 
traces  a  series,  where  we  supposed  a  single  change,  only  adds  to  the 
multitude  of  fa^l?,^  of  which  human  ability  will  never  be  able,  to  dis- 
cover the  connection.     The  *  mentalist  allows,  that  he  it  ignorant  of 

_; th^ 

*  •  Terms,  merely  negative,  as  tliat  of  immaterialist,  arc  often  con- 
venient in  philosophy,  being  n  shorter  mod:;  of  expressing  those,  who, 
though  of  different  opinions,  in  other  respects,  agree,  in  denying  a 

Rev.  JuNt,  1799.  J^  particular 

154  Browrfi  Observations  on  DarwinV  Zoonomla* 

the  mode,  in  which  the  sensation  of  vision  is  induced  ;  but  the  ra- 
tional materiah'st  must,  in  like  manner,  allow,  that  he  is  ignorant  of 
the  mode,  in  which  thelirst  vibration  of  the  vital  fluid  is  excited  by 
the  action  of  light.  What,  then,  have  we  gained  from  the  labour, 
and  ingenuity.  Tie  has  employed,  in  constructing  his  hypotKesis,  and 
adapting  it  to  all  the  phenomena  of  life  ?  We  think,  that  we  have 
gained  much*.  The  phenomena  of  life  are  not,  indeed,  rendered  ex- 
plicable :  the  number  of  inexplicable  changes  is,  on  the  contrary,  in- 
creased. But,  though  the  real  mystcr)-  be  the  same,  the  apparent 
mystery  is  less,  by  being  divided.  It  is  in  physics,  as  in  moral  sen- 
timent. We  think  less  of  the  crimes  of  Domitian  ;  because  there 
were  a  Nero,  and  a  Caligula.  For  a  solitary  sufferer  in  an  earth- 
quake, our  pity  is  strongly  roused  :  but  a  whole  city  is  laid  waste  by 
it  ;  and,  because  innumerable  tears  are  shed,  our  own  do  not  fall. 
In  like  manner,  in  materialism,  if  there  were  only  a  single  affection 
of  the  percipient  fluid,  we  should  feel  ourselves,  as  ignorant  of  causa- 
tion, as  the  mentallst.  But  there  is  a  series  of  affections.  The  fluid 
vibrates,  from  side  to  side,  orbits  particles  move,  in  a  straight  line  ; 
and  we  think,  tliat  we  know  more,  because  there  is  more,  of  which 
we  are  Ignorant. 

*  That  there  exists  a  sentient  principle,  the  materialist,  and  the 
mcntalist  agree  :  that  our  ideas,  emotions,  desires,  arc  modes  of  this 
sentient  principle,  they  also  agree.  In  what,  then,  do  they  differ  ? 
Simply  in  this.  The  mentallst  acknowlegcs,  that  he  is  ignorant  of 
the  nature  of  that,  which  causes  his  ideas,  and  that,  hence,  the  pro- 
position, which  states  the  sentient  principle  to  be  the  same,  in  na- 
ture, as  that,  which  causes  its  changes,  is  to  him  unintelligible. 
The  materialist,  on  the  contrary,  mamtains,  that  he  is  conscious, 
not  merely  of  ideas,  but  of  the  nature  of  that,  which  causes  his 
ideas ;  in  other  words,  that  the  sentient  principle,  affected,  i'n  a  cer- 
tain maner,  is  not  still  the  sentient  principle.  If  this  do  not  imply  a 
contradiction,  it  will,  at  least,  be  dliHcult,  to  state  the  mode,  in 
which  the  knowlege  of  the  nature  of  the  cause  of  our  ideas  is  acquired. 
All,  that  we  can  infer  ffom  theni.  Is.  the  existence  of  something,  by 
which  they  are  excited  ;  hut,  that  the  sensation  of  sound  resembles  a 
vibration,  or  that  any  otlnr  of  oi!r  sewsallons  resembles  that,  which 
produces  it,  we  have  only  tlie  urioatisfaj'.oiy  evidence  of  conjecture. 
To  tlie  unknown  cause  of  our  sciijr.tlono,  whatever  be  its  nature,  we 
give  tlie  name  of  malter  ;  and,  thoupfh,  in  common  language,  we  find 
it  ciM.venient,  for  tlu  purposes  ot  hfe,  to  speak  of  our  sensations 
themselves,  as   existing  external!) ,  we  muat  allow,  that  the  maiter^ 

particular  proposition.  On  thf ;  account,  however,  they  sometimes 
lend  to  cnnfiision  ;  as  the  frequent  use  of  the  generic -name  prevents 
a  speeific  Oiic,  from  b^Inj^^  adoptcil.  Thus,  the  schools  of  Berkeley 
and  RcM,  agree,  m  deiiying  the  materiality  of  the  sentient  principle, 
but  are  not  dlstin^'ul :>lied,  by  specific  names.  I  use  the  term  mentalisty 
to  dciiole  thoie,  \s  Iio  believe  the  existence  of  a  sentient  principle,  or 
mind,  and  t>i  matter,  or  an  external  cause  of  certain  changes  oijnind, 
but  tu  which  mind  bears  no  oilier  rdution,  than  that  of  mutual  sus- 
ceptibility of  affection.' 


Brown V  Observations  on  Dan^in*/  Zoottomia.  155 

Ae  real  external  cause  of  our  sensations,  may  be  different  from  them, 
iQ  every  respect.  If,  then,  the  materialist  mean,-  that  the  sentient 
principle  resembles  our  ideas,  the  proposition  is  nugatory ;  as  it  only 
states,  that  the  sentient  principle  resembles  itself:  but,  if  fie  mean, 
that  the  sentient  principle  resembles  the  cause  of  our  ideas,  he  assert?, 
that  what  we  know  resembles  that,  which  we  do  not  know.' 

In  the  first  section  of  the  book,  Mr.  Brcwn  considers  Dr. 
Darwin's  theory  of  Sensorial  Power.  He  observes  tTiat,  accord- 
ing to  Dr.  Darwin's  own  statement,  the  original  production  of 
sensorial  power,  v/hich  is  supposed  in  the  Zoonomia  to  be 
secreted  by  the  brain  and  spinal  niairow,  must  be  impossible; 
since  it  is  necessary  to  its  secretion,  that  the  gland  should  pre- 
viously possess  a  quantity  of  sensorial  power,  and  should  bc 
excited  to  action  by  its  specific  stimulus.  He  thus  reduces 
Dr.  Darwin's  opinion  to  the  absurdity  of  stating,  that  the 
power  exists  previously  to  its  own  existence. 

*  This  objection,'  he  says,  (p.  2,)  *  it  wnll  perhaps  be  urged,  is  of 
little  weight,  if  we  suppose  the  embryon,  when  originally  secreted, 
to  have  been  complete  in  its  structure,  and  a  small  quantity  of 
sensorial  power  to  have  existed  in  its  minute  brain.  But  the  em- 
bryon, according  to  Dr.  Darwin,  is  a  simple  filament,  without  sen- 
sorial power,  or  the  means  of  producing  it ;  and  though  we  should 
admit,  even  in  these  circumstances,  the  possibility  of  the  gradual 
formation  of  a  gland,  the  fibres  of  the  gland,  not  possessing  the 
source  of  animal  motion,  must  for  ever  remain  inactive.' 

Mr.  B.  next  examines  Dr.  Darwin's  supposition  that  the 
oxygen,  received  into  the  system  by  respiration,  supplies  the 
material  for  the  production  of  sensorial  power,  or  the  spirit 
of  animation  ;  and  he  shews,  from  the  revival  of  persons  in 
whom  the  phjenomena  of  life  had  been  interrupted  by  drown- 
ing, and  of  animals  which  had  passed  the  winter  in  a  torpid 
state,  the  difficulty  of  allowing  that  oxygen,  which  demands 
so  quick  a  supply  of  the  substance  affording  it  in  respiration, 
should  suddenly  change  its  nature,  and  become  stationary  in 
the  fibres  of  the  system. 

.The  author  now  proceeds  to  shew  fp.  8,  &  seq.)  that,  in 
the  animal  kingdom,  *  there  is  an  extensive  class  of  animals, 
which  have  no  brain  ;*  and  that  in  those  instances,  therefore. 
Dr.  D.  must  admit  the  existence  of  irritability  without  sen- 
sorial power  ;  of  a  quality,  without  a  substance. 

He  then  examines,  at  considerable  length,  the  various  pro- 
pcrties  ascribed  by  Dr.  Darwin  to  the  spirit  of  animation.  A 
dextrous  metaphysician  finds  it  easy  to  charge  contradictions 
on  any  theory,  which  attempts  to  explain  the  particular  modi- 
fication  on  which  the  phenomena  of  life  depend.  Where  it 
as  80  practicable  to  object^  and  so  difficult  to  defend  the  subject, 

M  2  we 

1^6         BrownV  Observations  on  Darwin'/  Zoonomia, 

wc  canrtot  avoid  praising  the  gallantry  of  the  author  of  Zoono« 
mia,  in  his  attempt  to  take  a  new  position  ;  and  if  we  must, 
eventually,  concede  the  victory  to  his  antagonist^  we  may  still 
say  of  him ; 

Magnts  tamen  excidtt  ousts* 

Wc  arc,  indeed,  cruelly  situated,  with  philosophers  who 
admit  neither  the  existence  of  matter  nor  of  spirit.  Our  au- 
thor, for  example,  denies  that  extension  is  an  essential  quality 
of  matter,  and  defines  it  to  be  nothing  more  than  number 
(p.  28,  note).  In  such  cases,  we  must  surely  alter  our  voca- 
bulary ;  or  substitute,  for  the  names  of  uncertain  and  unknown 
things,  «ome  arbitrary  sign,  such  as  that  of  the  negative  quan- 
tity in  Algebra  ;  otherwise,  the  confusion  of  terms  will  be- 
come an  insuperable  evil  in  metaphysical  reading. 

In  justice  to  Dr.  Darwin,  however,  we  must  observe  that 
the  reductlo  adabsurduw^  in  Mr.  Brown's  first  argument,  is  by  no 
means  inevitable.  Dr.  D.  clearly  supposes  that  sensorial  power 
is  communicated  from  the  parent  to  the  embryo,  in  the  moment 
of  production  ;  and  the  continuance  of  this  communication  19 
provided  by  the  supply  of  blood  from  the  mother.  This  ex- 
planation obviates  the  whole  difficulty  started  by  INIr.  Brown. 

His  arguments  against  the  doctrine  of  sensorial  power  are 
mere  conclusive,  when  he  undeitakes  to  shew  that,  granting 
buch  a  fluid  to  exist,  it  would  exhibit  phainomena  very  different 
from  those  of  the  human  system  : 

*  If  sensorial  power  possess  a  tendency  to  cquib'brium,  the  partisf 
accumulation  or  diminution  of  it,  by  exertion  or  repose,  is  impossible. 
Hence,  after  remaining  long  in  the  dark,  and  returning  suddenly  to 
•the  light,  there  should  be  no  sensation  of  dazzling  in  the  eyes,  when 
sufficient  time  lias  elapsed,  for  the  contraction  of  tlic  iris ;  because 
tlic  sensorial  power,  which  would  have  occasioned  pain,  li  wholly  ac- 
cumulated in  the  retinal  fibres^  Is  di:.trlbuled  through  ihe  sensorium, 
so  as  to  render  the  accumulation  In  the  eye  inconsiderable.  On  the 
same  principle,  the  arm,  which  is  at  rest,  should  share  the  fatigue  of 

•  that,  which  is  exercised  :  the  want  of  sensorial  power,  and  consequcirt 
languor,  should  be  equally  felt  by  the  n.ost  distant  fibre ;  nor  should 
any  muscle  cease  to  be  capable  of  exertion,  till  universal  debility  be 
introduced  into  the  system.  It  will,  perhaps,  be  thought,  that  the 
general  accumulation,  or  diminution  of  sensorial  power,  during  the 
action,  or  inaction  of  certain  muscles,  may  be  sufficient  to  produce  the 
elFccis,  observed  in  the  particular  organs.  But,  we  find,  that,  after 
taking  less  than  our  usual  food,  or  exercise,  the  quantity,  thus  accu- 
uii'latcd  in  the  eye,  is  not  sufficient  to  produce  the  painful  sensation 
©i"  day/h'ng,  when  excited  by  tlie  usual  stimulus  of  hght. 

*  The  mere  existence  of  sensorial  power,  its  capacity  of  producing 
fibrous  motion,  and  the  derivation  of  it  from  the  brain,  to  the  most. 
remote  oigau  uf  the  system,  arc  not  alone  necessary  to  the  truth  •f 


Brown V  Olservations  on  DarwinV  Zoommia,  1 57 

Dr.  Darwin's  theory.  It  must  also  be  proved,  that  sensorial  power 
is  expended  during  exertion,  and  that  the  expenditure  i$  proportional 
to  the  contraction.  These,  however,  it  will  be  shown  in  the  section 
on  stimulus  and  exertion.  Dr.  Darwin  has  taken  for  granted,  though, 
from  the  nature  of  exertion,  on  his  own  principles,  no  reas^^n  of  ^e 
supposition  can  be  assigned.* 

The  author  then  proceeds  to  deduce,  from  Dr.  Darwin's 
premises,  the  existence  of  a  multitude  of  distinct  beings  in 
each  individual,  *  as  irritation,  sensation,  volition,  and  associa- 
tion, are  essential  qualities  of  the  most  minute  portion  of  sen- 
sorial power;'  and  he  concludes  the  section  with  these  words; 
•  If  particles  of  sensorial  power  be  indeed  concerned,  in  the 
operations  of  life,  they  are  only  secondary  agents.  There  is  ong 
mind  which  governs  the  various  parts  of  our  complipa^d 
frame : 

— *  One  diffusive  soul 
Wields  the  large  limbs,  and  mingles  with  the  whole.* 

In  the  2d  Section,  which  treats  of  the  faculties  of  the  scn- 
sorium,  the  author  objects  to  the  supposed  modiHcations  of 
the  sensorial  power,  as  incompatible  with  the  qualities  of  a 
material  fluid.  *  Sensorial  power  exists  in  the  system,  in  a 
certain  state,  before  the  first  irritation.  In  this  state,  it  must 
for  ever  continue  •,  and  the  phenomena  of  life,  depending  on 
the  possibility  of  a  change  of  the  mode  of  affection  of  the  vital 
principle,  cannot,  therefore,  be  explained  by  the  supposed  exist- 
ence of  a  principle,  essentially  immutable  in  its  qualities/ 
On  this  idea,  he  has  enlarged  with  great  ingenuity. 

He  next  shews  that  the  four  modifications  of  this  power  which 
Dr.  Darwin  has  assigned,  irritation,  sensation j  volitiony  and  fl/- 
sociation,  instead  of  admitting  the  distinctions  pointed  out  by^ 
him,  must,  on  his  own  principles,  be  one  and  the  same.  On 
the  subject  of  irritation,  Mr.  Brown  takes  occasion  to  consider 
the  very  extraordinary  opinion  advanced  by  Dr.  Darwin,  that 
our  ideas  of  figure  result  from  the  actual  impression  of  a  similar 
figure  on  the  sensorium  ;  that  we  perceive  the  idea  of  a  square, 
for  example,  because  the  figure  of  a  square  is  then  really  de« 
lineated  in  the  sensorium  : 

*  A  square  surface,  pressed  on  the  palm  of  my  hand,  occasions  a 
square  configuration  ot  the  fibres,  and,  with  them,  of  the  sensonal 
power.  This  configuration,  however,  is  not  the  irritative  idea  of 
figure,  but  the  stimulus,  which  excites  irritation.  If,  therefore,  irii- 
tation  terminate  in  the  contraction  of  fibres,  the  sensorial  power  must 
lose  its  similarity  to  the  compressing  body^  and  the  idea  excited  be 
that  of  a  different  figure,  as  of  a  circle,  or  a  triangle.  But  the  idea 
of  the  square  contmues :  the  configuration,  therefore,  continues  ; 
and  irritation  is  not,  as  Dr.  Darwin  supposes,  an  exertion,  or  change 
•f  the  spirit  of  animation,  exciting  the  fibres  to  contraction.* 

M-3  It 

158  l^rownV  Ohservatlons  on  Darwin'^  Zoonomia, 

It  IS  worth  remarking,  that  this  theory  of  perception  is  very 
similar  to  the  Cartesian  doctrine  of  perception  and  memory  ; 
and  we  are  surprised  that  the  resemblance  has  not  been  more 
generally  noticed.  Dcs  Cartes  applied  this  theory,  very  in- 
genlousFy,  to  solve  several  questions  respecting  memory. 
Those  figures  vhich  were  most  derpfy  impressed  in  the  brain 
were  the  latest  in  being  worn  out :  but,  by  length  of  time, 
all  were  obliterated,  excepting  those  which  had  been  repeatedly 
retraced Tiud  J frefigtienefi ;  and  as  the  brain,  according  to  the  philo- 
sophy of  that  time*,  became  harder  and  drier  in  old  age,  it  was 
said  to  be  less  fitted  to  receive  permanent  iinpression?.  A  system 
of  anatomy  was  publislud,  during  the  reign  of  Cartcsianism, 
in  which  the  progress  of  mr-mory  was  exhibited  in  figures,  on 
this  plan.  The  difficulty  of  comprehendinj^  the  nature  of  per- 
ception was  certainly  not  relieved,  by  adding  this  gratuitous 
supposition  to  its  real  pi  Oinomena. 

In  pursuing  t]:c  subject  of  tiiese  modifications  of  sensorial 
power,  we  meet  with  some  excellent  observations  on  the 
danger  of  using  words  alreaciy  known,  in  a  new  sense.  Our 
readers,  we  are  sure,  wiji  thank  us  for  extracting  this  pas- 
sage : 

**  The  words  idea,  perception,  sensation,  recollection,  suggestion^ 
and  ass(»einllon,*'  It  is  observed.  In  the  preface  to  Zoonoinia,  '*  arc 
each  of  thtin  used  in  this  treatise  in  a  niort  limited  sense  than  In  the 
writers  of  inetaphysic.  The  author  was  In  doubt,  whether  he  should 
rather  have  substituted  new  words  instead  of  them  ;  but  was  at  length 
of  opinion,  that  new  definitions  of  words  already  'u\  use,  would  be  less 
burlhensome  to  the  memory  of  the  reader."  It  Is  much  to  be  re^rrct- 
tcd,  that  this  mode  h  ever  followed  :  for,  though  words  already  m 
use  be  le'^s  burthcniome  to  the  ir.tmory,  the  advantage  Is  more  than 
counterbalanced  by  the  greater  difncuky  cf  renumbering  their  new 
.definition?.  A  train  of  reasoning  can  then  only  be  accurately  under- 
stood, wh.en  the  terms  suggest  uniformly  ihc  same  ideas.  But, 
when  different  Ideas  are  expressed  by  the  same  sign,  the  mind  Insen- 
sibly passes  from  one  to  the  other,  and  the  proposition,  to  v-hich 
the  reader  assti:l\  Is  frequently  ditTerent  from  that,  which  the  lan- 
guage of  the  auihors  was  intended  to  convey.  If  our  reasoning  be 
thus  3u^jtct  to  eonfusion,  whtn  the  s'gn  is  equally  associated  with 
two  ideap,  the  dilfieully  must  Le  proportI(;nalIy  greater,  when  th* 
foreign  idea  is  more  readily  su^'^es^td  ;  and  this  must  always  be 
the  case,  when  new  definliions  of  old  terms  are  adopted.  The  for- 
mer idea  has  all  the  force  of  the  onVinal  association  ;  in  our  tmlns 
of  thought.  It  lias  been  invariably  conjoined  witli  the  sign  ;  and  It 
recurs  spoutaneoualy  to  tlie  rnir.d,  when  the  characters  ac  perceived. 
But  the  ties  of  the  new  association  are  feeble  ;  t;nd  wc  are  frequently 
obliged  to  retrace  the  dt'finition,  to  he  convinced,  that  we  have  not 
mistaken  its  meaning.  With  what  hibour  pf  mind,  should  we  per- 
use 4  treatise  on  colours,  in  which  blue  and  yellow,  red  and  grceiij^ 


BrownV  Ohurvations  on  DarwinV  Zoonomia,  159 

orange  and  violet,  were  mutually  substituted  !  Yet,  when  new  terms 
are  used,  as  when  we  read  a  treatise  on  colours,  in  a  foreign  language, 
we  follow  the  author  without  difficulty.  Nor  is  it  only  to  the  reader, 
*  that  this  mode  of  innovation  \>  productive  of  confusion.  The  authbr 
himself,  however  strongly  he  may  have  connected  the  new  idea  with 
the  sign,  is  still  under  the  influence  of  prior  habits  ;  and  will  thus  les^ 
readily  discover  an  error  in  his  reasoning,  when  the  propobitions  arc 
just,  in  the  former  signification  of  the  terms.  It  is  this  ambiguity, 
which  has  deceived  Dr.  Darwin,  in  classing  the  phenomena  of  mind. 
*  Pleasure,  and  pain,  are  considered  in  Zoonomia,  in  two  points 
of  view,  eitheir  simply  as  phenomena,  or  as  the  causes  of  phenomena. 
It  Is  only  in  the  latter  sense,  to  pleasure,  or  pain,  when  causing  fibrous 
motions,  that  Dr.  Darwin  gives  the  name  of  sensation  ;  and  the 
reader  is  earnestly  entreated  by  him  to  keep  the  distinction  in  his 
mind,  p.  12.  All  those  sensorial  motions,  therefore,  whfch  do  not 
terminate  in  exciting  the  muscles,  or  organs  of  sense,  are  excluded 
from  his  system,  as  they  are  not  irritations,  sensations,  volitions,  nor 
associations ;  and  among  these  the  greater  number  of  our  pleasures 
and  pains  must  be  classed  :  yet,  in  many  passages  of  Zoonomia,  the 
original  limitation  of  the  term  seems  to  have  been  forgotten,  and  sen- 
sation to  have  been  used,  as  synonymous  with  pleasure,  and  pain.' 

Mr.  Brown  next  points  out  several  phenomena  of  life,  which 
cannot  be  reduced  to  any  of  Dr.  Darwin's  four  classes  of  sen- 
sorial motions ;  and  he  traces,  in  a  very  striking  manner,  the 
want  of  precision  in  the  Zoonomia,  arising  from  the  adaptation 
of  new  definitions  to  common  words. 

In  the  third  Section,  (p.  70,)  the  author  considers  the 
Classes  of  Fibrous  Motions  ;  following  the  arrangement  of  the 
Zoonomia.  Dr.  D.  has  supposed  that  all  fibrous  contractions 
were  originally  caused  by  the  irritations  of  external  objects : 
but  that  painful  or  pleasurable  sensations  often  accompanying 
those  irritations,  the  contractions  became  exciteable  by  those 
sensations  ;  and  that,  as  efforts  of  the  will  accompanied  those 
sensations,  the  contractions  were  at  length,  by  habit,  causable 
by  volition  alone. 

To  this  doctrine,  Mr.  Brown  objects  that,  whatever  may  be 
attributed  to  the  power  of  habit,  it  is  impossible  that  the  r^- 
versed  habit,  here  supposed,  should  produce  the  effects  ascribed 
to  it;  that  a  person,  for  example,  should  repeat  the  alphabet 
backward,  with  case,  because  he  cannot  repeat  it  in  the  usual 
order.  He  adds  that,  even  according  to  Dr.  Darwin's  own 
statement,  the  cmse  of  fibrous  contractions  must  be  uniformly 
resolved  into  irritation. 

In  the  fourth  Section,  of  Stimulus  and  Exertion^  the  author 
displays  great  ingenuity,  in  combating  Dr.  D.'s  opinion  that 
sensorial  power  is  expended  on  every  sensorial  change  : 

*  That  we  have  no  reason  to  consider  the  spirit  of  animation,  as 
expended  dunng  exertion,  will  be  evident,  if  we  attend  to  the  nature 

M4  of 

i6o  Brown*/  Observations  on  DarwinV  Zoonomia* 

of  exertion.  Irritation,  sensation,  volition,  and  association,  arc  no 
sensorial  power :  they  are  only  its  modes,  or  qualities.  When  a  fibre 
IB  contracted,  sensorial  power  is  not  communicated  to  the  fibre,  but 
simply  motion,  which  is  a  neccRsary  consequence  of  a  certain  state  of 
sensorial  power.  The  motion,  indeed,  perishes  ;  but  the  motion  is  ^ 
state  of  the  fibre,  the  effect  of  a  state  of  sensorial  power,  and  of  that 
state  only  :  foi  sensorial  power  existed  in  the  organ,  without  affect- 
ing it,  previously  to  the  application  of  the  stimulus.  When  the  con- 
traction of  the  fibre  has  ceased,  we  are  entitled  to  infer,  that  the  cause 
of  the  contraction  has  ceased  ;  but  we  are  not  entitled  to  infer  more. 
The  cause  of  contraction  was  not  the  simple  existence  of  sensorial 
power,  but  its  existence,  in  a  certain  state  ;  and  we  may,  therefore, 
justly  infer,  that  it  has  returned  to  the  state,  in  which  it  existed,  be- 
fore the  action  of  the  stimulus. 

*  If,  by  the  expenditure  of  sensorial  power,  nothing  more  be  meant, 
than  a  slight  change  of  its  place  in  the  system,  this  may  be  admitted, 
without  adding  much  strength  to  Dr.  Darwin's  theory.  Thus,  when 
the  vessels  of  the  brain  are  stimulated  by  the  blood,  the  spirit  of  ani- 
mation may  be  allowed  to  quit  the  fibres,  which  it  caused  to  con- 
tract ;  but  no  reason  can  be  adduced,  to  prove,  that  it  is  wholly  lost, 
which  will  not  equally  prove,  that  the  quantity,  secreted  by  the  brain, 
quits  the  sensorlum,  immediately  after  secretion,  instead  of  being 
distributed  to  the  dUerent  fibres  of  the  system.  When  sensation  is 
propagated  along  a  nerve,  the  sensorial  power,  in  the  centre  of  the 
»ervc,  is  expended ;  but  it  ceases  not  to  exist,  and  we  have  no  reason 
to  suppose,  that  the  membrane  of  the  nerve  suddenly  becomes  per-"- 
meable  to  sensorial  power,  and  suffers  it  to  escape  from  the  system. 
If,  therefore,  the  general  quantity  of  the  spirit  of  animation  be  not 
diminished  by  exertion,  and  if,  at  the  same  time,  a  continual  supply 
of  that  fluid  be  secreted,  the  fibrous  motions  must  continually  increase 
in  violence ;  and  those  phenomena,  which  seem  to  procetd  from  defi- 
ciency of  strength,  are  thus  wholly  inexplicable,  on  the  principles  of 
the  sensorial  theory. 

*  The  ingenious  author  of  that  theory  himself  considers  exertion, 
as,  in  some  instances,  attended  with  an  increase,  rather  than  a  di- 
minution, of  sensorial  power.  This,  he  observes,  "  sometimes  hap- 
pens from  the  exhibition  of  opium  and  of  wine,"  Vol.  II.  p.  363  ; 

•  and,  **  when  the  vessels  of  the  skin  are  exposed  to  great  heat,  an  ex- 
cess of  sensorial  power  is  produced  in  them,  which  is  derived  thither 
oy  the  increase  of  stimulus  above  v^hat  is  natural,"  VoJ.  II.  p.  321. 
No  reason  can  be  ^hewn,  that  the  application  of  heat  to  the  skin 
should  be  attended  with  an  increase  of  sensorial  power,  which  will  not 
prove,  that  this  increase  should  be  the  effect  of  every  stimulus.  In 
that  case,  no  bounds  can  be  fixed.  The  spirit  of  animation,  whether 
exerted,  or  at  rest,  is  accumulated  in  the  organs  ;  and  violent  inflam- 
mation, or  palsy,  must,  according  to  Dr.  Darwin,  be,  in  a  few  hours, 

•  the  inevitable  consequence  of  life.* 

Mr.  Brown  afterward  proceeds  to  shew  the  difficulties,  on 
tlie  principle3  of  the  Zoonomia,  attending  the  supposition  that 
the  expenditiire  of  sensorial  power  is  proportioned  to  the  degree 

BrownV  Observaiions  en  Darwin*/  Zoommia,         itfi 

of  the  stimulus  applied.  According  to  his  usual  process,  he 
then  proves  that,  even  conceding  these  points  to  the  author^ 
the  doctrine  will  not  account  for  the  phsenomena  of  animal 
life.  As  this  subject  forms  so  important  a  part  of  the  Zoono- 
mia,  we  shall  extract  his  principal  remarks : 

*  If  inaction  induce  an  accumulation  of  sensorial  power,  the  most 
iiidolent  should  be  the  most  capable  of  labour,  and  exercise  be,  m 
consequence,  hurtful,  as  it  diminishes  the  general  quantity  of  the 
spirit  of  animation.  If  it  be  said  that  the  secretion  in  the  brain  it 
proportionally  increased,  by  the  greater  quantity  of  oxygene,  inspired 
during  exercise,  the  impossibility  of  fatigue,  in  these  circumstances* 
will  be  a  sufficient  answer.  If  the  secretion  be  precisely  equal  to  the 
trxpenditure,  the  fibres  will  continue,  in  the  same  state,  as  before  exer- 
tion, and,  if  it  be  greater,  the  secretion  will  continue,  in  an  increas- 
ing ration ;  so  that  the  fibres  will  be  excited  to  unnatural  action  by 
their  accustomed  stimuli.  But  the  quantity  secreted  is  not  equal  t6 
that  expended  ;  for  fatigue  is  the  invaiiable  consequence  of  violent 
exercise.  No  benefit,  therefore,  will  be  derived  to  the  system  ;  but# 
on  the  contrar}',  general  debility  must  essue  :  for  the  spirit  of  anima- 
tion, in  the  brain,  being  le«s,  will  secrete  a  less  supply.  The  circula- 
tion being  slower,  less  oxygene  will  be  combined  with  the  blood,  and 
f  he  vital  functions  be  thus,  more  and  more,  impeded,  by  the  inoxas- 
ing  re^tion  of  direct,  and  indirect  debility. 

*  If  it  be  said,  that,  though  violent  exercise  may  induce  weakness^ 
it,  notwithstanding,  when  used  with  moderation,  invigorates  the 
system,  the  truth  of  the  obser\ation  will  be  admitted  ;  but  Dr.  Dar« 
win's  theory  must,  at  the  same  time,  be  abandoned^  Let  us  sup- 
pose the  exercise  to  continue,  during  a  certain  number  of  hours. 
The  spirit  of  animation,  it  is  conceived,  though  diminished,  at  the 
end  ot  that  period,  is  not  diminished,  at  the  end  of  the  first  hour* 
If  it  be  merely  equal  to  the  original  quantity,  the  exercise  may  be 
indefinitely  continued,  without  producing  strength,  or  weakness ;  and* 
if  it  be  greater,  the  causes  of  accumulation  increasing,  the  sensorial 
power  will  be  much  more  abundant,  when  the  hours  have  elapsed ;  or. 
In  other  words,  the  fibres  will  not  be  fatigued. 

*  The  indolent,  and  sedentar)-,  instead  of  being  subject  to  nervous 
fevers,  shamld,  on  this  hypothesis,  be  subject  to  continual  attacks  of 
inflammatory  fever  :  for,  during  their  inactivity,  the  spirit  of  anima- 
tion must  be  accumulated,  in  so  great  a  degree,  as  to  render  the 
slightest  irritation  insupportable.* 

On  the  subject  of  Sensual  Motions ,  the  author  has  combated 
the  account  given  in  Zoonomia  of  the  immediate  organs  of 
sense;  ami  we  tind,  in  this  section,  a  command  of  language 
and  a  variation  of  style,  which  evince  that  Mr.  Brown  Im 
not  always  confined  himself  within  the  thorny  maze  of  meta- 
physics : 

*  No  subject  is  so  interesting  to  our  curiosity,  as  the  nature  of 
those  feelings,  which  connect  us  with  the  world>  and  ia  which  our 

7  happiness. 

1 6ft  Brown V  Observations  on  Darwin V  ZooHomta, 

happiness,  or  misery,  consists;  nor  is  there  any,  In  which  we  have  de- 
rived less  aid  from  the  wisdom  of  past  agfs.  The  consciousness  of 
thought  18  inaph'ed  in  the  consciousness  of  existence ;  yet  we  arc  still 
as  unacquainted  with  the  mode,  in  which  this  mental  change  is  car- 
ried on,  as  we  were,  before  the  first  philosophic  savage  had  wondered 
at  himself.  The  phantasms,  and  *^pccies,  and  ideas,  of  tlie  ancient 
schools  no  longer  delude  us  with  the  belief  of  knowledge  ;  and  all,  wc 
have  learned,  has  served  only  to  add  to  tl:c  difliculty  of  unlearning 
^rror.  What  is  this  subtile  feeling,  we  have  still  to  ask,  so  variable, 
yet  ever  present ;  which  elevates  us  to  the  rank  of  gods,  or  degradts 
us  below  the  dull  insensibility  of  the  earth,  on  which  we  tread  ?  The 
bubble  still  floats  before  our  eyes,  gay  with  all  the  variety  of  light  ; 
-but  what  delicate  touch  shall  retain  it  in  expansion,  and  arrest  its 
fleeting  colours  ?  The  author  of  the  Botanic  Garden,  who  so  happily 
succeeded,  in  "  enlisting  imagination  under  the  banner  of  science," 
a  design,  easy  only  to  powers  like  his,  is  not  content,  to  have  enlarged 
our  acquaintance  with  the  objects  around  us.  Undeterred  by  thq 
failure  of  his  predecessors,  he  has  attempted 

«  The  doubtful  task, 
To  paint  the  finest  features  of  the  mind. 
And  to  most  subtile,  and  mysterioTis  things 

Give  colour^  strength^  and  molloti 


^  Tiie  immediate  organs  of  sense,  according  to  the  theory  proposed, 
are  not  exaunsionr.  of  their  peculiar  nervous  medulla,  but  are  com- 
posed of  fibres,  intermixed  with  sensorial  power.  They  arc  stimulated 
to  contraction,  like  the  muscular  fibres,  from  which  they  differ,  in 
possessing  a  greater  proportional  quantity  of  the  vital  spirit.  The 
motions  of  these  fibres  constitute  our  ideas  ;  and,  when  an  organ  is 
destroyed,  the  ideas  of  that  organ  necessarily  perish. 

*  Can  wc  then  suppose,  that  Milton  described  the  beauties  of  his 
ideal  paradise,  without  any  conception  of  what  he  described  ;  or, 
that  unconscious  of  any  loss,  he  could  mourn,  with  so  much  apparent 
feeling,  hii»  insenbibility  of 

•'  Day,  or  the  sweet  approach  of  ev*n,  or  morn. 
Or  sight  of  vernal  bloom,  or  summer's  rose. 
Or  flocks,  or  herds,  cr  human  face  divir.e  ;** 

could  the  ^o>iy(T».i'.-  ty/ft-  of  Homer,  to  use  the  words  of  Dr.  Darwin — • 
the  long  shadow  of  the  flying  javelin — have  been  elegantly  designed, 
•*to  give  us  an  idea  of  its  velocity,  and  not  of  its  length,'*  when  the  poet 
hims<;lf  was  incapable  of  the  idea.  We  might,  with  as  much  reason, 
expect,  that  the  rude  materials  of  a  building,  ignorantly  thrown  to- 
gether, should  rise  into  a  model  of  perfect  architecture.  If  tiie  lively 
descriptions  of  visual  objects,  which  delight,  and  astonish  us.  In  the 
poems  of  Homer,  and  Mlltoii,  have  been  produced  by  the  total  ab- 
sence of  ideas,  who  will  not  aVjure  the  useless  pomp  of  knowledge  ? 
»  "  Wht-re  JL''norarice  is  bliss, 

'Tis  folly  to  be  wise.*' 

*  *  Pleasures  of  imagination,  Book  I.  1.  45.' 

8  mV. 

Brown*/  Observations  on  DarwinV  Zoonomia.         163 

Mr.  Brown  observes,  that  Dr.  D.  has  differed  from  other 
metaphysicians  in  his  definition  of  an  idea,  in  coiifinlnjr  his  defi,. 
nition  to  one  part  of  the  process  ;  the  motion  of  certain  fibres  : 
for  all  admit  that  a  certain  chan;;e  of  the  organ  precedes  the 
change  of  the  mind.  Yet  Dr.  Darwin,  deceived,  as  in  other 
cases,  by  its  former  signification,  uses  the  term  idea  also  to  ex- 
press a  state  of  the  spirit  of  animation.  For  the  arguments  by 
which  the  author  proves  the  distinction  between  our  ideas 
and  fibrous  motions,  we  must  refer  to  the  work.  In  the 
course  of  them,  Mr.  Brown  has  introduced  a  defence  of  the 
Berkeleyan  doctrmc  of  general  ideas ;  in  which  we  are  sur- 
prised to  observe  no  indications  of  an  acquaintance  with  Mr. 
Home  Tookr's  opinions  concerning  general  terms. 

The  disbimilarity  between  ideas  and  fibrous  motions  is 
farther  illustrated,  in  the  section  on  the  production  of  ideas; 

*  When  the  idea  of  a  cup  is  In  the  sensorlum,  a  similar  concave 
must  cxist>  in  the  organ  of  touch.  The  sensorial  power  must  he 
absent,  within  the  circumference  of  the  idea;  so  that,  though  the 
surface  be  pierced,  no  scnoation  should  ensue.  Yet,  even  when  a 
larger  concave  is  the  subject  of  our  thought,  as  a  cave,  or  a  valley, 
a  slight  puncture  is  sufficient  to  recall  our  attention  to  the  objects 
around  us. 

*  To  the  idea  of  a  concave  surface  nothing  more  is  necessary,  than 
the  existence  of  a  similar  retrocession  of  the  spirit  of  animation,  in 
the  sensorium.  But,  as  thjt  fluid  cannot  rise  above  the  surface  of 
the  fikin,  a  convexiiy  of  sensorial  power  can  be  formed,  only  by  the  ge- 
neral, or  partial  retrocession  of  the  sensorial  power  around  it.  In 
the  former  case,  the  whole  of  the  remaining  surface  of  the  body  must 
be  insensible  :  In  the  latter,  the  idea  of  the  convex  surface  cannot 
cxK^t,  without  the  Idea  of  asiother  ascending  surface,  and  of  an  inter- 
mediate concavity, 

*  The  Ideas,  wliich  Dr.  Darwin  ascribes  to  touch,  instead  of  ap- 
proaching to  infinity,  are  limited  by  his  theory  to  a  small  class. 
Though  every  nerve  of  the  system  be,  at  the  same  moment,  com- 
presieJ,  and  though  each  compression  be  perceived,  our  ideas  of  fi- 
gure must  be  bounded  by  the  e.^tent  of  the  spirit  of  animation.  Wc 
may,  indeed,  **  Inspect  a  mice ;"  bat  we  cannot  **  comprehend  the 
heaven."  We  may  view,  as  a  whole,  the  humbler  plant ;  but  a  tree 
will  tower  above  the  most  expanded  sensorium.  The  dwarf  may  look 
down  on  others,  more  diminutive  than  himself;  but,  though  the  age 
of  giants  were  to  return,  they  would  not  appear  to  him  larger,  tima 
the  tvvo-feet  dimensions  of  his  own  mind. 

*  When  a  body  is  piesseil  violently  against  the  organ  of  touch,  so 
as  to  excite  a  large  coneavity,  pain  ensues,  and  the  cttect  should  be 
similar  In  Imagination  ;  yet  we  do  not  feel  pain,  when  wc  think  of  a 
mountain,  or  a  valley. 

*  Even  if  the  theory  advanced  were  free  from  other  cbjecllons,  the 
point,  which  it  takes  for  granted,  remains  to  be  proved  ;  that  the 
CQmpi'Jssed  or^an  resrml!::  the  cornpress'ino  lody.     The  reverse  will  be 


164        Medical  Records  and  Researches^  VoU  Z  Part  /. 

found  to  be  the  case.  Pressed  by  a  conrex  surface,  that  of  the  or- 
giui  of  touch  is  concave,  and  should,  therefore,  form  the  idea  of  a  con* 
cave  body. 

*  The  second  mode  of  acquiring  the  ideas  of  the  length,  and  breadth 
of  objects  hy  the  continuance  of  their  pressure  on  our  moving  organ  of  touchy 
is  Hable  to  all  the  objections  of  the,  former  mode,  and  to  others,  from 
which  it  IS  irtt.  By  the  continuance  of  the  pressure,  I  suppose,  is  meant 
the  time,  in  which,  moving  with  the  same  velocity,  the  hand  passes 
from  one  extremity  to  the  other.  It  is  as  difficult,  however,  to  mea- 
sure velocity,  as  length.  Time  we  measure,  by  the  comparison  of  our 
ideas  ;  so  that,  in  this  case,  ^-^c  must  remaia  ignorant  of  the  contt* 
nuance  of  time,  as  there  are  not  two  ideas  to  be  compared.  The 
tame  fibres  of  the  organ  of  touch  are,  during  the  whole  process,  con*- 
tracted,  in  the  same  manner,  and,  therefore,  form  one  idea.  The  sen- 
forial  motion  would  be  the  same,  if  a  body,  equal  in  size  to  the  palm 
of  my  hand,  were,  during  a  certain  interval,  pressed  against  its  sur- 

<  The  ideas  of  motion,  time,  place,  space,  and  number,  are  stated 
to  be  modes  of  figure  ;  and  the  explanatvon  of  their  origin  must,  there- 
fere,  be  liable  to  all  the  preceding  objections.* 

Dr.  Darwin's  classificalion  of  ideas  as  irritative^  sensitive^ 
%otuntaryj  and  associate^  is  condemned  as  too  complex :— Mr. 
B.  is  of  opinion  that  perception  and  association  seem  to  be  the 
only  modes  in  which  ideas  exist. 

In  the  section  on  the  Animation^ Vegetables^  we  find  many 
valuable  observations  on  the  mistakes  incurred  by  philosophers 
from  the  imperfection  of  language  ;  but  for  these,  and  for  the 
writer's  ingenious  objections  to  the,  vitality  and  intellectual 
powers  which  Dr.  Darwin  has  bestowed  on  the  vegetable 
tribes,  with  a  partiality  which  is  laudable  perhaps  in  the 
author  of  the  Botanic  Gardeny  we  must  advise  our  readers  to 
consult  the  performance  itself;  and  we  must  here  close  it  for 
tbe  present,  intending  to  return  to  it  in  our  next  Number. 

[  To  he  continued,  ]  fW- .  .T . 

Art.  IX.  Medical  Records  and  Researches^  selcded  from  the  Papers 
of  a  private  Medical  Association.  Vol.  I.  Part  I.  8vo.  pp,  288« 
ys.  6d.  Boards.     Robinsons.    1798. 

*T^His  is  a  respectable  collection  of  cases  and  observations, 
-*  furnishing  an  additional  proof  of  the  utility  of  free  com- 
munication among  medical  men  engaged  in  actual  practice. 
A  re-union  of  experience  is  produced  by  establishments  of  this 
nature,  which  sometimes  throws  unexpected  light  on  difficult 
subjects ;  and  the  spirit  of  active  inquiry,  which  they  support, 
diffuses  its  benefits  through  the  practice  of  every  individual 
engaged  in  them.  ^  As  all  the  papers  contained  in  such  an  assem- 

Medical  Records  and  Researches^  Vol.  I.  Part  L         i(f  j 

blage  cannot  be  of  equal  merit,  we  shall  pay  such  attention  as 
may  appear  requisite  to  each. 

ji  Case  of  strangulated  Hernia,  in  which  a  Part  of  the  Ab- 
dominal Viscera  was  protruded  into  the  left  Cavity  of  the 
Chest.     By  Mr.  Astley  Cooper,  St.  Thomas's  Hospital. 

This  disease  was  discovered  only  on  the  dissection  of  the 
patient,  but  had  been  indicated  dunngher  life,  chiefly  by  pain 
in  the  left  side,  and  frequent  vomiting,  with  a  sensation  o£ 
**  something  dragging  to  the  right  side,"  as  she  described  it. 
Its  real  nature  was  not  suspected.  The  great  arch  of  the  colon 
was  pushed  into  the  left  cavity  of  the  chest,  through  an  aper- 
ture of  the  diaphragm  :  a  considerable  part  of  the  omentum 
had  passed  into  the  same  opening  ;  and  the  intestines  were  in* 

This  complaint,  the  author  thinks,  may  be  known  in  the 
living  subject,  by  the  combination  of  symptoms  of  strangulated 
hernia,  with  those  of  an  inflammation  of  the  chest ;  viz.  vo- 
miting, costiveness,  hiccup,  pain  and  tension  of  the  abdomen, 
together  with  cough,  oppressed  breathing,  and  an  inability  to 
lie  on  one  side,  occurring  in  a  person  who  had  been  immedi«- 
ately  before  in  perfect  health.  An  erect  posture,  and  the 
warm  bath,  are  recommended  for  relief. 

Some  instances  of  similar  morbid  appearances  are  added. 

A  Case  of  the  Tic  Douleureux^  or  painful  Afl^ection  of  the  Face, 
successfully  treated  by  a  Division  of  the  affected  Nerve.  By 
John  Haighton,  M.  D. 

This  case,  while  it  reflects  great  credit  on  the  sagacity  and 
dexterity  of  Dr.  Haighton,  is  particularly  interesting;  as  it 
holds  out  a  prospect  of  complete  relief,  in  one  of  those  com- 
plaints which  embitter,  though  they  do  not  shorten,  life.  The 
disease  described  is  fortunately  uncommon:  but  from  this  very 
circumstance  its  nature  was  less  likely  to  be  understood  ;  and  it 
would  have  been  discovered  only  by  an  accurate  anatomist  and 

The  patient,  an  elderly  lady,  was  subject  to  repeated  and  excru- 
ciating pains,  confined  to  the  nla  nasi^  and  to  a  small  portion  of 
the  upper  lip,  on  the  right  side  of  the  face.  The  complaint  re- 
sisted a  variety  of  remedies.  At  length.  Dr.  Haighton  had  an 
opportunity- of  observing,  during  one  of  the  paroxysms,  that 
there  was  a  tremulous  motion  of  the  upper  lip,  just  where  the 
tnusculiis  levator  labii  superioris  prcprius  is  inserted ;  and  it  oc- 
curred to  him  that  the  sub-orbitar  branches  of  the  fifth  pair 
of  nerves,  which  supply  those  parts,  must  be  the  seat  of  the 
disease.  On  the  next  exacerbation,  therefore,  he  made  a  strong 
pressure  on  the  skin  over  the  sub-orbitar  foramen,  and  found 


t<<J         AJedical  Records  and  Researches^  Vol.  L  Part  7. 

that  the  pain  instantly  abated.  This  experiment  succeeded  re- 
peatedly ;— and  hence  Dr.  Halghton  was  led  to  conclude  that 
the  division  of  those  nerves,  where  they  leave  the  sub-orbitar 
foramen,  might  effect  a  cure. 

From  a  careful  comparison  of  the  situation  of  this  foramen, 
in  thirty  different  skulls,  he  concluded  that  at  half  an  inch  be- 
neath the  lower  edge  of  the  orbit  of  the  eye  was  the  proper 
place  for  performing  the  operation  ;  and,  from  a  similar  com- 
parison, it  was  determined  that,  a  line  being  drawn  from  the 
inferior  part  of  the  internal  angular  process  of  the  os  frontis, 
obliquely  across  the  orbit  to  the  center  of  the  os  mala^  another 
line,  drawn  downward,  perpendicular  to  it,  at  the  distance  of 
7-8ths  of  an  inch  from  the  internal  angle  of  the  eye,  passed 
across  the  orifice  of  the  sub-orbitar  foramen.  Tiiis  cannot  be 
clearly  understood  without  the  plate.  *  These  preliminary  cir- 
cumstances being  settled,*  says  Dr.  Haighton,  *  the  operation 
becomes  exceedingly  simple,  and  consists  in  an  incision  of 
3-4ths  of  an  inch  in  length,  carried  obliquely  downward  *,  the 
center  of  which  must  correspond  with  the  foramen,  only  i-4th 
of  an  inch  below  it.  The  incision  must  be  made  down  to  the 
bone,  otherwise  we  cannot  be  certain  of  dividing  the  nerves, 
as  they  are  situated  very  deep,'  Some  other  particular  direc- 
tions are  given,  for  which  we  must  refer  our  readers  to  this 
valuable  paper.  The  operation  put  an  end  to  the  pain  imme- 
diately, and  the  patient  has  lived  nine  years  without  experienc- 
ing any  return. 

There  was  a  temporary  diminution  of  sensation  and  action 
oh  that  side  of  the  lip,  but  they  were  never  totally  lost, 
which  there  was  reason  to  apprehend. 

Some  observations  published  in  France  are  mentioned  by 
Dr.  Haighton,  which  he  had  seen  after  the  performance  of  this 
operation  •,  and  in  which  the  division  of  the  nerves  was  pro- 
posed as  a  remedy  for  the  disease  : — but  his  claim  to  the  dis- 
covery appears  undoubted,  since  he  had  been  led  to  it  by  il 
process  of  reasoning  entirely  unassisted  by  those  publications. 

Dr.  Fothergill  h;ui  supposed  this  disorder  to  be  cancerous  ;  an 
opinion  which  is  successfully  combated  by  Dr.  Haighton,  from 
both  tlieory  and  practice. 

The  paper  is  concluded  with  some  important  remarks  on 
similar  nfl'ections  of  other  nerves  of  the  face,  in  which  the  pa- 
tient cannot  be  relieved  by  any  operation  \  and  on  rhemnatic 

*  *  Left  the  reafon  for  giving  a  slight  degree  of  obliquity  to  the 
incision  should  not  immediately  strike  the  reader,  it  may  be  proper 
to  remind  liim  of  the  oblique  course  which  most  of  these  nerves  take 
ill  their  pub^agc  from  the  turamen  to  the  ala  nasi.' 


Medical  Records  and  Researches^  Vol,  L  Part  /•.        iGj 

pains  m  the  face.  We  would- h^ve  gladly  extracted  these:  but^ 
as  the  whole  essay  demands  particular  attention  from  medical 
readers,  and  as  our  limits  would  not  permit  us  to  insert  it  en- 
tire, we  shall  content  ourselves  with  declaring  that  we  have 
been  gratified  and  instructed  by  it,  in  an  uncommon  degree.    . 

Account  of  a  ligamentous  Union  of  the  Tibia^  after  the  Removal 
of  a  carious  Portion  of  that  Bone.  By  Mr.  Richard  Smith, 
Surgeon  of  the  Bristol  Infirmary. 

In  this  case,  the  support  afforded  by  the  fibula,  which  was 
entire,  enabled  the  patient  to  make  some  use  of  the  limb,  pre-- 
viously  to  his  death;  though  a  ligamentous  substance  was 
formed,  instead  of  a  bony  callus,  to  supply  the  lost  part  of. 
the  tibia. 

Case  of  a  penetratinrr  IVound  by  a  Bayotiet  passing  through  the 
Hearty  in  which  the  Patient  survived  the  Accident  upwards  of 
nine  Hours.  Communicated  by  William  Babington,  M.  D. 
by  the  Permission  of  John  Lind,  M.  D.  Senior  Physician  to 
the  Royal  Hospital  at  Haslar. 

This  patient  fell  on  his  own  bayonet,   in  consequence  of 
slipping  from   the  deck  of  a  ship,  and   did  not  feci  himself 
much  wounded   at  the  moment.     Pie  drew  out  the  bayonet 
himself,  walked  several  steps,  and  then  fainted.     His  body  be- 
came cold,  and  his  pulse  scarcely  perceptible.    No  blood  flowed 
on  opening  a  vein.     All  liquids  received  into  his  stomach  pro- 
duced sickness  and  retching,  but  no  actual  vomiting.     He  felt 
a  suffocating  weight  on  the  right  side  of  the  breast ;  and  a . 
sudden  strangulation  in  the  throat  carried  him  off. — The  bayo-, 
net  was  found,  on  dissection,  to  have  passed  obliquely  upward,, 
from  the  left  side  of  the  abdomen,  and  to  have  penetrated  the 
right  ventricle  of  the  heart,  and  through  both  the  upper  and 
middle  lobes  of  the  lunj;s. 

Instances  of  this  kiiul,  though  they  afford  no  practical  in- 
ferences, are  worthy  of  record,  as  they  tend  to  render  our  ideas 
more  correct  concerning  the  effect  of  injuries  of  the  vital  parts. 
Wounds  of  the  heart  iiave  been  generally  supposed  to  prove 
imraediattly  fatal.  There  are  some  facts,  which  seem  to  shew 
that  wounds  inflicted  by  the  bayonet  arc  less  dangerous  than 
might  be  expected  :  but,  in  the  present  case,  the  number  of 
important  organs  perforated  by  the  weapon  was  very  great. 

An  Account  of  a    Ri'pturc  of  the  Asrta   near  the  Heart,     By ' 
Mr.  Lynn,  jun.  Surgeon,  at  Woodbridge. 

'Ilie  rupture  of  the  aorta  took  place,  in  this  patient,  during  the 
pains  of  labour  ;    and  the  5i:igul;»riry  of  the  case  consists  in  her ' 
having  survived  the  accident  from  the  nth  to  the  25th  of  the' 


l69         Medical  Records  and  ^esearches^  VoL  L  Fatt  t. 

nonth.    The  author  ascribes  the  rupture  to  debility  in  the 
aorta,  occasioned  by  chronic  inflammation. 

On  the  Use  of  the  Tinciura  Ferri  Muriati^  in  those  Suppres-- 
nons  of  Urine  which  arise  from  a  spasmodic  Affection  of  tbje 

Under  this  head,  we  are  presented  with  an  extract  from  Mr. 
Cline's  Lectures,  containing  an  account  of  a  retention  of  urine 
from  a  spasmodic  stricture  of  the  urethra,  which  was  relieved 
by  a  tobacco*clyster :  but  it  caused  so  much  faintnoss,  cold 
sweat,  and  disagreeable  feeling  to  the  patient,  that,  on  a  re-- 
turn  of  the  complaint,  he  would  not  consent  to  a  repetition 
of  the  remedy.  Mr.  Cline  then  gave  him  ten  drops  of  the 
Unctura  ferrt  muriati  every  ten  minuks,  till  it  should  produce 
some  sensible  effect.  When  he  had  taken  six  doses,  his  urine 
flowed  freely.*— The  same  medicine  relieved  him  on  several 

Retentions  of  urine  from  other  causes,  we  are  told,  are  not 
affected  by  this  remedy. 

7hree  Instances  of  Obstruction  of  the  Thoracic  Duct ;  with  some 
Experiments,  shewing  the  Effects  of  tying  that  Vessel.  By 
Mr.  Astley  Cooper. 

These  curious  facts  promise  a  considerable  addition  to  our 
knowlege  of  the  diseases  of  the  lymphatic  system.  They 
shew  that  the  thoracic  duct  is  liable  to  scrophulous  inflamma- 
tion, and  to  consequent  ulceration  and  obstruction  5  and  they 
discover  the  provision  made  by  nature  to  prevent  the  suspen- 
sion of  the  functions  of  this  important  organ,  in  the  existence 
of  anastomosing  lymphatics,  which  convey  the  chyle  circuit- 
ously  to  the  upper  part  of  the  duct,  in  case  of  its  obstruction 
in  the  trunk, — The  pathology  of  the  absorbents  is  almost  an 
untouched  subject ;  perhaps  these  and  some  other  facts  will 
induce  physiologists  to  consider  this  class  of  vessels  as  more 
analogous  to  those  which  circulate  red  blood,  than  tliey  have 
hitherto  been  disposed  to  allow. 

The  experiments  on  tying  the  thoracic  duct,  in  dogs,  seem, 
in  Mr.  Cooper's  opinion,  to  be  unfavourable  to  the  doctrine  of 
the  retrograde  motion  of  the  absorbents  ;  for  he  found,  on  dis- 
secting the  animals  on  which  the  experiments  had  been  made,  • 
that  many  of  the  lacteals  were  extremely  distended  with  chyle, 
and  that  some  of  them  were  actually  ruptured. 

We  hope  that  Mr,  Cooper  will  prosecute  this  important  in- 
quiry;  and  that  he  will  continue  to  make  additions  to  our  know- 
lege of  a  class  of  diseases  hitherto  concealed  from  view,  but 
which  ought  perhaps  to  come  frequently  within  the  calcula- 


Aladieal  Records  and  Researches^  Vol.  I.  Pari  L  x6g 

tion  ef  the  practitioner,  in  deciding  on  the  conclusions  to  be 
drawn  from  internal  syiftptoms. 

Two  Cases  of  Rabies  Caninay  in  which  opium  was  given, 
without  success,  in  unusually  large  quantities.  The  one  by 
William  Babington,  M.  D.  the  other  by  William  WavclL 
M.D.  * 

Nothing  occurs  either  in  the  history  or  the  dissections  of 
these  unfortunate  victims  to  this  terrible  disorder,  which  can" 
serve  to  direct  practitioners  in  their  future  conduct  respect- 
ing it. 

-4  Case  of  the  Casarean  Operation  performed ^  and  the  Life  of  the 
Woman  preserved^  by  James  Barlow,  Surgeon,  late  of  Chorlcy, 
Lancashire,  but  now  of  Blackburn  in  the  same  county. 

A  successful  case  of  the  Cesarean  operation  is  so  rare  an 
occurrence,  that  it  naturally  excites  considerable  attention.  The 
operation  has  been  so  uniformly  fatal  to  the  mother,  in  this 
country  at  least,  that  we  perused  Mr.  Barlow's  narrative  with, 
considerable  eagerness,  to  learn  the  minuter  circumstances 'of 
so  extraordinary  an  event.  We  must  confess,  however,  that 
his  own  relation  of  the  fact,  added  to  the  doubts  started  in  a 
late  publication  on  this  subject  *,  have  led  us  to  question 
whether  this  were  really  a  case  of  the  Cesarean  operation.  In 
describing  the  steps  of  the  performance,  Mr.  Barlow  tells  us 
that  *  the  uterus  was  very  thin,  scarcely  exceeding  that  of* 
[the  thickness  of]  ^  the  peritoneum,  and  equally  so  through  the 
whole  extent  of  the  incision.'  It  is  surely  impossible  that  the 
pregnant  uterus  could  be  so  thin,  at  the  full  period  of  gesta- 
tion. Did  not  Mr.  Barlow  mistake  the  membranes  for  the  utc-^ 
rus  }  And  had  not  the  foetus  escape^!,  at  some  period  of  preg- 
nancy, into  the  cavity  of  the  abdomen  t 

If  the  child  had  passed  through  a  laceration  of  the  uterus 
into  the  cavity,  whether  long  or  soon  before  the  operation,  the 
danger  attending  the  extraction  would  evidently  be  much  di- 
minished 5  at  least,  as  far  as  respects  the  process  of  the  ope- 
rator.    It  would  become  a  mere  case  of  gastrotomy. 

A  singular  Case  in  Lithotomy.  By  R.  B,  Cheston,  M.  J), 
This  case  can  scarcely  be  understood,  without  seeing  the 
whole  of  tlie  paper.  A  stone  so  iirmly  fixed  in  the  neck  of 
the  bladder,  projecting  into  the  perineum,  thnt  it  could  not  be 
extracted  by  any  of  the  usual  methods,  waj  cut  upon  through 
the  urethra,  and  the  wound  was  kept  open  for  five  weeks;  at 

*  Dr.  l-Iull's  Defence  of  the  Ca?sarci:i;  0;Arat:on.  Sec  M.  R.  for 
May  last. 

Rbv.  June.  1799.  N  the 

1 7f>        Medical  Records  and  Researches^  Vol.  I:  Part  7. 

the  end  of  which  it  was  found  necessary  to  break  the  stone, 
and  extract  it  piecemeal. 

Observations  on  the  Cure  of  the  Hydrocele  by  Injection.  By  J.  R< 
Farre,  Surgeon, 

The  result  of  several  cases,  detailed  in  this  paper,  docs  not 
appear  very  favourable  to  this  method  of  cure.  The  Uncer- 
tainty of  success  with  it  is  surely  a  disagreeable  circumstance. 

A}i  Inquiry  concerning  the  true  and  spurious  Cesarean  Operation^ 
in  which  their  Distinctions  are  insisted  on,  principally  with  a 
View  to  form  a  more  accurate  Estiniate  of  Success  :  to  which 
are  annexed  some  Observations  on  the  Cause  of  the  great. 
Danger.     By  John  Haighton,  M.  D.  &c. 

This  is  a  revieit/  of  some  authors  who  have  written  in  support 
of  the  Caesarean  operation,  and  the  accuracy  of  whose  evi- 
dence appears  very  questionable. 

Rousset,  an  old  French  writer,  is  a  principal  object  of  Dr.' 
H*s  criticism  j  and  from  the  view  here  given  of  his  crcdulrtyi 
fiis  authority  seems  to  be  very  light  indeed.  He  mentions  onei^ 
woman  who  had  undergone  the  Csesarean  operation  seven  times, 
and  another  who  underwent  it  thrice.  Another  advocate  for 
the  section  relates,  that  a  physician  at  Bruges  performed  this 
operation  seven  times  on  his  own  wife.  This  kind  of  accumu« 
lated  evidence  does  indeed  remind  us  of  Butler's 

•*  Sir  Agrippa,  for  profound 

And  solid  lying  much  rcnown'd." 

Dr.  Haighton  seems  to  think  it  probable,  (setting  aside  the  ri« 
diculous  stories  mentioned  above,)  that  the  extrattion  of  an  extra- 
uterine foetus  has  repeatedly  passed  for  an  instance  of  the  Cse- 
sarean  section. — The  danger  of  the  operation  is  justly  stated  to 
arise  from  the  large  wound  made  in  the  uterus,  and  the  dis- 
charge of  blood  into  the  abdomen.  We  think  that  the  conw 
tents  of  this  essay  should  be  well  weighed,  by  those  who  are 
forward  in  proposing  so  hazardous  an  operation, 

ji  Case  of  Imperforated  Hymen^  attended  with  uncommon  Oir» 
cumstancesn  By  John  Sherwcn,  M.  D.  Enfield. 
^  A  great  quantity  of  menstrual  blood,  much  thickened,  was 
discharged  by  an  incision  in  this  patient,  which  had  given  hm 
the  appearance  of  a  pregnant  woman  during  several  years* 
She  had  be^n  married  fourteen  years. 


(  m  ) 

Art.  X.  Vhe  Art  of  Floating  Land^  as  it  is  practis^in  tlie  County' 
of  Gloucester,  shewn  to  be  preferable  to  any  other  Method  ia 
use  in  this  Country  ;  with  a  particular  Examination  of  what  Mr. 
Bosvvell,  Mr,  Davis,  Mr.  Marshall,  and  others,  have  \vritten  on  the 
•Subject.  Minute  and  plain  Directions  are  afterwards  given,  for  the 
Formation  of  a  floated  Meadow,  with  three  descriptive  Plates. 
£y  T.  Wright.  8vo.  pp.  9^.  38.  6d.  sewed.  Hatchard, 
&c.     1 799. 

^1^0  point  out  Aow  t'vOf)  blades  rfgrnss  may  be  made  to  grow ^  vthert 
**  imtyonigrew  beforty  has  been  allowed  to  be  doing  the  country 
the  fnost  laudable  service  ;  and  this  is  not  only  proposed  to  be 
effected  in  the  art  of  floating  land,  or  of  watering  meadows  *  by 
passing  a  complete  sheet  of  quick-flowing  water  over  them  at 
least  an  inch  thick,'  but  has  been  actually  accomplished.  The 
method  therefore  of  effecting  it,  or  the  detailed  process  with 
all  the  minutiae  of  practice,  it  is  highly  meritorious  to  lay  before 
the  public.  Mr.  Wright  was  entitled  to  our  commendation 
when  he  firsf  printed  a  small  pamphlet  on  this  subject,  (sec 
M.  R.  vol.  Ixxx.  p.  33Sj)  and  we  thank  him,  in  the  name  of 
the  public,  for  the  more  matured  thoughts  and  observations 
which  are  here  exhibited.  His  pamphlet  published  in  1789 
was  entitled  "  an  account  of  watering  meadows  :"  but,  in  the 
present  work,  he  objects  to  the  term  waterings  as  not  contri- 
buting towards  a  clear  conception  of  the  business,  but  merely 
affording  ^n  idea  of  wetting  the  land  by  a  small  and  incon- 
siderable portion  of  water ;  and  he  therefore  substitutes  the 
tctmjloating  as  more  expressive  of  the  process  intended;  which 
is  covering  the  whole  surface  of  the  meadow  with  a  thin  sheets 
not  of  stagnant,  but  of  flowing  water  ^  and,  if  possible,  from 
a  large  stream. 

Mr.  W.  tells  us  that  he  considers  the  water  of  every  copious 
and  rapid  stream  as  loaded  with  manure  of  the  most  ferti** 
lizing  quality ;  and  he  is  not  a  little  justified  in  this  imagina* 
tion,  by  the  fact  that  land  may  be  made  rich  by  it,  whatever 
be  the  nature  of  the  soil  and  subsoil.  He  observes,  in  com* 
menting  on  a  position  of  Mr.  Boswell,  that  *  though,  for  a 
few  years,  difference  of  soil  may  have  considerable  effect,  after 
a  continuance  of  floating,  good  water  will  form  for  itself  a  good 
new  soil.* 

The  primary  objects  of  this  practice  are  stated  to  be,  first,  to 
procure  a  deposit  of  manure  from  the  water  used,  and  secondly 
to  shelter  land  from  the  severity  of  winter.  Whether  Mr.  W.'s 
theory  be  accurate  respecting  these  particuhrs  is  of  no  im- 
portance. The  evident  utility  of  the  practice,  or  the  eflFect 
produced,  will  interest  the  fuiblic  and  give  a  value  to  his 

N.a  la 

172  WrightV  Art  of  Floating  Land. 

in  his  former  pamphlet,  Mr*  W*  estimated  too  lowly  the 
expence  of  making  meadows  for  floating.  He  now  sets  tl^e 
cost  at  between  3  and  61.  per  acre. 

To  practise  this  art  in  perfection,  there  must  be  a  com- 
mand of  water.  This  the  reader  will  perceive  by  the  fol- 
lowing extract  from  the  first  part  of  Mr,  W.'s  chapter  on  the 
method  of  forming  a  floated  meadow  : 

^  Before  I  begin  to  point  out  the  particular  mode  of  forming  a 
floated  meadow ;  such  questions  as  the  following  are  necessary  to 
be  proposed  :  Will  the  stream  of  water  to  be  employed  in  floating, 
admit  of  a  temporary  wear  or  dam  across  it  ?  Can  you  dam  up.  and 
raise  the  water  high  enough  to  flow  over  the  surface  of  your  land, 
without  flooding  and  injuring  your  neighbours*  adjoining  land  ?  Or, 
IS  your  water  already  high  enough,  without  a  wear ;  or,  can  yoa 
make  it  so,  by  taking  it  out  of  the  stream  higher  up,  and  by  the 
conductor,  keeping  it  up'  nearly  to  its  level,  till  it  enters  the  mea- 
dow ?  And  can  you  draw  the  water  off"  your  meadow  as  quick,  as  it 
'  18  brought  on  ?  If  you  are  free  from  all  objections  of  this  kind,  yoa 
may  proceed  in  the  following  manner : 

*  In  the  flrst  place,  when  the  descent  is  ncit  sufliciently  great  to 
be  determined  by  the  eye,  take  an  acairate  level  of  the  ground  in- 
tended for  floating,  and  compare  the  higheil  part  of  it,  with  the 
height  of  the  stream  of  water  to  be  used.  Ascertain  how  many 
inches  fall,  there  are,  from  the  surface  of  the  water,  to  the  highest 
part  of  the  land  :  if  the  highest  part  of  the  land,  be  adjoining  to 
the  stream,  the  process  is  easy ;  but  if,  as  it  often  happens,  it  be 
distant  from,  or  the  farthest  part  from  the  stream,  the  execution 
becomes  more  difficult ;  as  it  is  necessar)^  that  the  sides  of  the  ditch 
which  introduces  the  water,  should  be  raised  all  that  distance,  and 
kept  high  enough  to  carry  the  water  to  the  aforesaid  highest  part. 
In  this  case,  cut,  in  as  direct  a  line  as  circumstances  will  allow,  a 
wide  ditch,  or  master-feeder,  keeping  up  its  banks,  not  upon  a  dead 
level,  but  with  a  gradual  descent  from  beginning  to  end.  Supposing 
the  highest  part  of  the  meadow  to  be  one.  hundred  yards  distant  from 
the  stream,  and  you  have  five  inches  fall  in  that  dista-.ce,  you  are  to 
give  to  the  whole  length,  an  equal  degree  of  descent,  that  is,  to 
each  twenty  yards,  one  inch  fall,  and  then  every  drop  of  water  will 
be  kept  in  equable  and  constant  motion.' 

Those,  however,  who  have  estates  capable  of  being  im- 
proved by  this  art,  and  are  disposed  to  augment  their  value  by 
the  adoption  of  it,  will  no  doubt  attend  to  the  whole  of  the 
directions  given  in  the  subsequent  part  of  the  pamphlet ;  and 
will  probably  avail  themselves  of  Mr.  Wright's  offer  of  sending 
them  *  a  Gloucestershire  floater,*  on  a  letter  being  addressed  to 
him  (free  of  postage)  at  Mr.  Scatcherd's,  bookseller,  Avc- 
Mariu-lane,  London.  .^^ 


(  m  ) 

Art.  XL  Th^  BrUlsh  Nepot ;  or  Touth^s  Mirror:  beingr  select 
Lives  of  illustrious  Britons,  who  have  been  distinguished  by  their 
Virtues,  Talents,  or  remarkable  Progress  in  Life,  with  incidental 
and  practical  Reflections.  Written  purposely  for  the  Use  of 
Schools,  and  carefully  adapted  to  the  Situations  and  Capacities  of 
British  Youth.  By  William  Mavor,  LL.D.  12 mo*  pp.464. 
48.  6d.     bound.     Law,  &c.    .1798. 

1 N  presenting  this  work  to  the  public,  Dr.  Mavor  has  not  only 
^   m»de  a  valuable  and  much  wanted  addition  to  the  school 
library,  but  has  furnished  a  book  which  is  well  calculated  for 
the  parlour- window,  and  for  the  shelf  in  the  room  behind  the 
shop  of  those  tradesmen  who  devote  to  reading  some  of  the 
hours*  which  they  can  steal  from  business  *,  justly  persuaded  that 
money  without  knowlege  is  an  acquisition  of  little  value.    As 
we  cannot  be  ignorant  of  the  dulness  and  apparent  sterility  of  the 
initiatory  paths  to  science,  we  are  pleased  with  every  thing  that 
tends  to  enliven  juvenile  study,  and  to  excite  an  early  love  of 
reading.    It  may  be  objected  to  what  is  called  a  classical  educa- 
tion, that  it  leaves  us  ignorant  of  those  characters  and  events 
which  are  most  interesting  to  us;  that  it  directs  the  ardor  and 
curiosity  of  young  readers  from  the  theatre  of  their  own  country, 
and  from  the  great  and  illustrious  persons  who  have  acted  on 
it,  to  men  who  have  figured  in  remote  climes  and  periods :  and 
with  whose  history,  though  certainly  it  be  worth  knowing,  we . 
are  not  so  Intimately  connected.    Respect  is  due  to  science  and 
virtue  in  all  ages  ;  and  let  them  be  presented  to  the  minds  of 
youth  so  as  to  fire  them  with  the  noblest  ambition  :  but  let  not 
our  systems  of  instruction  be  such  that  young  men  of  genius 
shall  contemplate   with  admiration  the    heroes   of  antiquity, 
v^hile  obscurity  is  suffered  to  rest  on  that  part  of  the  temple  of 
Fame  which  contains  ihe  worthies  of  their  own  country. 

To  British  History,  Chronology,  and  Biography,  the  atten* 
tion  of  the  British  youth  ought  to  be  awakened  ;  and  while  we 
wonder  that  more  works  have  not  been  compiled  with  this  in- 
tention, we  would  give  to  Dr.  Mavor  the  praise  and  credit 
which  are  due  to  him  for  tJiis  agreeable  biographical  manual; 
and  we  would  recommend  it  to  the  masters  of  all  our  respect- 
able schools.  Though  it  is  not  without  faults  and  defects,  it  is 
pleasingly  written  ;  and  the  reflections  interspersed  are  calcu- 
lated to  inspire  a  love  of  pure  and  generous  principles,  and  an 
hatred  of  all  such  as  tend  to  degrade  civilized  man. 

At  the  head  of  each  article,  Dr.  Mavor  has  very  judiciously 
set  down  the  time  when  the  person  who  is  the  subject  of  it  was 
born,  and  when  he  died;  and  if  the  death  was  a  violent  one, 
that  circuipstance  is  specified.  We  could  have  wished  that  to 
the  date  of  the  year,  he  had  added  the  reign  in  which  each  ilr 

N  3  lu9trious 

U  74  MavorV  British  Nepos» 

lustrlous  person  was  born,  and  in  which  he  died ;  this  would 
help  the  British  youth  to  recollect  the  series  of  our  kingSi  and 
in  course  fix  in  their  minds  the  chronology  of  events ; — a  cir- 
cumstance to  which  due  attention  is  not  always  paid  in  our  sys- 
tems of  education. 

The  sketches  here  exhibited  are  those  of  Alfred  the  Great, 
Friar  Bacon,  John  WicklifF,  Geoffrey  Chaucer,  Canrinal  Wol- 
sey.  Sir  Thomas  More,  Cromwell  Earl  of  Essex,  Bishop  La- 
timer, Sebastian  Cabot,  Bilhop  Jewell,  Sir  Thomas  Gresham, 
the  admirable  Crighton,  Sir  Francis  Walsingham,  Sir  Francis 
Drake,  Lord  Burleigh,  William  Shafespearc,  Sir  Walter  Ra- 
leigh, Lord  Bacon,  Andrews  Bishop  of  Winchester,  Sir  Ed- 
M'nrd  Coke,  Earl  of  Strafford,  John  Hampden,  Dr.  ViTilliam 
Harvey,  Admiral  Blake,  Earl  of  Clarendon,  John  Milton,  An* 
drew  Marvel,  Algernon  Sydney,  Archbishop  Tillotson,  John 
Locke,  Lord  Chief  Justice  Holt,  Bishop  Burnst,  William 
3?enn,  Mr.  Addison,  the  Duke  of  Marlborough,  Sir  Iiwac 
Newton,  Sir  Robert  Walpole  Earl  of  Orford,  the  Earl 
of  Stair,  Sir  Hans  Sloane,  General  Wolfe,  Lord  Anson, 
the  Earl  of  Hardwicke,  Sir  John  Barnard,  George  Lord 
Littckon,  Lord  Clive,  William  Pitt  Earl  of  Chatham,  Da- 
vid Garrick,  Captain  James  Cook,  Sir  William  Blackstone, 
Pr.  Samuel  Johnson,  Bishop  Lowth,  and  John  Howard,— The 
)ives  of  Jonas  Hanway,  Sir  Joshua  Rcynol^ds,  and  the  Earl  of 
Mansfield,  were  intended  to  have  been  given:  bur,  at  the 
close  of  the  volume,  we  are  told  that  another  arrangement  and 
•election  had  been  found  necessary^  In  a  second  edition,  these 
may  possibly  find  a  place. 

Embracing  the  most  eventful  and  important  periods  of  Eng- 
lish story,  this  rich  variety  of  biographical  matter  must  prove 
acceptable  to  young  readers,  and  to  such  as  thirst  for  know- 
Icge,  which  thty  arc  obliged  to  *^  snatchy^  as  Pope  says,  **  not 
titke.^  The  memoirs  are  introduced  by  judicious  remarks  from 
the  pen  of  Dr.  M.;  some  specimens  of  which  we  think  it  may 
be  gratifying  to  our  readers  to  subjoin. — The  life  of  Latimer 
thus  commences : 

*  That  a  religion  whose  distinguishing  character  is  charity  and  bc- 
ntvolence,  shoiild  ever  have  been  eiiiploycd  as  an  engine  of  persecu- 
tion, is  mortifying  to  those  who  enter  into  ils  celestial  views,  and  to 
the  sceptic  and  the  infidel  furnishes  a  weak  but  plausible  argument 
against  its  authenticity.  In  these  days,  indeed,  \^ien  bigotry  and 
superstition  arc  justly  exploded,  it  must  astonish  every  sincere  Christ- 
ian, to  reflect,  how  it  could  have  entered  into  the  conception  of  man, 
that  God  could  be  honoured  by  a  flagrant  violation  of  his  express  com- 
mands, ••  to  love  one  another ;"  and  that  the  kingdom  of  heaven  wat 
t6  be  gained  by  the  perpetration  of  crimes  at  which  human  nature 
turns  pale.    Yet  it  may  be  inst^'uctiye  to  the  rising  gcDeralion  ti^ 

.    knowa 

Jji^yox*!  Bt'itish  Nrpct.  ijg 

JmoWy  that  in  former  times  fires  have  blazed,  and  kuman  sacnfices 
haTc  been  offered  up,  under  the  name  of  a  religion  that  abjure**  them. 

*  Latimer,  Ridley,  Hooper,  and  Cranmer,  all  men  of  eiLinencc 
in  learning  and  station,  sufllered  at  the  slake,  in  the  sanguinary  reign 
of  the  bigottcd  Mary,  and  sealed  the  truth  of  genuine  Chiistiaoity 
with  their  blood.  We  have  selected  the  life  of  the  former,  as  appear- 
ing to  us  to  approach  nearest  the  utandard  of  primitive  simplicity  and 
virtue,  and  as  furnishing  the  bnghtcj>t  example  of  suffering  patience^ 
and  of  fortitude  in  trial.' 

The  Attention  of  the  young  student  is  thus  directed  to  the 
history  of  Sir  Edward  Coke,  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  England  : 

*  Of  all  the  professions,  that  of  jurisprudence  affords  the  fairest  and 
most  promising  field  for  abilities  to  shine  in.  Tlv  d.'vinc,  with  very 
slender  pretensions  to  talents,  may  mount  on  the  props  of  patron- 
Hgc  or  connections ;  the  physician  is  often  more  indebted  for  success 
to  hii  address  than  his  skill ;  but  nciiher  patro\iage>  connectionsi  nor 
address,  can  make  a  man  an  able  lawyer  or  an  eloquent  pleader.  In 
this  line  there  must  be  intrinsic  merit,  which  at  last  will  surmount  all 
difficulties,  and  trusting  to  itself  alone,  will,  if  at  all  called  into  ac- 
tion, command  that  attention  which  the  generality  of  men  are  obliged 
to  court.  It  is  not,  therefore,  to  be  wondered  at  *hat  there  should 
be  so  many  candidates  for  the  honours  of  the 'bar;  and  that,  from 
amon^  so  many  competitors,  there  should  be  some  splendid  instances 
of  a  right  direction  of  faculties,  and  successful  labours.' 

Farther  to  stimulate  the  exertions  of  youthful  genius,  and  to 
excite  a  laudable  ambition,  the  Doctor  thus  begins  the  memoir 
on  the  celebrated  Edward  Hyde,  Earl  of  Clarendon  : 

*  To  preserve  integrity  of  conduct,  and  consistency  ofpnnciple,  ^ 
amidst  public  convulr-ions,  when  force  generally  sets  right  at  defiance 

— to  adhere  to  what  is  juit  and  honourable,  regardless  of  what  is  ex- 
pedient or  profitable,  is  the  character  of  a  great  and  a  good  man.  How 
far  lord  chancellor  Clarendon  deserves  this  praise  will  be  $ecn  from  a 
brief  survey  of  his  life. 

*  This  celebrated  statesman  and  historiographer  was  descended 
from  an  antient  family  in  Cheshire,  and  was  the  thiid  hon  of  a  gentlc- 

xRian,  possessed  of  a  small  fortune,  who  resided  at  Denton,  near  Hin- 
don,  m  Wilts ;  where  the  future  chancellor  was  born.  With  no 
prospects  of  a  patrimony,  nor  protected  by  great  alliances,  he  had  his 
fortune  to  make  by  his  own  merits  ;  and  in  the  history  of  men  it  may' 
be  remarked,  that  for  one  who  has  increased  the  original  honours  of 
his  family,  and  enlarged  itls  hereditary  possessions,  thousands  have  ' 
pursued  retrograde  movements,  and  sunk  what  they  felt  no  necessity 
to  advance.  Hence  the  aspiring  and  virtuous  mind,  ungifted  by  for- 
tune, may  draw  the  most  tavourahlc  arguments  for  hope  and  pcrsf- 
yerance ;  and  when  it  views  the  elevation  which  oiher*  have  reached^ 
acquiesce  in  the  toil  which  is  requisite  to  gain  the  accent,' 

This  British  Nepos  (the  -itle  and  idea  of  which  were  suggej;ted, 
'9i  wc  need  not  tell  the  cbs?ical  reader,  bv  a  Latin  book  much 

N4  '  rc:i4 

If 6  Zimmerman  on  SolituJe: 

Vcad  in  schools,  entitled  "  the  Lives  of  iIlustTioiis  Personagcf 
by  CorneliusNepos")  is  preceded  by  an  advertisement,  addressed 
to  parents  and  tutors,  in  which  Dr.Mavor,  with  a  view  of  *  deve- 
loping the  latent  faculties  of  judgment  and  reflection,  and  of  im- 
pressing the  youthful  mind  with  right  principles  of  action,  recom- 
mends that  each  life  be  made  the  subject  of  an  exercise  to  be 
written  by  the  scholars,  and  presented  to  their  master  once  in 
a  week,  or  oftener.'  This  hint  is  worth  regarding.  The  ex- 
jimple  of  the  good  and  wise  has  always  been  considered  as  sin- 
gularly conducive  to  virtue  \  and  this  mode  of  studying  bio- 
graphy must  give  it  peculiar  efficacy.  ^^^ 

^RT.  XII.     Solitude  considered  whh  Respect  to  its  dangerous  Influenct 
upon  the  Mind  and  Hearty  selected  and  translated  from  the  ori- 

final  German  of  M.  Zimmerman.     Being  a  Sequel  to  the  former 
English  Translation,    gvo.     pp.316.    5s.  sewed.     Dilly.     1798. 

'T*HOUGH  we  may  consider  Mr.  John  George  Zimmermann 
•*•  as  a  rational  and  finished  writer,  he  is  so  regularly  mode-' 
fate  that  we  should  wonder  at  the  very  general  popularity  of 
his  productions,  were  not  the  anecdote-gleaners  and  retailers 
of  comiflBRiorality  every  where  in  high  favor.  He  is  well- 
^uiced  p  n^b|  multitude  of  lounging  readers,  who  want  an 
instructive  an^^asant  book,  while  confined  to  their  seats  by 
a  teazing  hair-drei^pr  a  rainy  day.  He  is  a  philosopher' fo?- 
the  parlour-window,  "^is  life  of  Haller,  his  essay  on  National 
Pride,  his  medical  and  other  ininor  works,  have  all  passed  with 
^approbation  through  the  hands  of  a  polished  public.  Yet  his 
writing?  have  left  but  few  enduring  traces  of  their  existence  : 
like  those  tulips  and  polyanthujjses  which  variegate  the  garden 
without  perfuming  it,  which  I  low  with  but  a  feeble  welcome, 
and  wither  ^gain  unmissed.  They  breathe  an  unexceptionable 
and  rather  a  liberal  spirit.  They  are  written  with  a  studious 
neatness,  which  in  his  time  passed  for  exquisite  elegance  :  but 
they  never  arouse  by  boldness  of  expression  or  prominent  ori- 
ginality of  thought.  A  redundance  bordering  on  tautology,  a 
variation  of  expression  rather  than  of  position,  and  a  babbling 
love  of  amplification,  render  his  prose  tedious  to  the  apprehen- 
sion of  a  quick  and  apt  reader.  His  treatises,  like  that  of  Abbt 
on  Merit,  were  ranked  among  the  classics  of  his  country, 
while  it  h;»d  no  cliussics.  The  beauties  of  Zimmermann  would 
•comprise  little  besides  anecdote. 

The  traublatcrt-  of  the  present  work  Informs  us  that 

•  Zimmcrmnn's  celebrated  Treatise  on  Solitude  has  long  been 
known  to  tlie  Engllbh  Reader  by  the  very  elegant  Translation  made 


Zimmerman  on  Solitude.  177 

from  Ae.  French  of  M.  Mercier  :  but,  unfortunately  for  iKe  fame 
of  the  German  writer,  his  sentiments  have  thus  been  most  materially 
perverted  and  misrepresented  :  Of  Twelve  Chapters  contained  in  the 
original  work,  on  the  various  consequences  of  solitary  habits,  the 
French  version  comprehended  only  Four  ;  and  those  such  as  treated 
only  of  the  salutary  effects  of  Retirement.  By  this  means,  instead 
of  appearing  in  his  true  character  as  a  philosophical  reasoner  on  the 
subject  of  Retirement,  Zimmerman  has  been  considered  only  as  stn 
amiable  rcclui.e,  painting,  witli  the  lively  but  visionary  colours  of 
jromaniic  attachment,  a  state  of  life,  which,  incautiously  enibraced, 
or  obstinately  adiiercd  to,  renders  its  votary  burthensomc  to  himsdf 
as  well  as  useless  to  mankind. 

*  How  contrary  this  was  to  the  real  character  of  this  admired 
wnter,  it  is  hoped  the  present  volume  will  manifest.  He  will  here 
be  seen  in  his  true  light,  not  only  as  a  man  abounding  in  a  noble  and 
delicate  sensibility,  and  possest  of  a  rich  and  elegant  imagination  5 
but  as  a  rational  moralist,  a  comprehensive  and  enlightened  Philoso- 
pher, investigating  the  influence  of  Solitude  in  its  different  stages 
and  various  forms ;  balancing  its  benefits  and  mischiefs  j  proposing 
regulations,  and  suggesting  remedies.' 

We  shall  now  extract  a  fragment : 

*  The  Student,  secluded,  by  his  peculiar  pursuit^,  from  the  usihd 
resorts  and  paths  of  life,  frequently  enters  into  the  world  at  an  ad* 
vanccd  age.  Some,  discouraged  by  the  neglect  that  marks  their  in- 
troduction to  society,  or  deterred  by  the  ridicule  to  which  their 
learned  uncouthntss  exposes  them,  shrink  back  into  their  retirement; 
despairing  of  ever  acquirin]^  such  habits  as  may  render  them  capable 
of  social  intercourse  with  tne  gay,  the  elegant,  and  luxurious ;  and 
thus  at  once  abandon,  for  ever,  those  scenes  to  which  a  little  more 
resolution  and  perseverance  would  have  familiarized  them.  Others, 
finding  the  world  as  little  agreeable  to  their  tastes  and  opinions,  as 
they  are  to  those  of  the  world,  renounce  its  commerce,  as  a  measure 
equally  desirable  for  both.  Some,  who,  perhaps,  conceive  they  shall 
be  looked  on  as  having  transfused  all  t'.jeir  mind  into  their  composi- 
tions, and  tiierefore  be  regarded  and  rejected  with  disdain,  h*kc 
empty  bottles  or  squeezed  oranges,  will  not  encounter  with  their 
presence  a  society,  to  which  it  is  not  expected  they  can  any  longer 
afford  instruction  or  entertainment.  Many  are  there,  also,  who  de- 
cline company,  because  they  observe  with  contempt,  how  rarely  the 
most  numerous  assemblies  contain  any  persons  capable  of  just  and 
manly  reflection  ;  and  that  the  vain  and  fiivolous  rise  in  msurrec* 
tion,  as  it  were,  againrt  every  word  thut  carries  in  it  either  energy 
or  meaning. 

*  For  these,  among  other  causes,  many  characters,  distinguished 
for  their  genius  and  knowledge,  though  ambitious  to  instruct  and 
delight  mankind,  too  realily  forego  the  reciprocal  benefits  of  the  so- 
cial circle.  But  this  is  no  trifling  loss  to  them.  The  mind  will  ge- 
nerally feci  a  deficiency,  if  to  its  literary  acquisitions  there  be  not 
added  the  observation  and  experience  of  living  manners  and  passions. 
Without  thxse  it  sees  not  the  end  to  which  its  benevolent  exertions 


173  Zimmerman  en  SeliUidc. 

should  be  addressod ;  nor  the  means  and  instruments^  hy  Trhich  to 
attain  them ;  neither  is  it  likely  ever  to  acquire  that  fine  sense  in 
iiiorals>  and  exquisite  sensibility  of  taste,  which  seldom  fails  to  be 
caught  by  a  vigorous  and  correct  rt>ind  from  the  conversation  of 
Tarious  'characterj,  and  an  intimate  discrimination  of  manners.  The 
best  and  sagest  moraUsts  have  ever  sought  to  m\x  with  mankind  ;  to 
review  e\'ery  class  of  life ;  to  study  the  virtues,  and  detect  the  vices, 
by  which  each  are  peculiarly  marked.  It  has  been  by  founding 
then*  diKjuisitions  and  essays  on  men  and  manners,  upon  actual  ob* 
•etration,  tjlat  ihey  have  owed  much  of  the  success,  with  which 
their  virtuon's  efforts  have  been  crowned. 

*  The  society  of  the  great,  the  gay,  the  informed,  nay,  of  the 
Bitan,  the  solemn,  and  the  uninstructed  affords  a  continual  critcnofi 
•thereby  to  judge  of  the  ideas  we  may  have  entertained :  and  at  The 
same  ticrsc  offers  new'  accessions  to  them  ;  it  may  be  employed  by  the 
•tudious  as  a  means  of  criticism  on  their  own  works,  smce  they  may 
lluis  incidentally  advance  and  discuss  opinions  before  they  venture  on 
the  irrevocable  step  of  committing  them  to  the  judgment  of  the 
jublic.  By  the  experiment  that  may  be  made  on  every  one,  learned 
or  igoorant,  with  whom  we  hold  discourse,  we  may  not  only  bring 
to  a  touchstone  the  truth  of  our  tenets,  but  learn  how  wc  may  best 
elucidate  and  express  them  5  and  remove  the  impediments  which 
might  otherwise  oppose  their  being  favourably  received,  or  assented 
to.  Many,  who  have  stored  their  minds  with  science  and  philosophy^ 
and  strengthened  their  faculties  by  meditation,  attempt  to  enlighten 
the  world  from  the  obscurity  of  solitude  ;  but  having  lived  to 
themselves  only,  inattentive  to  the  rules  of  ordinary  life,  and  igno- 
rant of  the  necessities  and  obligations  that  result  from  its  variout 
forms,  these  inexperienced  sages  Icnow  not  what  objects  to  select  foi 
displaving  their  knowledge,  nor  thioiigh  what  medium  to  convey 
ihcrr  instructions.  Unskilled  in  the  manner  of  framing  their  address^ 
they  shock  and  repel,  when  they  would  wii,h  to  conciliate  and  en^ 
gygc  ;  they  command  where  they  should  persuade ;  and,  on  the 
CDutrainr,  where  they  might,  with  propriety  and  effect,  employ  tlic 
iBiperative  language  of  assured  truth  and  confident  justice,  they 
surrender  their  advantage,  and  betray  their  cause  by  a  tone  of  humi- 
lity and  indecision. 

'  When  the  mind  is  once  smitten  with  the  love  of  science,  and 
"becomes  eager  to  urge  its  pov.ers  to  their  utmost  stretch,  it  usually 
resigns  itself  without  reserve  to  the  means  of  gratifying  this  ambition. 
Tiie  opportunity  afforded  by  retirement  to  promote  these  means 
rives  it  a  hold  on  the  sincere  student,  from  which  he  is  unable,  and 
indeed  unwilling  to  release  himself.  If  he  is  ever  prevailed  on  to 
leave  the  quiet  and  freedom  of  his  beloved  privacy,  at  the  solicitation 
of  friendship,  to  mingle  with  society,  it  is  by  a  painful  violence 
lo  his  inelijiations,  which  prevents  him  from  participating  in  the 
'pleasures  of  the  novel  scene,  to  learn  its  lessons,  or  obtain  its 
iionours.  Suddenly  transported  into  the  midst  of  a  crowd,  whose 
Kitcrests,  feelings,  and  prejudices,  variously  modified  by  chance  and 
'condition,  agree  among  themselves  only  in  differing  altogether  from 
his,  he  is  bewildered  to  the  strange  intricacy  and  complication  of 


BznvLtTs  Memoirs  of  Jacohinismy  Vol.  IV.  I79 

>icw8  which  he  can  neither  comprehend,  nor  co-operate  With.  To 
him  the  confin^  and  temporary  honours  of  the  festive  party  offief 
small  attraction  ;  his  more  extended  ambition  grasping  at  the  adxni* 
ration  of  ages,  feels  as  faintly  prqmpted  to  exhibit  its  excellence  in 
such  contracted  circles,  as  the  comedian  does  to  exert  his  talent 
before  empty  theatres.  The  elevation  of  mind  produced  by  the  gian-^ 
deur  of  his  designs,  compensates  to  him  the  want  of  that  credit  and 
respect,  for  the  acquisition  of  which  it  incapacitates  him ;  full  of  the 
fame  he  hopes  to  possess  in  future  age$,  he  is  indifferent  to  the  esti- 
mation made  of  him  by  his  contemporaries,  and  disdains  the  practice 
of  those  arts,  which  usually  secure  present  reputation  and  fortune. 

*■  Hence  it  is  that  many  learned  and  ingenious  men,  capable  of  im« 
proving  all  who  might  associate  with  them,  and  deserving  genetal 
esteem  and  encouragement,  wear  away  an  obscure  and  solitary  life  la 
the  unprofitable  worship  of  truth  and  science  :  while  hundreds,  who 
have  exerted  their  modicum  of  sense  and  information  merely  to  con- 
tribute to  the  immediate,  and  perhaps,  sordid  convenience  of  the  lo- 
dolent  and  luxurious,  are  loaded  with  opulence,  and  treated  with  the 
regard  due  only  to  those  who  instruct  the  ignorance,  or  purify  the 
morals  of  manktnci. 

*  Often  have  I  reflected  with  indignation  and  surprise  on  the  fate 
of  men,  who  though  endowed  with  ever)'  quality  to  add  to  the  happi- 
ness, engage  the  atfections,  command  the  respect,  and  merit  the  gn.^ 
titude  of  society  ;  though  formed  to  please  and  shine  among  the  ele- 

fant  and  great,  and  adapted  to  support  and  adorn  the  proudest  of- 
ces,  remain  immured  in  poverty  and  neglect ;  while  honours  and 
emoluments  are  engrossed  by  hereditary  dunces  ;  or  by  knaves,  who 
have  raised  themselves  from  the  dregs  of  society  through  mean  com- 
pliances and  dishonest  artifices.* 

In  discussing  *  the  ill  effects  of  Solitude  on  the  Passions^  tlic  ' 
author  dwells  perhaps  too  much  on  the  excesses,  in  cloisters 
and  convents^  of  those  whom  solitude  was  designed  to  teacb 
exemplary  purity,  but  in  whom  peculiar  sensuality  was  thus 
excited.  His  details  are  too  much  extended,  and  his  delinca^ 
tions  are  indelicate? 

The  translation  is  in  general  executed  with  elegance,  and  it 
does  even  more  than  justice  to  the  German  original*  ^^ 

,      ^ 

Art.  XIII.  Memoirs  illustrating  the  History  of  Jacohinism,  Tmns- 
latcd  from  the  Frtnch  of  the  Abbe  Barruel.  Part  IV.  VoL  IV, 
8vo.     7s.  6d.  Boards.     Booker.     1798. 

Chortly  before  the  French  revolution,  ^nd  for  the  purpose 
*^  of  facilitating  some  internal  changes  in  French  Free* 
masonry  that  should  be  favourable  to  the  antichristian  cause, 
&nd  to  the  views  of  the  Duke  of  Orleans,  Mirabcau  published 
at  Paris  an  Essay  on  the  Illumines^  which  was  afterward  re- 
printed as  a  thixd  volume  of  bis  Secret  Memoirs  of  the  Court 


|8d  Barrucrx  Memoirs  of  Jacobinism^  Vol.  IF. 

of  Berlin.  As  this  work  passes  in  the  philosophic  world  for 
some  corroboration  of  the  Abbe  Barruel's  denunciation  of  the 
lUumineSi  particularly  as  to  the  charge  of  Vandalism,  it  is  ne- 
cessary tQ  analyze  the  tactics  of  the  skilful,  but  unscrupulous 
author  of  this  essay.  At  the  period  of  its  publication,  the 
papers  of  the  Illumines  had  recently  been  seized,  and  their 
persons  banished  :  they  were  in  the  condition  of  detected  con- 
spirators, with  whom  it  is  unsafe  to  acknowlege  any  relation,  and 
to  appear  to  sympathize,  Mirabcau  therefore,  in  order  to 
avert  the  suspicion  of  similar  views  from  the  French  philoso- 
phers, joins  in  the  then  fresh  and  loud  outcry  against  the  Il- 
lumines ;  sacrificing  the  name  to  serve  the  cause :  but,  in 
diametrical  opposition  to  fact,  he  ascribes  to  them  precisely 
and  exclusively  all  those  fanatical  and  superstitious  opinions, 
which  their  speaking  trumpet,  the  Berlin  magazine  conducted 
by  Nicolai  and  his  illuminated  coadjutors,  had  been  so  active 
in  denouncing  and  exposing.  By  these  means,  the  odium 
which  the  Illumines  had  incurred  was  flung  on  their  antago« 
nistS)  the  offuscants  (as  they  afi^cted  to  call  the  teachers  of  vul- 
gar credulity) ;  and  the  jealousy  of  the  French  government^ 
which  the  poHtjcal  views  of  the  Illumines  might  excite,  was 
thus  pointed  against  superstitious  and  enthusiatical  sectaries, 
and  averted  from  the  antichristian  philosophists.  Mirabeau's 
rites  of  initiation  are  invented  with  a  bolder  fancy  than  those 
of  the  Abbe  Barruel.  He  breathes  a  browner  horror  over  the 
ceremonies  of  his  crypts  ;  and  he  inserts,  with  a  more  relieving 
management,  the  Elysian  scenery  which  succeeds.  His  oaths 
arc  composed  in  more  harrowing  and  more  orthodox  terms  ; 
and  his  aspirants  swear  to  venerate  the  aqua-tofana^  by  the 
Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost.  The  characters  whom 
Mirabcau  denounces  all  belong  to  the  credulous  party; 
Schroepfer,  the  conjurer  and  methodist  preacher  •,  Bischoffs- 
wcrder,  the  citer  of  spirits,  and  confesser  of  the  Countess  of 
Itichtenau ;  Lavater,  the  pious  physiogpomist  and  exorcist  \ 
and  Pernetti  the  editor,  or  author,  of  the  works  of  Swedenborg. 
This  will  suffice  to  convince  the  attentive,  that  Mirabeau's 
book  has  no  pretensions  to  confidence  ;  and  that  it  was  the  coup 
Amain  of  a  skilful  partisan,  intended  to  intercept  from  popular 
view  that  idea  of  the  Illumines,  which  might  have  operated 
against  the  analogous  party  in  France.  **  If  we  had  still  the 
Jesuits,  (says  Mirabcau,)  we  would  let  them  loose  against  the 
lUmnines."  His  advice  has  not  been  lost  -y  and  his  inventions 
art  now  used  as  facts. 

This  was  not  perhaps  exactly  the  place  for  these  observa- 
tions :— but  what  is  there  to  say  about  the  fourth  volume  of  a 


jipplication  oflBarrutPs  *' Memoirs.  1 8 1 

translation  *,  unless  that  in  quality  it  resembles  and  in  size  cx^ 
ceeds  the  third  ?  Such  of  the  additions  as  are  published  sepa- 
rately we  notice  separately.  (Seethe  next  ensuing  article.)  As, 
however,  at  page  ix.  of  the  Preliminary  Observations,  the 
translator  thinks  fit  in  his  own  person  to  support  an  absurd 
translation  of  the  words 

treten  I  ivir  I     in    I  neue  I    lluger    \     ge^vahlte 
step   I  we    I  into  |  new  [  wiselier  |  chosen  ones 

we  recommend  him  to  purchase  some  German  grammar  for 
beginners.  We  are  not  surprised  (see  Rev.  vol.  xxv.  p.  510} 
at  this  instance  of  fellow-feeling.  TT^ir 

Art.  XIV.  jlppUcaiion  of  BarruePs  Memoirs  of  yacobinismy  to  the 
Secret  Societies  of  Ireland  and  Great  Britain.  By  the  Translator 
of  that  Work.     8vo.    is.  6d.    Booker. 

A  s  we  have  already  indicated  in  the  Abbe  Barruel's  trans- 
•**  lator  (See  Rev.  vol.  xxv.  p.  51C.)  some  departure,  appa* 
rently  voluntary,  from  his  text,  serving  to  misrepresent  and  to 
blacken  the  societies  attacked,  we  do  not  now  wonder  at  his 
coming  forwards  in  his  own  person  in  the  same  line  of  hostir* 

He  describes  (p.  iii.)  the  English  public  as  surprised  in 
1797  that  the  Abbe  Barruel  should  refer  an  antichristian  con- 
spiracy to  the  philosophists  of  France.  This  surprise  can  only 
have  extended  to  the  ignorant.  It  cannot  possibly  have  in-' 
eluded  the  reading  public ;  who,  for  thirty  years  past,  have 
been  perfectly  aware  of  the  avowed,  systematic,  and  oatenta* 
tiouslv  notorious  co-operation  of  the  Encyclopedists  to  over- 
throw Christianity.  Smollet,  Nugent,  and  others  of  the  la^ 
generation  of  writers,  translated  into  English  many  of  the  prin- 
cipal books  composed  for  this  purpose  by  the  leaders  of  the  con- 
spiracy. The  works  of  the  foreign  infidels  made  ns  little  im* 
prcssion  in  this  country,  as  those  of  their  plundered  prototypes^ 
the  deistical  writers,  whom  Leland  has  enunnerated.  In  their 
turn,  perhaps,  they  will  one  day  be  known  on  the  continent 
only  from  the  Abbe  Barrqel's  enumeration.  On  this  portion 
of  the  work,  Mr.  Burke  bestowed  precisely  the  praise  to  which 
it  is  justly  entitled. 

When,  however,  the  Abbe  Barruel  advanced  to  assert  that 
the  republicanism  of  France  was  the  result  of  a  previous  agree- 
ment of  the  Free-masons  begun  in  the  times  of  the  MasicheanSy 
or  before,  and  handed  4owu  through  the  Templars  to  the  Ja- 

*  For  an  account  of  the  original  of  this  volume,  sec  Rev.  vol.  xxvix* 
Appendix,  p.  509. 


rti  GlasseV  ^trmonr. 

cobins;  that  tKe  crimes  and  proscriptions  of  the  execntitie 
power  in  France  were  the  result  of  aboriginal  premeditation 
add  deliberate  foresight,  and  formed  a  pare  of  the  misanthropic 
ol^ect  and  not  of  the  accidental  misfortunes  of  the  RcTolutioni 
w^n  he  maintained  that  a  similar  ruinous  crisis  was  an  essen- 
tial aim  and  perpetual  pursuit  of  the  Free-masons' lodges  through* 
out  the  world  \  and  when  he  asserted  that  the  Illumines  of 
•Germany  had  undertaken,  with  more  complete  design,  to  efFece 
a  similar  catastrophe  ; — all  Europe  was  indeed  surprised,  and 
is  likely  to  continue  so.  When  it  is  pretended  that  the  Base- 
dows»  the  Meiners',  the  Wielands,  the  Bottigers,  the  B(5des, 
the  Feders,  the  Nicolais,  the  Stolbcrgs,  the  Sonnenfels,  the 
Wetshaupts,  and  the  Cobcntzels,  of  Germany  *,  were  in  a  con- 
federacy to  abolish  property  and  science,  who  can  refrain  from 
wonder  at  the  rival  audacity  of  so  atrocious  and  malignant  a 
denunciation,  or  a  project  ?  We  have  little  doubt  where  to  at- 
tribute the  absurdity* 

Prudence  requires  that  we  should  avoid  comments  on  what 
this  author  says  concerning  the  societies  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland.  We  may,  however,  recommend  to  his  attention 
Wood's  View  of  the  History  of  Switzerland  f  •  He  will  there 
find  that,  in  a  country  in  which  Free-masons  and  Illumines  were 
scarcely  known,  precisely  the  same  phacnomena  occurred  which 
be  wishes  to  ascribe  to  the  machinations  of  those  sects.  He 
will  thence,  surely,  be  led  to  infer  that  the  part  taken  by  all  of  persons,  tnder  whatever  denomination,  religious, 
COipvivial,  or  civil,  is  ^  consequence  and  not  a  cause  of  the  general 
State  of  public  sentiment.  Combination  and  conspiracy  against 
the  magistrate  every  where  result  from  an  extensive  opinion  of 
grievance,  and  no  where  occasion  it.  They  may  therefore  al- 
ways be  obviated  in  states^  by  a  timely  and  qualified  accommo* 
dation  to  rising  opinions.  T'a.v 

Aar.  XV.  Sermons  on  various  Suljects  ;  more  farticutarfy  on  Cbrisiian 
Faitb  and  Hobe^  and  the  Consolaiions  of  ReRgion.  By  Gcorec  Henry 
Glasse,  M.A.  Hate  Student  of  Chrift-Church,  Oxford,)  Rector 
of  Hanwell,  Middlesex.  8vo.  7  s.  Boards.  Cadell  jun.  and 
Daries.    1798. 

'TTHE  learned  author  of  these  sermons  has  enjoyed  thereputa* 
*    tion  of  a  popular  preacher ;  and  his  name  has  been  an- 
nounced on  several  occasions,  when  it  has  been  usual  to  appl]^ 

•  Not  all  these  persons  belonged  to  the  society  of  Illumines, 
though  denounced  by  the  Abbe  Barruel  in  connection  with  it. 
f  Of  tLi J  publicauon,  an  account  is  preparing  for  our  Revicir. 

y  to 

Glassc'/  Sermoffn  itf 

to  clcrpyraen  of  this  descriptioti.  Wc  hare  «cen  some  of  the 
discourses  which  he  has  delivered  at  these  times,  and  they  ap^i 
penrcd  to  be  adapted  to  the  purposes  for  which  they  were 
written :  indeed,  his  mode  of  composing,  and,  probably,  that 
of  his  delivery,  are  suited  to  a  popular  audience  ;  and  wc  ctui 
fa??!ly  conceive  tlmt  they  would  excite  attention  and  produce 
effect.— The  volume  before  u$,  which  contains  twenty  difr* 
courses  on  different  subjects,  will  serve  to  establish  the  cba<« 
meter  which  Mr.  Glasse  has  acquired.  They  were  published 
at  the  sole  request  of  a  lady  in  whose  presence  they  were  de- 
livered ;  and  if  the  judicious  reader  should  not  peruse  them 
with  the  sime  satisfaction  which  they  afforded  to  those  wlw 
heard  them,  his  candour  will  lead  him  to  recollect  that  they 
were  written  for  the  pulpit,  and  not  for  the  press.  If  they  hud 
been  more  textual  and  more  argumentative,  they  would  have 
been  more  acceptable  to  those  who  read  sermons  not  merelf 
with  a  view  to  present  impressions,  but  to  more  permanent  be» 
nefit.  For  our  own  part,  we  should  have  been  much  better 
pleased  if  they  had  been  less  desultory  and  declamatory^  ami 
had  been  addressed  more  to  the  judgment  than  to  the  feelings 
and  passions^  Instruction  and  lasting  improvement  shoaUl 
not  be  sacrificed  to  popularity.  The  effects  of  declamationa 
whatever  advantage  it  may  derive  from  the  elegance  and  energy 
of  language,  or  even  from  the  graces  of  elocution,  arc  veif 
slight  and  transient.  It  conveys  little  knowlege  to  the  im- 
derstanding,  and  the  impression  produced  by  it  has  no  lot^ 

We  deliver  our  opinion  the  more  freely  on  this  occasioa^ 
because  the  discourses  belong  to  the  superior  class  of  such  at 
we  have  now  generally  described.  However  wc  may  differ 
from  the  author  in  his  theological  creed,  or  may  disapfyrov^ 
some  reflections  which  have  escaped  from  his  pen  in  the  hurrf 
of  composition,  we  are  much  pleased  with  many  of  tlie  senti* 
ments  that  occur  in  the  discourses,  and  with  the  animatCii 
manner  in  which  they  arc  generally  expressed ;  and  wc  hcf 
leave  to  recommend  to  other  preachers,  the  ardour  and  solici- 
tude which  he  manifests  in  his  endeavours  to  promote  practical 
religion  and  virtue.  We  cannot  but  regret,  at  the  same  cimc^ 
that  Mr.  G.  should  so  often  misapply  his  text,  and  wander 
from  the  subject  which  it  obviously  suggests ;  that  he  is  de- 
sultory when  he  ought  to  be  close  and  methodical ;  that  be 
amplifies  when  he  ought  to  be  concise  ^  and  that  he  dedaims 
when  he  ought  to  reason. 

The  following  extracts  will  enable  our  readers  to  form  thdr 
own  judgment.  , 


tS4  GlasseV  Sermonf. 

'  The  first  discourse,  ^  on  the  clerical  character/  which  was  t 
visitation-sermon,  first  printed  in  1 794,  contains  many  rcflec* 
dons  well  adapted  to  the  occasion  on  which  it  was  delivered* 
•Some  may  perhaps  think,  that  the  preacher  has  exaggerated 
the  evil  ot  which  he  justly  complains  :  but  the  period  in  which 
he  addressed  his  auditory  was  t}ie  crisis  of  alarm ;  and,  in  or- 
der to  rouse  the  clergy  to  proper  exertion,  he  leads  them  to 
reflect  that 

*  There  are,  even  in  this  country,  busy,  restless,  malicious  adver- 
taries,  who  have  long  been  secretly  meditating  our  destruction  ;  and 
who,  of  late  years,  have  attempted  it  in  a  more  open  and  decisive 
manner.  This  is  a  truth  which  we  must  be  blind  indeed  not  to  ac* 
knowk'ge.' — *  Our  ecclesiastical  and  civil  establishment  was  the  ob- 
ject of  their  avowed  hostility.  Could  they  but  have  accomplished 
the  overthrow  of  either  part  of  our  system,  tliey  doubted  not  that 
the  downfall  of  its  associate  would  speedily  follow.  Therefore  did 
they  encourage  themselves  in  mischiet— rthci  efore  did  they  proclaim 
inveterate  war  against  loyalty  and  religion,  and  set  up  their  banneri 
for  tokens.  Fam  would  they  have  planted  their  **  abomination  that 
tnaketh  desolate"  amidst  the  ruins  of  thrones  and  altars  :  that  tree, 
whose  fruit  is  unto  profanation,  and  the  end  thereof  everlasting 
death :  that  tree,  which  (like  the  fabled  poison- shrub  of  the  eastern 
world)  causes  all  other  vegetation  to  languish  and  die;  which  creates 
a  desert  around  its  noxious  trunk,  and  rejoices  in  horror  and  devasta- 
tion. And  were  the  stately  pines,  the  glory  of  Lebanon,  and  all  the 
trees  of  the  forest,  to  be  abandoned  tor  this  ?  Were  they  to  fall, 
prostrate  and  overthro^^m,  before  it  ?  Above  the  rest  was  this  SACREb 
OAK,  which  for  so  long  a  period  has  braved  the  violence  of  winds  and 
•terms,  was  this  to  be  rooted  out,  though  the  hills  are  covered  with 
the  shadow  of  it,  and  the  boughs  thereof  are  like  the  goodly  cedars?* 
— *  We  have  seen  the  rage  of  the  oppressor  let  loose  upon  mankind 
—we  have  seen  the  judgment  beginning  at  the  house  of  God.  At 
the  commencement  of  those  events  which  now  astonish  the  world,  it 
was  the  privilege  of  one  luminous  mind  to  trace  the  infant  monster  to 
ita  horrible  maturity.  During  the  progress,  and  in  the  consum- 
mation of  those  events,  we  have  all  obtained  conviction.  If  here  the 
arm  of  the  destroying  angel  has  been  ari-esttd — If  here  the  temple, 
the  altar,  and  the  ministers  of  God  are  rescued  from  profanation,  let 
U8  not  be  lulled  into  morbid  and  lethargic  repose — still  less  let  u« 
ascribe  to  merits  what  is  due  only  to  mercy,  Alas !  were  the  faithful 
pastors,  who  have  fallen  under  the  daggers  of  assassination,  sinners 
above  all  the  servants  of  Christ?  Far  otiienvise.  As  gold  In  the 
furnace  have  they  been  tried,  and  received  as  a  hurnt-offenng.  How- 
ever we  may  difl'er  from  them  on  some  important  doctrinal  points,  we 
must  be  lost  to  a  sense  of  all  that  is  great  and  glorious,  if  we  do  not 
applaud  their  heroic  constancy,  their  unconquerable  zeal,  and  that 
bope,  full  of  immortality,  which  surmounted  the  fear  of  dissolution; 
Faithful  confes8on»,  intrepid  martyrs,  they  rejoiced  in  foll(»wIng  the 
i^pft  q£  their  Redeemer— -and  their  church,  solitary  and  a  widow,  k 
7  marc 

GlasscV  Sermons.  185 

tnore  venerable,  more  lovely  amidst  its  tears,  than  in  all  the  pnde  and 
pa^^eantry  of  bridal  magnificence.* 

Whether  these  high  expressions  of  panegyric  and  condo* 
Icncc  be  well-founded,  we  presume  not  to  say.  Though  we 
commiserate  ihe  condition  of  individual  sufferers,  condemn  the* 
violence  of  many  of  those  measures  of  which  they  have  just 
reason  to  complain,  and  lament  the  dissemination  of  infidelity 
in  those  countries  in  which  error  and  superstition  generally 
prevailed,  we  confess  that,  as  Protestants  and  believers  in  re- 
velation, we  have  not  been  accustomed  to  contemplate  that 
church,--rwhich  is  part  of  an  antichristian  system,  and  to  the 
gradual  and  total  overthrow  of  which  the  prophecies  of  Scrip- 
ture direct  our  views,— with  a  very  great  degree  of  veneration 
and  esteem. 

In  the  sermon  *  on  the  Creation,*  the  author  comprehends  a 
variety  of  subjects  very  remotely  connected  with  the  text  j  for 
he  not  only  considers  *  the  history  of  the  world — perfect  in  its 
creation' — but  also  ^  thrown  into  confusion  by  sin-^renew^4 
by  the  divine  mercy  in  Christ — and  now  waiting  the  last  awful 
doom.—'  Whether  the  sentiment  that  occurs  in  the  following 
passage  be  not  exceptionable,  let  the  reader  judge : 

*  Wc  say,  "  under  the  guidance  of  the  wor<^,cf  God,"  because  we 
know  no  other  way  by  which  understandii;^^  is  given  to  man.  Nor 
<lo  we  consider  this  as  the  debasement,  but,  on  the  contrary,  as  the 
tiighest  exaltation  of  human  reason.  The  invisible  things  of  him  are 
from  the  creation  of  the  world  clearly  seen^and  why  r  because  God 
hath  thevfcd  them.  In  thfs  consists  the  real  dignity  of  our  naturCf 
that  its  powers  are  called  forth,  not  by  anv  intrinsic  ability  or  re- 
sources ot  its  own,  but  by  the  all-powerful  mspiration  of  the  Holy 
Spint,  and  the  grace  of  God,  ever  present  with  the  oracles  of  truth.* 

In  a  discourse  *  on  the  Unity  of  God/  founded  on  Mark,  x.  1 9^ 
^^Tbere  is  none  good  but  one — that  is  God,  Mr.  Glassc  obscrveSi 

•  The  church  of  England,  established  on  the  most  sure  basis  of 
Christianity,  is,  in  conformity  to  the  letter  and  spirit  of  her  Master*! 
doctrine,  strictly  Unitarian.  Let  not  my  beloved  brethren  be 
startled  at  the  word.  Let  them  not  shrink  from  a  title,  which  is  the 
glory  of  the  true  believer,  because  it  has  been  profaned  and  conta- 
ininated  by  the  enemies  of  our  holy  faith  :  because  innovating  here- 
tics have  dared  to  stigmatize  us  with  idolatry,  and  to  challenge  for 
themselves,  by  a  bold  usurpation,  the  name  of  Unitarians^  as  if  we 
had  go4s  many,  and  lords  many,  labile  in  fact  we  have  but  one 
God,  and  his  name  One  ;  his.  holy,  reverend,  incommunicable 

After  having  cited  the  article  which  expresses  the  Unity  ol 
the  Godhead,  consisting  of  three  persons,  of  one  substance^ 
power,  and  eternity,  he  prpceeds  :— 

Rsv.  jvN«^i799.  O  •  Can 

1 86  Glassc'/  Sermons. 

^  •  Can  any  charge  then  be  more  grossly  unfounded,  can  any  asser* 
tion  be  more  false  and  unprinciptd,  than  that  which  accuses  the 
orthodox  believers  of  multiplying  the  objects  of  religious  adoration, 
and  doing  homage  to  more  gods  than  one  ? — ^When  heretics  cavil, 
and  infidels  blaspheme,  be  valiant  for  the  faith.  Now  the  right  faith 
18,  that  we  believe  and  confess,  that  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  the  Son 
of  God,  is  God  and  Man.  Witness  this  good  confession  before 
jnany  witnesses.  Acknowledge  to  iu  full  extent  the  fact  assumed  in 
my  text,  that  none  is  good  but  one,  that  is  God,  But  reject  with 
abhorrence  the  pestilent  insinuation,  that  the  Author  of  our  salvation, 
though  inferior  to  the  F,ither  as  touching  his  Manhood,  was  not 
equal  to  him  with  respect  to  his  Godhead.* 

The  sermon  <  on  the  Atonement,'  from  Psalm  xxii.  i.  be* 
gins  in  the  following  abrupt  manner : 

<  To  recite  these  w^rds  is  to  apply  them.  Your  hearts  arc  gone 
already  to  Mount  Calvary,  and  you  behold  with  the  eye  of  faith 
your  crucified  Redeemer.  The  rocks  are  rent — the  mid-day  sun  is 
plunged  into  obscurity — the  graves  are  opened — the  saints  who  slept 
IB  dkath  arise  and  appear — the  fram^  of  nature  feels  as  it  were  tne 
IMQffs  of  dtssolution,  while  its  Creator  suffers.  When,  on  the  return 
of  tills  sacred  day,  or  at  any  other  season  of  devotion,  we  meditate 
on  the  passion  of  our  Lord — when  we  accompany  the  innocent  Jesus 
through  the  horrors  of  bis  arraignment — through  his  unjust  and 
merciless  trial — when  w«  witness  tne  mockery  and  despitefulness  of 
his  triumphant  encmicst  the  treachery,  the  defection,  and  the  apos* 
tacy  of  his  disciples— wlien  we  survey  the  instruments  of  torture— 
the  wreath  of  thorns,  the  bloody  scourge — ^the  ponderous  cross  under 
.which  his  weakened,  exhausted  nature  fainted,  and  almost  sank  away 
•^when  we  view  him  fastened  to  the  engine  of  death — his  hands  and 
his  feet  transfixed  with  the  nails-— the  iron  entering  into  his  soul-— his 
blessed  side  pierced  by  wanton,  ofScious  cruelty — when  we  behold  all 
this,  how  little  do  we  comprehend  the  extent  of  our  Saviour's  an- 
guish, how  imperfectly  do  we  conceive  the  bitterness  of  his  cup,  if 
Vi'H  do  not  keep  alv^ys  in  our  view  the  leading  feature  in  his  passion,^ 
the  woe  of  all  woes,  the  terrors  of  God  set  in  array  against  hun,  the 
wrath  of  his  father  heavy  upon  him,  the  consummate  guilt  ^f  a  world^ 
heaped  upon  his  guiltless  head?* 

.    In  a  similar  strain  of  declamation,  the  author  concludes  hit 

sermon  on  John,  xii.  28.  entitled  *  The  Name  of  God  glori* 


'    His  manner  of  treating  a  popular  subject  at  <  the  close  of 

Ae  ycar^'  We  all  do  Jade  as  a  leaf^  will  appear  from  the  follow* 

ing  extract : 

*  The  comparison  between  human  and  vegetable  life  has  been  ele- 
gantly descanted  on  by  authors  of  the  earliest  antiquity^— it  has  been 
Stated,  with  eloquence  and  precision,  by  divines  and  moralists  of  later 
times — ^but  more  particularly  we  find  it  illustrated,  by  all  the  varieties 
of  metaphor,  throughout  the  figurative  language  of  scripture.     And 


GlasscV  Sermoftfl  187 

lurely  no  comparison  can  be  more  apposite,  no  similitude  more  zS^* 
ingly  obvious. 

«  When  you  hear  of  infancy  sent  to  an  early  grave— when  you  be- 
hold youth  and  beauty  languishinflr  under  deadly  sickness,  does  not 
the  image  force  itself  on  your  minds  of  a  fair  and  blooming  flower^ 
suddenly  cut  down  by  the  pitiless  hand  of  the  destroyer  ?  Or  look 
around  you — the  world  is  now  wintry ;  those  leaves  which  so  latdy 
flourished  in  all  the  perfection  of  their  richest  verdure,  now  lie  scat- 
tered upon  the  gp-ound,  faded,  Hfeless,  discoloured,  and  about  to 
mingle  with  their  parent  earth !  Let  jus  read  oyr  destiny  in  theirs— 
from  the  dust  we  likewise  had  our  origin,  and  thither  we  shall  like* 
wise  return. 

<  The  parallel  so  accurately  drawn  in  my  text,  in  its  primary  siff- 
nification,  adapts  itself  to  the  natural  decay  of  age,  as  typified  by  we 
falling  of  the  *tvUhered  leaf.  But  is  it  not  also  stnctly  applicable  to 
the  termination  of  our  existence  at  other  periods  ?  Are  there  not 
storms  and  tempests,  which,  even  in  the  midst  of  summer,  depriiw  the 
trees  of  their  luxuriant  foliage,  and  lay  prostrate  on  the  ground  t^e 
glory  of  the  once-smiling  year?  Is  there  not  the  slow-consvmmg 
canker  ?  Is  there  not  the  devouring  worm,  that  prematuitsly  deitnsf  s 
while  yet  in  the  bloom,  or  even  in  the  bud,  the  hopq  and  the  pfide  of 
spring  ?  We  are  more  than  justified  in  the  application  of  the  £sding 
leaf  to  death,  come  as  it  will,  at  any  time,  or  in  any  form.  At 
.  whatever  season  our  life  is  brought  to  its  conclusion,  we  do  most  at* 
suredly  fade  as  the  leaf,  all  of  us.  ;t  ,.  ^*I• 

*  We,  like  the  plants  and  flowers,  have  our  spring,  which  ushert 
us  into  life,  when  we  burst  forth  in  all  the  luxuriance  of  early  beauty* 
The  summer,  the  high  meridian  of  our  days,  next  advances,  when  we 
flourish  in  the  full  maturity  of  strength  and  comeliness.  Before  we 
are  conscious  of  the  alteration,  but  probably  not  before  others  have 
perceived  it,  the  blooming  tints  of  youth,  the  ripened  graces  of  man- 
hood, are  gradually  retinng  from  us,  and  we  fall  into  our  autumnal 
wane.  One  more  change  awaits  us,  and  completes  the  revolution  of 
our  days.  Soon,  very  soon,  are  we  led  on  by  the  withering  hand'of 
old  age  to  the  winter  of  death.  And  lo,  when  we  are  passed  away^ 
another  generation  cometh  in  our  place,  to  whom  life  is  imparted  on 
conditions  exactly  similar  to  those  ordained  to  us,  when  we  entered 
on  our  portion  of  existence-  In  like  manner,  when  the  winter  of  na- 
ture is  past,  a  fresh  succession  of  leaves  will  appear,  and  will  flourish 
during  their  appointed  season.* 

In  the  sermons  on  the  natnre,  object,  and  triumphs  of 
Christian  faith,  are  many  useful  and  striking  observations  of 
n  practical  and  consolatory  nature,  blended  with  some  others 
which  in  our  estimation  are  exceptionable  : 

•  Under  the  sanction  of  this  high  authority  (says  Mr.  G.  referring 
to  his  text,  *«  Tc  helirvein  God,  heltrveako  in  wf,")  1  fhall  endeavour  to 
shew,  that  to  believe  in  God,  without  believing  in  Christ,  is  vain  and 
fruitless — nay,  that  it  is  impossiblc«r-nor  shalll  scruple  the asserttOBy 
harsh  as  it  may  sound,  that  he  who  is  not  a  Christian,  is  virtually, 
though  not  nominally,  an  atheist-^and  that  to  believe  in  God  and  ifi 

O  2  Christ 

tS8  Glasst**/  Sermons. 

Chrirt  ftent  tnitparable  aet  of  faitb  ;  is  indeed  only  one  operation  of 
the  mind — whtch,  if  wc  allow  not  that  Christ  is  God,  can  never  take 
place;  and  therefore  the  acknowledgment  of  our  blessed  savi- 
ova's  DIVINITY,  in  which  alone  our  hope  of  everlasting  joy  is  founded, 
will  he  the  glonous  result  of  our  enquiries. 

«  An  act  of  faith  is  the  assent  of  the  mind  to  the  certainty  of  that 
■  which  reason  of  itself  cannot  comprehend,  nor  arg^ument  demonstrate, 
upon  the  reliance  we  have  on  the  authority  which  declares  it  to  be 
true.' — *  Now  to  the  belief  in  God,  this  act  of  faith  is  equally  neces- 
sary, as  to  the  belief  in  Christ  Je^us.— Reason,  that  is,  unasiUsted 
feason,  cannot  comprehend,  nor,  without  the  help  of  revelation,  can 
argument  demonstrate  the  one  or  the  other. — If  without  revelation 
#f»  man  could  form  a  notion  of  God,  every  man  must  do  80. — A  truth 
of  this  nature,  if  it  could  be  teen  by  any,  would  be  seen  by  all ;  and 
those  gracious  manifestations  of  himself,  which  God  \n  pity  to  our 
infirmities  hath  from  time  to  time  vouchsafed  us,  would  have  been 
unnecessary  and  superfluous.  But  they  ai'e  not  superfluous.  The 
spirit  of  man  is  the  candle  of  the  Lord.  Until  the  candle  be  lighted, 
where  is  its  usefulness?  And  this  h'ght  it  cannot  be  said  to  have  in 
itself,  being  indebted  for  it  to  the  fire,  without  which  it  is  altogether 
vn|>rofitable.  Thus,  with  respect  to  spiritual  knowledge ;  the  soul, 
which  by  Divine  assiftance  can  apprehend  so  much,  without  illu- 
raUNATion  is  able  to  comprehend  nothing.  Let  the  mind  of  man  be 
'tftlightencd  by  the  power  of  God,  and  he  is  then,  and  not  before^ 
enabled  to  discern  the  Creator  in  his  wondrous  works.' 

Pure  D'l'ism  the  author  describes  as 

•  A  religion  without  a  service,  without  a  temple,  without  a  sacri- 
licci  without  a  Redeemer,  without  a  Comforter,  without  prayer. 
Without  praise,  without  faith,  without  hope,  without  sanctiBcation, 

w'thout  salvation — without  every  thing!' *  Gospel  truth,  or  the 

fC^igion  of  the  Bible,  declares,  that  the  Son  of  God  is  come,  and 
iiatli  given  us  understanding,  that  we  may  honour  him  that  is  true  ; 
^nd  we  are  in  him  that  is  true,  even  in  his  Son  Jesus  Christ — ^Tnig 
IS  THE  TRUE  GoD,  and  everlasting  life.  Little  children,  keep  your- 
aelves  from  idols.  If  this  is  the  true  God,  it  follows,  that  all  other  gods 
are  false ;  and  he  who  denies  the  truths  of  Christianity,  must  pardon 
.us  for  pronouncing  him  to  be  absolutely  without  God,  inasmuch  as 
he  is  without  the  only  true  object  of  religious  adoration.' 

Mr.  Glasse  might  well  apprize  those  who  may  be  dissatisfied 
"with  some  of  the  positions  advanced  in  this  sermon,  by  an  ad- 
vertisement prefixed  to  it,  that  •  if  he  should  be  attacked  on 
the  subject,  he  is  enabled  to  retire  for  protection  to. the  ada- 
mantine shield  of  Bishop  Horsley.'— In  the  introductory  scn- 
.  icnces  of  the  sermon  entitled  *  The  Christianas  Rest,'  on  Psalm 
ilL  5.  /  Ij'id  liu  dG%vti  atid  slept"  I  awaked  ^  for  tie  Lord  sustained 
me^  the  author  informs  us  that  the  words  have  a  natural,  and 
.that  they  have  a  spiritual  signification.  *  They  are  a  morning 
hymn  for  the  faithful  Chrisriiin  white  on  earth  \  and  they  wil),  t 
bn  the  resurrection-dsy,  burst  from  his  heart,  after  his  sikice     Cf 

WodhuIlV  EquhRiy  of  Manhnd^  «  P^m.  t^ 

in  the  grave.'  tte  therefore  proposes  in  the  Wquel  lo  <fpcak 
of  sleep,  and  of  waking — of  death,  and  of  rising  again/ 

The  other  subjects,  which  we  have  n^t  already  tecitcd,  arc 

*  the  Transfiguration* — •  the  State  of  the  Departed'— *  the 
Vanity  of  Human  Wishes*—*  the  just  Judgments  of  God'— 

•  the  Foundation  and  Promise  of  Christian  Hope,'  &c.  &c.      ■  •!>  ^  « 
. ^ —  ■   ■  ■ 

Art.  XVI.  The  Equality  ofManllnd:  a  Potm,  Iv  Michael  Wp4» 
hull,  Esq.  Revised  and  correctcd|  with  AddltioDt^  Svg. 
pp.  40.     Londoa.     1798. 

"tlZHPN  this  poem  was  first  printed  by  its  respectable  author^ 
^^  we  paid  due  attention  to  it,  in  M.  Hcv.  vol*  XJixiv.  p.  23. 
Having  then  treated  the  subject  as  a  mere  poetic  fiction^  and 
delivered  our  opinion  of  the  impossibility  of  forming  sociarsjrs- 
tems  on  so  Utopian  an  idea,  we  shall  hcfc  abstain  from  repeat- 
ing it ;  choosing  rather  to  refer  to  si^ntiments  on  such  a  topic 
which  were  given  by  us  in  a  calm,  .unagitated  peHod  :— not 
need  we  repeat  our  idea  of  theincrit  tff  Mt.  W.'s  poem  as  a 
composition.  We  shall  therefore  content  burseheS  with  point- 
ing out  the  alterations  and  additions  which*  distinguish  this 
new  impression. 

Poets  write  more  frequently  from  the  head  than  from  the 
heart,  and  are  not  so  much  bent  on  making  converts  as  on 
gaining  admirers.  Mr.  W.'s  despair  of  producing  any  practical 
effect,  by  this  effort  of  his  muse,  may  be  infcned  from  the  new 
motto  wnich  he  has  chosen  : 

*•  Carmtna  tantum  •    ^ 

Nostra  valent^  Lyciddf  tela  inter  martiai  ifumihim 
Chaonuu  dicunt^  aquila  ^ventatte^  cvlum^a^."  'VlRGiL. 

Neh her  does  he  seem  desirous  of  provoking  Controversy,  *  fot 
the  short  advertisement  prefixed  thus  concludes  :— •  Whether 
the  opinions  of  those  to  whom  the  author  takes  the  liberty  of 
sending  copies  accord  M'ith  or  differ  from  his  own,  in  regard  to 
the  auspicious  or  malignant  influence  of  those  siy^ns  which  still 
continue  to  retain  therr  ascendant  in  the  political  Zodiac,  he  flat* 
tcrs  himself  they  will  be  received  as  marks  of  personal  respect.' 

The  present  poem  commences  with  the  7th  line  of  the  ori- 
ginal edition ;  the  first  six  being  very  properly  expunged } 

*  Untaught  to  bend  the  pliant  kn^e,  and  join'— 
The  passage  exten.ling  from  line  36  to  line  44  inclusive  in  the 
first  edition  is  transposed,  and  now  follows  line  6. 

The  ten  lines  following  line  26  10  the  original  edition  are 

For  "  War  a  needful  trade"  in  1.  6i»  of  the  original  edition^ 
we/now  read  *  War  a  iicens'd  trade.' 

O3  The 

I^fd  VToStiuWrSjualitj  of  Mankind^  a  Poitti. 

^  The  lihes  which  followed,  reflecting  oh  Frederick  of  Prus* 

sia,  are  expunged. ' 

'   Fot  (at  line  109.  original  edit.) 

*'  Craft  with  prowess  joinM 
Soon  tam'd  the  generous  JUneness  of  mankind," 
;  we  now  read  (SM^i.  93.  new  edit.) 

,     ..  ._ •  ^raft  with  prowess  jom*d  ' 

,     .         Subdued  the  liberal  spirit  of  manleind.' 
*  V  Call'd  him  a  JtiVf^,"  is  altered  to  <  Call'd  him  a  Monarch,* 
Line  124  orofiglnal  edition 

"  Set  up  a  little  idol  of  their  own'* 
now  stands 

*  Fashion'd  these  idols  to  their  Sires  unknown/ 
For  these  two  lines  ^tcr  line  130  in  the  first  editioni 
♦*  No }  'twas  their  baffled  pride  whose  last  resource 
.    ^^%fl^^  ^^'»  perdition  on  their  heads  by  forccjj" 
we  have  these  four, 

*  No  5  'twas  their  pricie  which  knew  not  how  to  yield. 
Their  rage  for  conquest  in  the  tented  field, 
To  slight  Heaven's  Umpire  warp'd  th'  untoward  crew, 
And  on  thdr'lioids  a  just  perdition  drew.* 

The  word  **  hewfiiPiT  at  1.  171  of  the  old  edition  Is  no^ 
judiciously  exchanged  for  *  behold.* 

•*  Merit  a  sotmiT*' l.iZli  is  changed  to 

<  Good  works  an  empty  sound.' 
Line  1 89,  for  «*  ruthless  pf*  we  now  read  *  matchless  joy,* 
Lbe  2^:8,  for 

*'  Murders  V)4  sorceriesy  and  men  ^whose  heart 
.     .    Ne'er/roM]p/«Jone  humane,  one  generous  part," 
we  read  at  1.  245  of  the  present  cditi«;n, 

'  Murders,  and  sorceries,  and  th'  obdurate  heart 
Jit* ex  prompting  one  humane,  one  generous  part.' 

Line  261%  ^^  While  some  t/oi/i  mortal^  arbiter  of  i\\^ 
X  Goycm'd  the  r*//,"— altered  to 

*  While  some  eaprieious  arbiter  of  ill 
Goyern'd  the  pliant  nations*' 

Line  278,  *<  Fomenting  some  unnecessary  strife,"  is  chang- 
ed to 

*  Impell'd  to  perish  in  some  idle  strife.' 

The  coupler  following  line  280  in  the  original  edition, 

"  Stoop  then,  ye  sons  of  reason,  stoop,  and  own 

The  veriest  beast  more  worthy  of  a  throne," 

19  happily  exclia?^ged  for 

<  Stoop  then,  ye  vain  Philosophers,  and  own 
Rcu30u  from  man  to  happier  beasts  i§  flown.' 


WodhuHV  Equality  of  Manlind^  a  Pom.  19 1 

Line  292,  for  ^  Partaking  of  the  soil  which  gave  him  birth," 
v/t  now  read 

<  And  venerates  the  soil  which  gave  hiin  birth/  1.  2789  new  edit. 

L.  301.    "  Where  Commerce  ntvcr  rears  her  impious  head,'* 
is  altered  to 

*  Where  Rapine  never  lifts  her  impious  head.' 

After  having  gone  through  the  several  classes  of  society,  and 
pointed  out  their  dependence  on  each  other,  like  the  several 
links  of  what  is  called  an  end/ess  chain^  where  extremities  unite^ 
the  view  in  the  original  edition  thus  concludes,  on  describing 
the  Eastern  monarch: 

<«  Is  not  a  wretch. like  tbiiy  to  either  side 
Of  Life's  perverse  extremities  aUied  i 
Here  to  its  source  the  line  revolving  tends. 
Here  close  the  points  and  here  the  cii^cle  ends." 
|n  the  new  edition  (1.  3 13*)  it  is  thus  improved: 
<  Stands  not  a  wretch  like  this,  on  either  side. 
With  Life's  perverse  extremities  allied  ? 
Here  at  its  source  the  line  revolving  meets. 
This  the  huge  circle  of  thy  wheel  completes, 
O  Fortune,  thus  contiguous  dost  thou  place 
The  rich,  the  poor,  th*  illustrious,  and  the  base.* 
'  L.  335.    **  Monarchs,  we  see,  were  thea  at  first  design'd 
A  general  good,  a  blessing  unconfin'd,'* 
we  now  read  (1.  323.  new  edit.) 

*  In  ancient  days  was  Monarchy  design'd 

To  guard  the  mcnac'd  rights  of  Human  Kind.' 
A  line  or  two  below^  Kings  were  said,  in  the  pld  edition,  to 
*<  vindicate  the  laws .-"  the  new  edition  makes  them  <  rectify  the 
For  "  Stung  by  a  snake,  the  pious  Priest  expir'd. 
While  Folly  gaz'4  and  ignorance  admur'd," 

we  now  read 

*  By  venom'd  serpents  string,  the  Priest  cxpir*d. 
While  Folly  gaz'd  and  awe-struck  throngs  admir'd.' 

Clarendon,  In  his  account  of  Lord  Brookf ,  as  the  first  edition 
of  this  poem  tells  us,  1. 376, 

«  Shews  half  the  Royalist  and  half  the  Saint  >" 
here  he 

<  Shews  half  the  subtle  Lawyer ^  half  the  Saint.' 
Then  follow  twelve  additional  lines,  containing  a  spirited  . 
comparison  between  the  Hero  and  the  Historian,  for  which 
we  must  refer  to  the  poem. 

.  There  are  also  some  additions  and  alterations  in  the  account 
of  the  exertions  of  Caledonia  for  her  religion* 
The  following  couplet  (1.  433, 4) 

O  4  « 

292  VfodhxxWs  Eqaatdy  of  Manlind^  a  Poem. 

•*  At  Truth's  historic  thrine  shall  vicUms  smoke. 
And  a  frcfh  Stuart  bleed  at  every  stroke,'* 
in  the  present  edition  stands  thus : 

<  Then,  boldly  entering  Truth's  historic  faiic. 
Will  Britons  ever  loathe  a  Stuart's  reign.'  1.  435. 

The  address  to  *  perfidious  Albemarle,'  which  concludes  with 
"  Shall  meet  they^Ws  ttndiiiinguish'd  fate. 

Sure  of  contempt,  unworthy  of  our  hate,'  L  442. 
ik  tltered  to 

*  Shall  meet  the  TraUor^%  doom,  borne  down  by  Fate, 
Sure  of  contempt,  too  abject  for  our  hate,'  ].  443. 

At  1.  457  in  the  first  edition  we  read, 

*^  Succeeding  Rings  extend  the  generous  plan. 
And  Brunswick  perfects  what  Nassau  began ;" 
now  it  standsj 

'  The  Brunswick  line  improv'd  each  generous  plan 
Ordaio'd  to  perfect  what  Nassau  began.' 

The  author's  sentiments  respecting  the  politics  of  the  day  aie 
pointedly  expressed  by  the  alteration  which  the  following  lines 
naVc  undergone  : 

<*  But  if  in  Faction's  loud  and  empty  strain,      (1. 465.) 
Yon  frontless  rabble  vex  a  gentle  reign. 
In  peace  itself  ideal  dangers  find, 
Provoke  new  wars  and  challenge  half  mankind ; 
Who  tho'  another  Tully  at  their  head 
From  breast  to  breast  the  rank  contagion  spread : 
Say  what  are  vre  ?  some  pension* d  patriot's  tools. 
Mere  artless,  unsuspecting  British  fools." 

In  the  new  edition,  we  read  at  I.  467, 

*  But  if  thy  Children,  to  themselves  untrue, 

With  jaundic'd  eye,  through  false  perspectives,  view 
The  rising  sun  of  Liberty  display, 
O'er  long-benighted  realms  his  chearing  ray. 
And  league  with  Despots  to  replace  that  yoke 
Which  Gallic  tribes  in  thousand  fragments  broke,' 
'  While,  measuring  right  and  wronc^  by  gold  alone. 
Under  State  Quacks  thy  trampled  cities  groan ; 
Soon  fall  thou  must,  though  myriads  guard  thy  short. 
As  Tyre  and  Carthage  fell,  to  rise  no  more.' 
The  sons  of  Albion  are  said  in  the  first  edition,  I.  484,  to  be 

"  Untaught  to  serve,  unable  to  be  free." 
In  the  present  edition,  the  poet  is  still  more  displeased  with 
his  countrymen  ;  for  he  tells  them  that  they  are 

*  Too  proud  to  serve,  too  abject  to  be  free.' 

The  poet  asks  whether  the  peasant  be  to  rise  from  his  grave 
to  slavery,  and  the  monarch  in  a  future  state  be  to  wield  a  mi- 
mic sceptre  ?— but,  not  contented,  as  in  the  first  edition,  with 
proposing  these  queries,  he  now  adds  the  two  following  lines: 

OrecnV  Examtnaiwn  tf  the  Nev>  SysUm  rfJlioralfi      t^ 

«  If  on  thcic  tcnns,  to  thee,  O  Truth,  wc  live,  ^ 
What  joy  89  what  honors,  what  hast  thou  to  give  ?* 

To  the  new  edition  are  subjoined  the  lines  which  foUoWt 
ad  a 

•  Postscript. 

•  Long  ere  the  martial  progeny  of  France 
'Gainit  banded  Despots  hurl'd  th'  unerring  hMU^ 
Drove  Superstition  from  her  wide  domain. 
And  raisM  to  Liberty  a  votive  fane. 
These  artless  notes  the  rustic  Muse  began. 
Chanting  with  feeble  voice  the  Rights  of  Man  : 
Now  age  o'ershadowing  damps  poetic  fire, 
Aftd  Tfme's  rude  hand  hath  Snatch'd  away  her  lyrt. 
When  for  its  gratulating  strains  might  caQ, 
O  Baby  ion  y  thy  long^predicted  fall ; 
Still  sooth'd  by  Hope,  disdaining  abject  Fears| 
She  stands  collected  in  the  vale  of  years. 
Imploring  Him  who  bids  the  tempest  cease 
To  wrap  th'  mfunate  world  in  lasting  peace. 
Nor  suffer  Statesmen,  rancorous,  vain,  and  bUnd, 
For  Priests,  or  Peers,  or  Kings,  to  sacrifice  Mankind.* 

There  is  certainly  el^  gance  in  this  rustic  muse :  but  it  doe^  not 
appear,  by  this  ^pcximen,  that  mgf  has  either  :ibated  its  fi^re^ 
or  taught  it  prudence  and  moderation.  A  great  part  of  the  poetH^ 
has  little  relevancy  to  the  title ;  and  the  motto  to  the  poll*' 
script  would  have  served  as  a  motto  to  the  whole : 
**  ^oJ  RegtAn  iumJas  contuderii  fnbuuJ* 

To  this  poem  on  the  Equality  of  Mankind,  are  annexed 
Verses  on  Air.  Holl'u^s  Print  $f  the  Rev.  Dr.  Mayhem ^  the  first 
sketch  of  which,  we  are  told,  was  published  in  the  Gentleman's 
Magazine  }  and  a  Poem  on  the  Use  of  Poetry ^  part  of  which  has 
already  appeared  in  the  Morning  Chronicle,  under  the  title  of 
**  The  Origin  of  Fable.^— In  these,  Mr.  W.'s  prominent  senti- 
ments are  vigorously  expressed  :  he  laments  that  poetry  should 
ever  have  wreathed  a  garland  but  for  the  brow  of  Liberty  ;  and 
he  hopes  that,  in  future,  the  Muses  may  only  be  employed  {a 
exalting  the  fame  and  embalming  the  memory  of  the  good  and 

. .  ^ 

Art.  XVII.  jin  Examination  of  the  leading  Principle  of  the  Nino 
System  of  Morally  as  that  Pnnciple  is  stated  and  applied  in  Mr. 
Godwin's  Enquiry  concemiag  Political  Justice.  8vo.  is.  6d*- 
Longman.     1798. 

^T^HE  fallacy  of  ingeniously  constructed  and  seducing  systems 

^    generally  conceals  itself  in  their  assumptions  and  most  pro* 

miuent  principles.    To  allow  the  leading  proposition,  which 


194      Green*/  Eptamlnatim  efihi  New  System  ofMerah* 

stands  in  the  foremost  rank  of  the  argument,  and  claims  all  the 
lespect  and  honour  due  to  an  axiom,  is  often  to  grant  to  the 
constructor  of  a  theory  all  that  he  wishes  and  requires.  Tjic 
grand  postulatum  admitted,  one  doctrine  follows  another  in- 
regular  systematic  order;  and  conclusi6ns,  however  unexpected 
90^  alarming,  obtrude  themselves  as  most  fairly  aad' legiti- 
mately dttdttced.  It  was  suspected  by  the  ingenious  author  of 
the  •  Examination*  before  us,  that  this  was  the  case  with  the 
New  System  of  Morals  which  Mr.  Godwin  has  oflfered  to  the 
public  in  his  ***  Enquiry  concerning  Political  Justice  •,"  and  we 
are  of  opinion  that  he  has  justified  his  suspicions^  by  detecting 
the  sophistry  which  lurks  in  that  performance. 

«  My  sole  wish'  (says  this  author  in  his  Advertisement)  « is  to  ex- 
pose in  its  elements^  and  while  it  may  yet  avail,  a  system  of  ethics 
which  has  long,  in  its  principle  at  least,  been  stealing  into  favour  ; 
and  which  in  its  certain  tendency  to  undenpine  the  foundation  of  what- 
ever 18  excellent  or  valuable  in  the  human  heart,  is  exactly  adapted  to 
qualify  us  for  either  of  the  two  descriptions  of  character  whiqh  form 
the  shame  and  scourge  of  the  age — for  the  unprincipled  and  obsequi- 
•«8  t6ol  of  political  corruption,  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  vain  despe** 
late  votaries  of  political  empiricism,  on  the  other*' 

Apprehensions  more  terrific  than  the  case  itself  justifies 
may,  perhaps,  be  entertained  by  this  gentleman,  in  contem- 
templating  the  Godwinean  system ;  he  may  imagine  k  to  be 
more  stealing,  into  favour  than  it  really  is,  for  we  are  of  opinioa 
Aat  it  does  too  great  violence  to  the  principles  and  affections 
nf  human  nature  ever  to  be  current ;  yet  it  comes  in  <<  so 
questionable  a  shape,"  that  it  demands  examination,  and  he 
who  ably  refutes  it  must  be  allowed  to  have  rendered  service  to 
the  cause  of  morals. 

We  should  be  sorry,  therefore,  to  be  thought  to  give  cold 
and  stinted  praise  to  the  author  of  these  pages,  for  the  pains 
which  he  has  taken  to  place  this  theory  in  its  true  light.  He 
bas,  we  think,  "  laid  the  axe  to  the  root  of  the  tree  •,'*— -he  has 
exposed  it  in  its  elements ;  and  he  has  evinced  its  foundation* 
principle  to  be  erroneous. 

Mr.  Gedwiu'^s  iradical  position  is, 

•  •  That  we  are  bound  injustice  to  do  all  the  good  we  can>  and  that 
aU  moral  duty  therefore  is  comprised  in  Justice.  It  is  just  to  do  all" 
the  good  we  can  ;,  it  is  unjust  not  to  do  all  the  good  we  can.  Beings 
bouad  in  justice  to  do  ail  the  good  we  possibly  can,  the  only  just 
motive  for  preferring  either  our  own  good  to  that  of  others,  or  of 
ether  persons,  the  good  of  any  one  individual  to  that  of  any  other, 
must  be  a  sense  of  the  superior  quantity  of  good  which  that  indivi- 
dual, whether  it  be  ourselves  or  another,  is  capable  of  producing  ; 
because,  by  pursuing  thi«  plan  only,  can  we  produce  all  the  pojibibic 
good  in  our  power;  whatever  therefore  leads  us  to  prefer  cither  our-' 


GrecnV  Examination  of  tie  New  System  ofMtfnSs.      195 

ttlves  or  others  upon  a  different  acconnt,  is  immoral  and  unjust.  Ta 
execute  this  grand  design  of  producing  all  the  good  in  our  power,  by 
ourselves  or  through  others,  we  must  be  perfectly  free  frv)m  restraint, 
too,  as  well  as  bias  ;  all  promises,  oaths,  contracts,  &c.^whatever 
blindly  determines  us  to  act  in  any  definite  way — should  not  be  al» 
lowed  therefore,  or  not  regarded  x  if  they  do  not  lead  us  to  deviate 
from  the  only  right  line  of  conduct — that  of  producing  all  the  good 
pos>ibIo— they  are  useless ;  if  they  do,  ihey  are  immoral  and  unjust. 
Besides  a  freedom  from  restraint  and  bias,  a  knowJedg^e  of  truth,  alsOf 
is  necessary  to  e.irible  us  to  be  just:  truth  therefore  should  at  all  times 
and  under  aU circumstances  be  spoken;  and  secresy,  prudential  reserve^ 
delicate  concealment,  &c«  should  have  no  place  in  the  world.  The 
moral  as  well  as  physical  order  of  things  being  equally  governed  by 
necessity,  irirtue  can  be  approved  only  on  the  same  principle  that  we 
approve  a  fertile  vale  ;  and  vice  disapproved,  as  we  disapprove  an  in* 
fcctious  distemper ;  as  the  caur.e  of  good,  and  as  the  cause  of  evil ; 
rewards  and  punishments  must  be  regarded  only  as  a  means,  and  that  am 
irrational  one,  of  reforming  error,  which  can  be  effectually  cured  only 
by  an  infusion  of  truth ;  and  resentment,  remorse,  and  affliction  for 
past  events,  must  be  extinguished  from  the  face  of  the  earth,  Im 
nnc,  the  truly  wise  and  just  man  will  be  actuated  neither  by  intercit 
nor  ambition,  the  love  of  honour,  the  desire  of  fame,  nor  emulation 3 
the  good  of  the  whole  will  be  his  only  object ;  this  good  he  will  \v^ 
cessantly  pursue,  and  the  pursuit  of  it  will  constitute  his  happiness,-—^ 
a  happiness,  which  nothing  but  bodily  pain,  and  scarcely  thatj  cam 
disturb  *.* — 

*  If  we  are  bound  in  Justice  to  do  all  the  good  in  our  po^cr,  to 
produce  the  greatest  sum  of  happiness  in  sentient  nature,  which  it  it 
within  the  compass  of  our  faculties  to  effect — Then,  doubtless,  Jus-j 
tice  being  altogether  an  inflexible  duty,  admitting  no  dispen8atio% 
no  remission,  no,  not  for  a  moment,  our  whole  mind  must  be  solel]^ 
directed  to  this  single  purpose  ;  and  the  desire  to  effect  it,  must  coa^ 
ftitute  the  only  legitimate  motive  of  human  action.  Then  whatevo; 
leads  us  to  act  upon  any  other  incitement,  or  with  any  other  view,  muit 
be  extirpated  or.  subdued,  as  revolting  against  the  rules  of  Justice, 
Then  every  passion  and  emotion  of  the  human  heart  must  be  extiii« 
guished  as  abhorrent  to  our  duty ;  it  being  in  the  essence  of  all  affeo* 
tions  of  this  kind  to  prompt  us  to  act  upon  particular  motives,  sonoe* 
times  not  apparently  conducive  to  the  general  good,  and  never  rer* 
tainly  grounded  upon  it.  Then  patriotism,  mendship,  gratitude^ 
affection,  pity,  aU  the  public  and  private  virtues,  all  the  social  and 
domestic  charities,  which  have  hitherto  been  considered  as  the  best 
blessings  and  surest  hope,  as  well  as  the  grace  and  ornament  of  our 
nature,  must  be  effectually  rooted  from  our  feelings,  as  creating  an 
unjust  preference  in  favour  of  certain  individuals,  or  descriptions  of 
individuals,  independently  of  their  disposition  and  their  power  to  co* 
operate  with  us  in  promoting  the  general  good.  Then  whatever  ob- 
structs us  in  the  pursuit  of  this  good,  is  an  abat  cable  nuisance.     All 

•  ♦  See  Pol.  Jus.  4to  edit,  passim ;   and  particularly  B.  2.  c.  j^ 
and  6. ;  B.  3.  c.  3. ;  B.  4^  c.  4>  5,  6. ;  B.  6. .  c.  5. ;  B.  7.  and  8.*  * 


jg6      Greet! V  Exapurtati&n  bfthe  NeMo  System  of  Mwatin 

determinate  rules  are  blind  restrictions.  All  legal  property  \%  inve^ 
terate  injustice  :  I  have  a  right  to  Just  as  much  as  I  conceive  will  best 
enable  me  to  accomplish  my  grana  project ;  and  nobody  has  a  right 
to  any  other  portion,  upon  any  other  title*  All  law  is  usurpation 
upon  reason  :  all  judicious  process,  fetters  and  oppression  :  prevailing 
sentiments  and  manntrs,  antiquated  prejudice.— Ir  we  accept  the  prin* 
ciple,  we  must  take  the  consequences — they  are  potentially  included.' 
Having  thus  exhibited  an  outline  of  the  system  in  its  ele* 
BDcnts  and  corollaries,  the  examiner  thus  proceeds  to  refute  it : 
'  *  What  (says  he)  does  this  axiom,  viz.  "  that  we  are  bound  injustice 
to  do  all  the  good  we  can,"  assume  ?  It  takes  for  granted^  and  it  is  the 
ouly  circuhisiance  which  gives  the  colour  of  plausibility  to  the 
position,  that  because  the  end  of  virtue  is  the  general  good  (as  it 
li  undoubtedly,  ai^d  of  every  other  principle  moulded  into  the  com- 
position of  physical  and  moral  nature)  that  it  is  it!}  tendency  to 
this  end,  which  determines  us  to  distinguish  it  as  virtue;  that  because 
the  final  cause  of  moral  distinction  is  utility,  that  utility  must  be 
Its  proximate  cause  also ; — an  assumption,  which,  without  any  sort 
ci  internal  evidence  in  its  favour,  (as  an  abstract  proposition  it  is 
impossible  that  ft  should  have  aqy,)  is  directly  controverted  by 
the  very  proof  whi^h  wc  should  naturally  expect  to  find  adduced  in 
its  suppoi't — the  presumptions,  I  mean,  and  sometimes  very  strong 
ones,  which  may  be  drawn  from  analogy.  We  are  actuated  to  va- 
rious ends  by  various  principles  \  by  more  perhaps  than  a  superficial 
Obscrvef  will  Suppose  or  allow.  After  a  pretty  careful  review  of  this 
subject— it  is  orie  of  the  most  curious  and  instructive  in  the  circle  of 
Contemplative  enquiry — I  may  venture  to  affirm  that  there  is  no  single 
Instance,  no,  not  the  minutest,  in  the  whole  moral  oeconomy  of  man, 
JO  vrhich  the  end  to  be  attained,  is,  as  this  axiom  presumes,  the  mo- 
tive appointed  to  attain  it.  Let  us  take  the  mo^t  familiar  cases  that 
txCi  occur.  The  end  of  eating  and  drinking  is  the  sustenance  of  our 
bodies ;  do  we  eat  ^d  drink  for  that  purpose  ?  The  end  of  thtr  union 
of  the  sexes  is  the  propagation  of  the  species;  do  we  unite  with  that 
flew  \  The  end  of  parental  affection  is  the  preservation  of  helpless 
infancy ;  do  we  love  our  children  on  tlsat  account  \  The  ultimate 
end  here,  too,  is  the  general  good  ;  dors  it  form  any  part  of  the  in- 
citement ?*— 

«  If  ft  is  the  utility  of  an  action  which  constitutes  it  virtuous,  we 
must  all  be  conscious  of  it.  It  is  absolutely  impossible  that  we 
should  be  mistaken  in  our  feelings,  however  we  may  be^  misled  in  our 
reasonings  about  them.  Turn  then  to  the  writers  who  speak  the  lan- 
guagcof  nature  and  truth,  the  poets  and  orators  of  all  ages-  Are  the  vir- 
tues they  celebrate  ever  ascribed  to  this  motive,  are  they  ever  exalted 
in  this  view,  are  they  ever  recommended  on  this  principle?  Nothing  less. 
Look  into  the  historians  ;  they  express  exactly  the  same  sentiments. 
The  deaths  of  Socrates  and  Seneca  were  worthy  of  thpirlives ;  and  shed, 
beyond  all  question,a  ray  of  interest  over  their  course,  which  the  highest 
noon  of  their  ascendant  never  equalled :  What  apparent  connection 
Is  there  between  the  unshaken  fortitude  and  philosophic  calmness 
which  overpower  us  with  admiration  in  the  dyinff  moments  of 
these  great  teachers  of  morality,  and  the  general  happiness  of  man- 
kind ?    hi  actions  which  affect  this  happiness  much  more  directly, 


Green'/  Examination  of  the  New  Syst/m  of  Morals.      197 

their  tendency  to  promote  it,  secnns  to  constitute  no  ingredient  ia 
the  motive  of  the  agent,  or  the  approbation  of  the  spectator.' 

Herein  our  author  follows  Bp.  Butler ;  who  cautions  hit 
readers  ;  *  Dissertation  on  the  Nature  of  Virtue^*  subjoined  to  his 
Analogy)  "  against  imagining  the  whole  of  virtue  to  consist  in 
singly  aiming,  according  to  the  best  of  their  judgment,  at  pro- 
moting the  Happintss  of  Mankind  in  the  present  state." 

If  we  be  not  to  act  till  we  have  ascertained  the  greatest  pos- 
fiblc  pood  that  we  may  produce,  there  could  be  no  acting  at 
ail.  To  require  so  vast  a  motive  as  the  proximate  cause  of  our 
conduct,  or  as  the  primum  mobile  of  virtue,  is  to  require  too 
much  of  man  as  a  moral  agent.  Universal  benevolence  is  an 
amiable  sentiment,  but  it  cannot  govern  every  spring  of  indi- 
vidual action.  The  mother  will  not  suckle  and  protect  her 
child,  nor  the  farmer  house  his  corn,  from  the  sole  motive  of 
the  general  good.  Man  is  so  constituted,  that  individual  af- 
fections first  touch  his  soul,  which  by  degrees  are  brou;jht  to 
expand  themselves  into  social  regard  :  but  Mr.  Godwin  would 
Invert  the  order  of  nature,  or  rather  completely  subvert  it,  by 
making  the  social  principle  of  General  Happiness  obliterate  in 
vs  all  individual  affections.  The  mind  is  to  be  so  expanded 
with  the  sublime  and  glorious  idea  of  Universal  Good,  that 
self-love  is  to  be  annihilated  and  forgotten.  This  is  utterly  im- 
possible. There  is  not,  therefore,  in  this  theory,  any  fitness 
tor  the  Being  to  whom  it  is  with  so  much  formality  proposed. 
I^et  us,  however,  follow  the  Examiner  in  his  farther  exposition 
of  the  Godwinean  theory  :  *  Let  us  see  to  what  it  leads.' 

*  I  am  bound  to  produce  all  the  good  in  my  power.  I  am  bound 
then  to  act  upon  this  principle  only,  to  have  this  object  perpetually 
before  me,  and  to  pursue  it  with  all  the  faculties  I  possess.  I  am 
bound,  of  course,  to  discard  every  other  principle  of  action  as  inv 
moral  and  unjust,  and  to  extinguish  or  subdue,  as  much  as  in  me 
lays,  every  passion  and  instinct  of  my  nature,  to  make  way  for  the 
operation  of  this  grand  precept.  I  must  not  till  my  farm,  nor  marry 
a  wife,  nor  rear  my  children,  from  the  common  motives  of  profit^ 
love,  or  affection,  but  from  a  conviction  that  by  ?o  acting  I  shall  best 
promote  the  general  good.  For  how  can  I  promote  that  good  to> 
the  utmost  of  my  power,  unless  in  each  particular  act,  at  each  parti* 
cular  moment,  I  do  my  utmost  to  promote  it  ?  And  how  can  I  be 
said  to  promote  it  at  all,  unless  I  act  with  that  design  ?  Since  as  to 
any  good  that  may  casually  result  from  my  conduct  (and  casually  it 
must  result  if  I  act  from  any  othtr  motive),,  I  can  no  more  be  said 
to  have  produced  it,  than  I  can  be  affirmed  to  have  saved  the  life 
which  my  posthumous  son  saved,  because  I  begot  him.  Morality^ 
on  this  scheme,  is  not  an  occasional  alterative,  but  our  constant  diet. 
I  must  not  stir  a  step,  but  from  a  Conviction,  that,  of  all  the  pos- 
sible modes  of  action,  it  is  the  one  most  conducive  to  the  general 

9  This. 

.  t^       Gf€cn*/  Examinaticn  of  the  N^nv  Sysietn  of  Morals^ 

This,  however,  as  our  ingenious  Examiner  observes,  is  *  ft> 
invert  the  natural  series,  to  transform  the  last  and  remotest 
extension  of  our  regards  into  the  original  spring  from  which  wc 
are  to  derive  all  others.* 

It  is  a  sufficient  refutation  of  the  theory  so  ably  combated  by 
eur  Examiner,  to  pourtray  the  Being  whom  it  would  produce 
as  a  model  of  political  perfection. 

*  What  should  wc  think  of  an  aniilsal  in  any  of  these  shapes,  or 
in  the  shape  of  man,  whom  no  intimacy  could  endear,  no  kindnete 
attach,  no  misery  move,  no  injuries  provoke,  no  beauty  charm,  no 
wit  cxhiliratc  ;  whose  cold  heart  no  sorrows  could  thaw,  no  festivity 
warm  ;  but  who  pursued,  with  inflexible  perseverance,  some  abstract 
idea  of  the  general  good  ;  dead  to  the  glow  of  virtue ;  dead  to  the 
shame  of  vice  ;  and  calculating  the  degrees  of  rectitude,  of  posthu- 
mous advantage  over  present  suffering,  by  De  Moivre  upon  chances?* 

*  But  the  general  welfare  or  the  general  good,  after  all,  is  but  an 
aggregate  of  individual  good  ;  and  our  capacity  to  suffer  and  enjoy, 
remains  precisely  as  it  was.  Mr,  Godwin  furnishes  us  with  no  sixth 
tense ;  he  opens  no  new  inlet  to  gratification  ;  he  discovers  no  terra 
mitstralii  of  delight,  physical,  or  moral,  present  or  to  come.  All 
iLings  stand  exactly  as  they  were  ;  except,  that  instead  of  each 
man's  providing  for  himself,  he  is  to  purvey  for  others  ;  every  body 
»  to  busy  himself  in  every  body's  business  but  his  own  ;  every  body 
is  to  meddle  in  every  thing  but  what  he  is  competent  to  manage  ;  all 
are  to  cater,  and  none  to  consume ;  and  in  the  mortification,  confu- 
sion, perplexity,  distrust,  and  despair,  of  each  individual,  is  to  con- 
sist universal  confidence,  peace,  plenty,  security,  and  happiness*' 

The  author  makes  the  original  sin  of  the  whole  theory  to 
consist  *  in  considering,  as  the  result  of  reason,  an  effect  which 
it  is  not  in  the  competence  of  reason  to  produce*;  and  he  very 
properly  reprobates  the  Universal  Despotism,  and  even  into- 
lerance^  at  which  the  system  laid  down  by  Mr.  Godwin  aspires* 
Our  moral  sentiments,  he  remarks,  are  original  principles  of 
action.  Hence  *  we  do  not  merely  believe  an  action  to  be  of  a 
certain  description  called  moral  or  immoral,  we  approve  or  dis- 
approve it  r.s  such ;  and  this  sentiment  of  approbation  or  dis- 
approbation has  a  positive  influence  on  human  conduct.'— -In 
his  theory  of  Moral  Sentiments,  the  Examiner  professes  to  fol- 
low th^  celebrated  Adam  Smith  ;  and  in  exposing  the  fallacy  of 
the  Goiiwinean  theory,  he  observes  that  by  placing  virtue  in 
utility  it  f  resumes  on  a  general  affection  for  the  general  good. 

Thus  have  we,  as  far  as  our  limits  would  allow,  given  va- 
rious specimens  of  the  close  reasoning  and  ingenuity  manifest- 
ed in  this  Examination ,— sufEcient  to  prove  that  the  subject 
has  been  deeply  considered  by  the  author,  and  that  his  pam- 
phlet deserves  to  be  read  by  all  who  have  been  invited  to  the 
pciusal  of  Mr.Godivia's  **  Political  Justice."    • 

6  The 

Cove  on  the  Revenues  of  the  Church.  ipp 

The  writer  supposes  that  the  resblution  of  "  Virtue"  into 
•<  the  promotion  of  the  general  good"  was  probably  suggested 
by  Mr.  Hume  to  Mr.  Brown,  and  from  him  adopted,  with 
modifications,  by  Mr.  Paley.  He  has  requested  us,  however, 
(in  a  private  letter,)  to  inform  the  public  that  he  mistook  ;  and 
that  Mr.  Hume's  **  Enquiry  concerning  the  Principles  of  Mo- 
rals," which  he  confounded  with  his  **  Essays,"  was  not  pub- 
lished till  after  the  first  appearance  of  Mr.  Brown's  Essays  \ 
though  the  same  doctrine  had  been  previously  inculcated  in  his 
"  Treatise  on  Human  Nature,"  published  some  years  before. 
As  to  Mr.  Paley's  Definition  of  Virtue,  he  has  found  it  expli* 
citly  asserted  in  the  Dissertations  prefixed  to  Dr.  Law's  *  edi- 
tion of  Archbishop  King's  Origin  of  Evil. 

A  new  edition  of  this  pamphlet,  just  published,  gives  the 
name  of  its  author,  Thomas  Green,  Esq.  and  rectifies  the 
errors  into  which  he  had  fallen  in  the  history  of  the  principle 
discussed  in  his  letter.  Other  parts  arc  re- touched ;  and  Mr. 
G.  has  added,  in  a  Postscript,  an  extract  from  Bp.  Butler's 
id  Dissertation  at  the  end  of  his  Analogy ;  desirous  of 
shewing  that  he  does  not  stand  alone  in  the  controversy  with 
those  who  '*  resolve  morality  into  expediency."  -lyr      ^ 

Art.  XVHL  jin  Essay  on  the  Revenues  of  the  Church  of  England. 
By  Morgan  Gove,  LL.B.  Vicar  of  Sithney,  Cornwall.  2d  Edit. 
8vo.    pp- 390.    58.  Boards.    Cadell  jum  and  Davics.     1797. 

THE  object  of  this  publication  is  to  establish  the  following 
points :  1st,  That  the  Clergy  of  the  Church  of  England 
have  a  natural,  precedented,  and  legal  right  to  the  revenues 
with  which  they  are  endowed.  2dly,  That,  though  these  re- 
venues may  collectively  appear  large,  they  afford  a  very  mo- 
derate competency  to  the  many  thousands  whose  subsistence 
depends  on  them  *,  and  lastly,  That  these  revenues,  particularly^ 
the  part  of  them  arising  from  tithes,  are  neither  burdensome 
to  the  individual  nor  injurious  to  the  public.  These  positions 
are  pursued  through  many  chapters  and  sections,  which  begin 
with  the  history  of  tithes  deduced  from  the  Phcenicianst 
Greeks,  and  Romans,  to  the  Jews  and  primitive  Christians  ; 
and  likewise  from  the  first  establishment  of  Christianity  in 
England,  to  the  progressive  confirmation  of  them  in  our  own 

As  we  prefer  facts  to  opinions,  we  shall  extract  only  such 
passages  as  rlaay  tend  to  information. 

Of  the  revenues  of  the  church  in  general,  the  author  remarks  t 

.  ^ ,     * 

♦  Dr.  Law,  the  late  Bishop  of  Carlisle. 

«  Thus 

lod  Cove  on  tie  Revmues  of  tie  Church. 

*  Thus,  when  it  is  Mid,  that  the  Cathedral  Revenues,  throughout 
the  kingdom,  amount  to  the  gross  sum  of  140,000!.  per  annum,  yet, 
kt  it  he  remembered,  that  there  are,  in  all,  not  less  than  1,700  pcr- 
•Ofi?,  who  are  partakers  of  those  revenues,  in  a  greater  or  smaller  pro* 

*  The  Parochial  Clergy  have  been  more  fortunate  and  successful, 
than  either  their  Eprscopai  or  Dignified  Brethren.  Their  incomes, 
being  chiefly  dependent  on  the  state  of  landed  property,  whosoever 
might  be  the  possessori  of  it,  have  been  necessarily  more  augmented, 
by  the  increased  value  of  the  rental  of  that  property;  and  their 

X'  ts  and  claims,  not  being  of  a  fleeting  nature,  but  immovably 
ed  to  the  soil  of  each  parish,  have  suffered  little  diminution, 
except  from  the  easiness,  inattention  and  neglect  of  the  Clergy 

*  It  appears  from  the  Liler  Regh,  according  to  ^rch-Deacon 
PtjfmJey  in  bis  Charge  to  the  Clergy  of  Salop  in  the  year  1 793,  that  there 
arc  in  England  and  Wales,  5,098  Rectories,  3,687  Vicarages,  and 
9,970  Churches  which  are  neither  Rectorial  nor  Vicarial ;  in  all, 
11,755  Churches,  contained  in  about  10,000  parishes,  at  which 
•umber  the  parishes,  throughout  the  kingdom,  are  usually  esti« 

*  Of  these  Rectories,  many  are,  without  doubt,  highly  ▼aluable. 
fThe  same  may  be  said  in  respect  to  some  of  the  Vicarages,  from  be« 

•  •  ing  possessed  of  large  glebes,  or  large  endowments,  or  from  both 
^uses  united ;  but,  however,  there  are  many  Rectories,  and  Vica- 
rages, in  particular,  whose  tithes  are  wholly  impropnated,  and  with- 
out even  any  parsonage  house.  Of  the  Churches,  which  arc  neither 
Rectorial  nor  Vicarial,  perhaps,  two  fifths  are  merely  Chapels  of 
Ease,  and  appendant  to  some  extensive  and  valuable  benefices,  or 
dae  built  on  speculation  in  populous  parts  of  the  kingdom,  in  which 
districts  they  arc  chiefly  to  be  found.  And,  of  the  remaining 
Churches,  to  which  neither  houses,  glebes,  nor  tithes  most  com- 
monly belong,  the  incomes  must  necessarily  be  very  inconsiderable,  at 
they  can  alone  proceed  from  trifling  contingencies.' — 

*  From  the  aggregate  amount  of  the  incomes  of  3,181  Uvings,  now 
and  formerly  in  cTiarge  in  the  King's  Books,  situated  in  every  count jr 
in  the  kingoom,  and  whose  value  hath  been  collected  almost  entirely 
within  the  last  ten  years,  from  various  sources  of  jpublic  and  private  in- 
formation, it  appears, — that  each  of  these  livings  rs  now  worth,  on  the 
average,  141I.  per  annum,  and  that,  when  compared  with  the  value 
anaexed  to  them  in  the  King's  Books,  they  have  all  increased  in  the 
general  proportion  of  about  ten  to  one,  since  the  time  of  the  Reform- 
ation ;— but,  that  the  Rectories  have  increased  in  the  ratio  of  nearly 
eleven  to  one,  and  are  at  present  of  the  yearly  value  of  162I.  each,— 
and  that  the  Vicarages  have  increased  in  the  ratio  of  rather  more  thaa 
nine  to  one,  and  are  at  present  of  the  yearly  value  of  106I.  each.  The 
number  of  Rectories,  included  in  this  calculation,  is  2,037,  and  of  the 
Vicarages  1,144: — the  collective  value  of  the  former,  m  the  King's 
Books,  being  30,1581.  and  of  the  latter  13,3791. — and  the  collective 
value  of  the  former,  at  present,  being  330,7541.  and  of  the  latter 
121,4031.  per  annum. 

«  According, 

Cotton  the  Revenues  of  the  Church.  26  r 

*  According,  then,  to  the  present  average  value  of  the«e  Rectoriefl 
and  Vicarages,  and  to  the  number  of  the  Rectorial,  Vicarial,,  and 
other  Churches  throughout  the  kingdom,  as  before  given  from  the 
Liber  Regisy  the  revenues  of  the  Parochial  Clergy  will  be  increased  to 
the  amount  of  1,313,000!.  per  annum^  as  thus  appears : — 5,098  Rec- 
tories, at  162I.  each,  will  give  825,876!. — 3,687  Vicarages,  at  io6h 
each,  will  give  398,222!. — And,  1782  (that  is,  three  fifths  of  2,970) 
Churches,  which  are  neither  Rectorial  nor  Vicarial,  but  are  presumed 
to  be  Parochial  Cures,  at — suppose  the  ample  allowance  of — 50L 
each,  will  givt  89,1001.  And  when,  to  these  sums,  are  added  the 
Episcopal,  Cathedral,  and  University  revenues,  amounting,  as  be- 
fore stated,  to  392,000!.  per  annuniy  it  will  be  seen,  that  the  Bishop 
of  LandafPs  valuation  of  the  Church  and  University  revenues,  is  ex- 
ceeded, by  the  sum  of  205,000!.' 

From  the  revenues,  the  essayist  proceeds  to  estimate  the' 
number  of  the  established  Clergy : 

*  They  have  been  variously  estimated,  as  much  above  20,coo,  as 
below  15,000: — a  medium  between  both,  or  18,000,  is,  most  pro- 
bably, the  correctest  statement  of  them,  as  it  will  allow  a  Supernu- 
merary or  Curate  to  about  one  half  of  the  before  stated  number  of 
11,755  Churches. 

*  These  eighteen  thousand  persons,  whether  beneficed  or  expect- 
ant, with  their  families  and  dependents,  make  up,  possibly,  near 
100,000  souls,  reckoning  at  the  rate  of  five  and  an  half  persons  to  a 
family.  However,  as  a  part  of  the  Clergy,  like  those  of  other  pro- 
fessions, may  be  supposed  to  be  single  men,  this  computation  will, 
therefore,  at  first  sight,  appear  exaggerated  ;  but,  when  it  is  censi-' 
dered,  that  the  Clergy  are  an  exception  to  those  of  other  professions^ 
and  are,  for  the  most  part,  married  men,  with  numerous  families  in 
general,  the  calculation,  in  estimating  the  whole  body  of  them  with 
each  a  family  of  five  and  an  half  persons,  may  turn  out,  neither  rash 
nor  ill-founded: — and,  more  especially,  since,  computing  two  thirds 
of  them  to  be  married  men,  with  families  and  dependents  of  seven 
persons  each,  the  same  gross  product  will  almost  itppear, — as  seven 
times  twelve  thousand  amount  to  84,000,  and  the  remaining  one 
third,  (or  6,000  single  men)  with  one  dependent  each,  will  msuLC  up 
the  whole  number  to  be  96,000. 

*  And,  thus,  taking  the  population  o^the  kingdom  at  8,000,060 
of  persons,  the  C  lergy,  witli  their  families  and  dependents,  are  about 
an  eightieth  part  of  the  people.' 

It  appears  that,  by  the  addition  of  the  Cathedral  and  the 
equalization  of  the  Parochial  incomes,  the  revenue  to  be  en- 
joyed by  each  parish  priest  would  not  eiceed  i  *] 2L  per  annum. 

In  a  parallel  drawn  between  the  Church  Establishments  of 
England  and  Scotland,  we  learn  that 

*  The  whole  provision  of  the  Ministers  of  the  Kirk  of  Scotland 
was  estimated,  about  forty  years  past,  in  the  year  1755,  at  about 
68,5001.  per  annum  ;  which,  being  divided  between  944  Ministers, 
afforded  to  each  of  them,  on  the  average,  an  annual  income  of  72L 

Rev.  June,  1799.  P  This 

202  Lyrical  Ballads. 

This  provision^may,  indeed^  have  been  increased  ;  but,  nevertheless, 
whatever  it  may  be  now,  it  appears,  from  the  foregoing  an  then  ti- 
cated  publications,  to  be  daily  growing  of  less  and  less  estima- 
tion, and  scarcely  an  object  of  desire.  It  is  so  incompetent  to 
the  decent  and  comfortable  maintenance  of  the  present  Ministry', 
notwithstanding  the  great  cheapness  of  the  necessaries  of  life  in 
Scotland,  when  compared  with  the  prices  of  them  in  England,  that 
not  only  the  Ministers  themselves  complain  and  are  uneasy  in  their 
situations,  but  their  unpleasant  and  contiued  circumstances  are  so 
obvious,  that  the  youth  of  respectable  families  and  connections  arc 
prevented  and  deterred  from  entering,  as  formerly,  into  the 

•  The  consequences  of  this  have  been,  that  those  of  inferior  fami- 
lies and  situations  in  life  have  been  already  candidates  for,  and  have 
been  necessarily  ordained  into  the  Ministry,  from  the  mere  want  of 
others,  of  more  respectable  connections,  and  more  qualified  by  edu- 
cation and  professional  studies.  From  time  to  time,  even  this  class 
of  the  people  will  withdraw  themselves,  (as  views  of  bettering  their 
conditions  in  the  commercial  line,  or  some  lucrative  employment, 
continue  to  present  themselves  before  them,  J  and  others  of  still  less 
character,  consequence  and  qualifications,  will  be  broucjht  forward, 
and,  (though  ill  calculated  to  further  the  purposes  of  religion,)  must 
'dirough  necessity  be  introduced  iwto  its  offices.  And,  thus,  will  the 
poverty  of  the  Scottish  Establishment  prove  its  most  deadly  foe,  and, 
m  the  event,  in  all  likeHhood,  work  its  ruin  ;  as  all  the  good  effects, 
both  civil  and  reh'gious,  which  have  been  deduced  from  it,  will  gra- 
dually vanish.' 

Mr.  Cove  has  shewn  considerable  talents  as  a  calculator  in 
this  publication ;  and  those  of  his  arguments  which  he  has 
founded  on  his  calculations  are  proposed  with  candour,  and 
with  propriety  of  style  and  manner.  'DaTl^ 

Art.  XIX.     Lyrical  Ballads y  with   a  few   other  Poems*     lamo. 
pp.  210.     58.  Boards.    Arch.     179s* 

THE  author  of  these  ingenious  compositions  presents  the 
major  part  of  them  to  the  public  vl%  expenments ;  since 
they  were  written,  as  he  informs  us  in  the  advertisement 
prefixed^  « chiefly  with  a  view  to  ascertain  howfar  the  language 
of  conversation  in  the  middle  and  lower  classes  of  society  is 
adapted  to  the  purposes  of  poetic  pleasure.* 

Though  we  have  been  extremely  entertained  with  the  fancy, 
the  facility,  and  (in  general)  the  sentiments,  of  these  pieces, 
we  cannot  regard  them  as  poetry^  of  a  class  to  be  cultivated  at 
the  expence  of  a  higher  species  of  versification,  unknown  in 
our  language  at  the  time  when  our  elder  writers,  whom  this 
author  condescends  to  imitate,  wrote  their  ballads. — Would 
it  not  be  degrading  poetry,  as  well  as  the  English  language,  to 


Lyrical  Ballads.  ^03 

§0  back  to  the  barbarous  and  uncouth  numbers  of  Chaucer  ? 
uppo^,  instead  of  modernizing  the  old  bard,  that  the  sweet 
and  polished  measures,  on  lofty  subjects,  of  DrydeUi^  Pope» 
and  Gray,  were  to  be  transmuted  into  the  dialect  and  vcrsifi* 
cation  of  the  xivth  century  ?  Should  we  be  gainers  by  the 
retrogradation  ?  Rust  is  a  necessary  quality  to  a  counterfeit 
old  medal :  but,  to  give  artificial  rust  to  modem  poetry,  in 
order  to  render  it  similar  to  that  of  three  or  four  hundred 
years  ago,  can  have  no  better  title  to  merit  and  admiration  than 
may  be  claimed  by  any  ingenious  forgery.  None  but  savages 
have  submitted  to  eat  acorns  after  corn  was  found. — We  will 
allow  that  the  author  before  us  has  the  art  of  cooking  his 
acorns  well,  and  that  he  makes  a  very  palatable  dish  of  them 
for  jcurs  maigres  :  but,  for  festivals  and  gala  days, 

**  Muitos  castrajuvant^  ^  I'tluo  tuhds  • 

Permistus  sonitusJ* 

We  have  had  pleasure  in  reading  the  reliques  of  antlent poetry^ 
because  it  was  antient ;  and  because  we  were  surprised  to  find 
so  many  beautiful  thoughts  in  the  rude  numbers  of  barbarous 
times.  These  reasons  will  not  apply  to  imitations  of  antique 
versification. — We  will  not,  however,  dispute  any  longer  about 
names ;  the  author  shall  style  his  rustic  delineations  of  low- 
life,  poetry^  if  he  pleases,  on  the  same  principle  on  wtiich 
Butler  is  called  a  poet,  and  Teniers  a  painter :  but  are*  the 
doggrel  verses  of  the  one  equal  to  the  sublime  numbers  of  a 
Milton,  or  are  the  Dntch  boors  of  the  other  to  be  compared 
with  the  angels  of  Raphael  or  Guido  ?-— When  we  confess 
that  our  author  has  had  the  art  of  pleasing  and  interesting  in 
no  common  way  by  his  natural  delineation  of  human  passions, 
human  characters,  and  human  incidents,  we  must  add  that  these 
efiects  were  not  produced  hjih^  poetry  : — we  have  been  as  muck 
affected  by  pictures  of  misery  and  unmerited  distress,  in  prose. 
The  elevation  of  soul,  when  it  is  lifted  into  the  higher  regions  of 
imagination,  afibrds  us  a  delight  of  a  different  kind  from  the 
sensation  which  is  produced  by  the  detail  of  common  inci« 
dents.  For  this  fact,  we  have  better  authority  than  is  to  be 
found  in  the  writings  of  most  critics :  we  have  it  in  a  poet  him« 
self,  whose  award  was  never  (till  now)  disputed  : 

"  The  poet's  eye,  in  a  fine  frenzy  rolling, 

Doth  glance  from  heaven  to  caith,  from  earth  to  heav'n  ; 
And,  as  imagination  bodies  forth 
The  forms  of  things  unknown,  the  poet's  pen 
Turns  them  to  shape,  and  gives  to  aiery  nothing 
A  local  habitation  and  a  name.''     Shaksp£ARE. 
Having  said  thus  much  on  the  genus ^  we  now  come  more 
particularly  to  the  species. 

P2  The 

Ib4  Lyrical  Ballads. 

The  author^s  first  piece,  the  Rime  of  the  aneyent  marinere^ 
Hi  imitation  of  the  style  as  well  as  of  the  spirit  of  the  elder 
pOetSi  16  the  sirangest  story  of  a  cock  and  a  bull  that  we  ever 
saw  on  paper :  yet,  though  it  seems  a  rhapsody  of  unintel- 
figible  wildness  and  incoherence,  (of  which  we  do  not  perceive 
the  drift,  unless  the  joke  lies  in  depriving  the  wedding  guest 
of  his  share  of  the  feast,)  there  are  in  it  poetical  touches  of  an 
exquisite  kind. 

*'  The  Dramatic  Fragment^  if  it  intends  anything,  seems  meant 
to  throw  disgrace  on  the  savage  liberty  preached  by  some  mo- 
dem philosophes. 

The  Tew-Tree  seems  a  seat  for  Jean  Jaques ;  while  the  re- 
flections on  the  subject  appear  to  flow  from  a  more  pious  pen. 

The  Nightingale  -sings  a  strain  of  true  and  beautiful  poetry; 
— Miitonic,  yet  original  %  reflective,  and  interesting,  in  an  un- 
common degree. 

^  No  cloud,  no  reliquc  of  the  sunken  day 
Distinguishes  the  West,  no  long  thin  slip 
Of  sullen  Light,  no  obscure  trembling  hues. 
Come,  we  will  rest  on  this  old  mossy  Bridge  ! 
You  sec  the  glimmer  of  the  stream  beneath. 
But  hear  no  murmuring ;  it. flows  silently 
O'er  its  soft  bed  of  verdure.     All  is  still, 
A  balmy  liiVht !  aud  tho'  the  stars  be  dim. 
Yet  let  us  think  upon  the  vernal  showers 
That  gladden  the  ffrcen  earth,  and  we  shall  find 
A  pleasure  \\\  the  dimness  of  the  stars. 
And  hark  !  the  Nightingale  begins  its  song, 
•*  Most  musical,  most  melancholy"*  Bird! 
A  melancholy  Bird  ?  O  idle  thought ! 
i'  In  nature  there  is  nothing  melancholy. 

.  i-  — But  some  night-wandering  Man,  whose  heart  was  pierc'd 

With  tlic  remembrance  of  a  grievous  wrong. 
Or  slow  distemper  or  neglected  love, 
(And  so,  poor  Wretch  !  fill'd  all  things  with  himself. 
And  made  all  gentle  sounds  tell  back  the  tale 
Of  his  own  sorrows)  he  and  such  as  he 
First  nam'd  these  notes  a  melancholy  strain  ; 
/\nd  many  a  poet  echoes  the  conceit. 
Poet,  who  hath  been  building  up  the  rhyme 
When  he  had  better  far  have  stretch'd  his  limbs 

*  *'  Most  tnusicalf  most  melancholy  J*  This  passage  in  Milton  pos- 
sesses an  excellence  far  superior  to  that  of  mere  description  :  it 
is  spoken  in  the  character  of  the  melancholy  Man,  and  has  therefore 
a  dramatic  propriety.  The  Author  makes  this  remark,  to  rescue 
himself  from  the  charge  of  having  alluded  with  levity  to  a  line  in 
Milton  I  a  charge  than  which  none  could  be  more  painful  to  him, 
except  perhaps  that  of  having  ridiculed  his  Bible.* 


Lyrical  Ballads.       •  205 

Beside  a  brook  in  mossy  forest-dell 

By  sun  or  moonlight,  to  the  influxes 

Of  shapes  and  sounds  and  shifting  elements 

Surrendering  his  whole  spirit,  of  nis  song 

And  of  his  fame  forgetful !  so  his  fame 

Should  share  in  nature's  immortality, 

A  venerable  thing !  and  so  his  song 

Should  make  all  nature  lovelier,  and  itself 

Be  lovM,  like  nature  ! — But  'twill  not  be  so  ; 

And  youths  and  maidens  most  poetical 

Who  lose  the  deepening  twilights  of  the  spring 

In  ball-rooms  and  hot  theatres,  they  still 

Full  of  meek  sympathy  must  heave  their  sighs 

O'er  Philomela's  pity-pleading  strains. 

My  Friend,  and  my  Friend's  Sister  !  we  have  learnt 

A  diiferent  lore :  we  may  not  thus  profane 

Nature's  sweet  voices  always  full  of^love 

And  joyance  !  'Tis  the  merry  Nightingale 

That  crowds,  and  hurries,  and  precipitate^ 

With  fast  thick  warble  his  delicious  notes. 

As  he  were  fearful,  that  an  April  night 

Would  be  too  short  for  him  to  utter  forth 

His  love-chant,  and  disburthen  his  full  soul 

Of  all  its  music  !  And  I  know  a  grove 

Of  large  extent,  hard  by  a  castle  huge 

Which  the  great  lord  inhabits  not :  and  so 

This  grove  is  wild  with  tangling  underwood. 

And  the  trim  walks  are  broken  up,  and  grass. 

Thin  grass  and  king-cups  grow  within  the  paths. 

But  never  elsewhere  in  one  place  I  knew 

So  many  Nightingales  :  and  far  and  near 

In  wood  and  thicket  over  the  wide  grove 

They  answer  and  provoke  each  other's  songs— 

With  skirmish  and  capncious  passaging^, 

And  murmurs  musical  and  swift  jug  jug 

And  one  low  piping  sound  more  sweet  than  ajl-^ 

Stirring  the  air  with  such  an  harmony. 

That  should  you  close  your  eyes,  you  might  almost 

Forget  it  was  not  day !  On  moonlight  bushes, 

Whose  dewy  leafits  are  but  half  disclos'd. 

You  may  perchance  behold  them  on  the  twigs. 

Their  bright,  bright  eyes,  their  eyes  both  bright  and  ivSi^ 

Glistning,  while  many  a  glow-worm  in  the  shade 

Lights  up  her  love- torch. 

A  most  gentle  maid 
Who  dwellcth  in  her  hospitable  home 
Hard  by  the  Castle,  and  at  latest  eve, 
(Even  like  a  Lady  vow'd  and  dedicate 
•To  something  more  than  nature  in  the  grove) 
Glides  thro'  the  pathways ;  she  knows  all  their  notes^ 
That  gentle  Maid !  and  oft,  a  moment's  spacci 

P3  What 

2o6  Lyrical  Ballads. 

What  time  the  moon  was  lost  behind  a  cloud,  - 
Hath  heard  a  pause  of  sikncc  :  till  the  Moou 
Emerging,  hath  awakcnM  earth  and  sky 
With  one  sen^tion,  and  those  wakeful  Birds 
Have  all  burst  forth  in  choral  minstrelsy, 
As  if  one  quick  and  sudden  Gale  had  swept 
An  hundred  airy  harps !  And  she  hath  watch *d 
Many  a  nightingale  perch  giddily 
On  blos'my  twig  still  swinging  from  the  breeze. 
And  to  that  motion  tunc  his. wanton  song. 
Like  tipsy  Joy  that  reels  ^ith  tossing  head. 
Farewell,  O  Warbler  !   till  to-morrow  eve. 
And  you,  my  friends  !  farewell,  a  short  farewell ! 
We  have  been  loitering  long  and  pleasantly. 
And  now  for  our  dear  homes.'— That  strain  again  ! 
Full  fein  it  would  delay  me  ! — My  dear  Babe, 
Who,  capable  of  no  articulate  sound, 
Mars  all  things  with  his  imitative  lisp. 
How  he  would  place  his  hand  beside  his  ear, 
His  little  hand,  the  small  forefinger  up, 
And  bid  us  listen  !  And  I  deem  it  wise 
To  make  him  Nature's  playmate.     He  knows  well 
Tlie  evening  star :  and  once  when  he  awoke 
In  most  distressful  mood  (some  inward  pain 
Had  made  up  that  strange  thing,  an  infant*8  dream) 
I  burned  with  him  to  our  orchard  plot, 
And  he  beholds  the  moon,  and  hush'd  at  once 
Suspends  his  sobs,  and  laughs  most  silently. 
While  his  fair  eyes  that  swam  with  undropt  tcai'S 
Did  glitter  in  the  yellow  moon-beam  !  Well — 
It  is  a  father's  tale.     But  if  that  Heaven 
Should  give  me  life,  his  childhood  shall  grow  up 
Familiar  wiih  these  songs,  that  with  the  night 
He  may  associate  Joy  •   Once  more  farewell, 
Sweet  Nightingale  1  once  more,  my  friends  I  farewell.* 

^f  Female  Vagrant  is  an  agonizing  tale  of  individual  wretched- 
ness ;  highly  coloured,  though,  alas  !  but  too  probable.  Yet,  as 
it  seems  to  staoip  a  general  stigma  on  all  military  transactions, 
which  were  never  more  important  in  free  countries  than  at  the 
present  period,  it  will  perhaps  be  asked  whether  the  hardships 
^described  never  happen  during  revolution,  or  in  a  nation  sub- 
dued ?  The  sufferings  of  individuals  during  war  are  dreadful : 
but  is  it  not  better  to  try  to  prevent  them  from  becoming  gene- 
ral, or  to  render  them  transient  by  heroic  and  patriotic  efforts, 
than  to  fly  to  them  for  ever  ? 

Distress  from  poverty  and  want  is  admirably  described,  ia 
the  «  true  story  of  Goody  Blah,  a/:4  Harry  GUI ;'  but  are  we 
to  imagine  that  Harry  was  bewitched  by  Goody  Blake?  The 


Lyrical  Bailais.  ao J 

hardest  heart  must  be  softened  into  pity  for  the  poor  old 
-woman  ; — and  yet,  if  all  the  poor  are  to  help  themselves,  and 
supply  their  wants  from  the  possessions  of  their  neighboQrf, 
what  imaginary  wants  and  real  anarchy  would  it  not  create  ? 
Goody  Blake  should  have  been  relieved  out  of  the  tvjo  miUtans 
annually  allowed  by  the  state  to  the  poor  of  this  country,  not 
by  the  plunder  of  an  individual. 

Lines  on  the  first  mild  day  of  Alarch  abound  with  beautiful 
sentiments  from  a  polished  mind. 

8imcn  Lccy  the  dd  Huntsman^  is  the  portrait,  admirably 
painted^  of  every  huntsman  who,  by  toil,  a^c,  and  intirmitic^t 
is  rendered  unable  to  guide  and  govern  his  canine  family. 

Anecdote  for  Fathers,  Of  tliis  the  dialogue  is  ingenious  and 
natural :  but  the  object  of  the  child's  choice,  and  the  inferences, 
are  not  quite  obvious. 

We  are  s£vcn  ,— innocent  and  pretty  infantine  prattle. 

On  an  early  Spring,  The  first  stanza  of  this  little  poem 
seems  unwoitliy  of  the  rest,  which  contain  reflections  truly 
pious  and  philosophical. 

The  Thorn,  f\\\  our  author's  pictures,  in  colouring,  arc 
dark  as  those  of  Rembrandt  or  Spanioletto. 

The  last  of  the  Fl'jch  is  more  gloomy  than  the  rest.  We  arc 
not  told  how  the  wretched  hero  of  this  piece  became  so  poor. 
He  had,  indeed,  ten  children  :  but  so  have  many  cottagers  ; 
and  ere  the  tenth  child  is  born,  the  eldest  begin  to  work,  and 
help,  at  least,  to  maintain  themselves.  ,No  oppression  is 
pointed  out ;  nor  are  any  means  suggested  for  his  relief.  If 
the  author  be  a  wealthy  man,  he  ought  not  to  have  suffered  this 
poor  peasant  to  part  with  the  last  of  the  flock.  What  but  an 
Agrarian  law  can  prevent  poverty  from  visiting  the  door  of  the 
indolent,  injudicious,  extravagant,  and,  perhaps,  vicious  }  and 
is  it  certain  that  rigid  equality  of  property  as  well  as  of  laws 
could  remedy  this  evil  f 

The  Dungeon,  Here  candour  and  tenderness  for  criminals 
seem  pushed  to  excess.  Have  not  jails  been  built  on  the 
humane  Mr.  Howard's  plan,  which  have  almost  ruined  some 
counties,  and  which  look  more  like  palaces  than  habitations 
for  the  perpetrators  of  crimes  ?  Yet,  have  fewer  crimes  been 
committed  in  coii sequence  of  the  erection  of  those  magnificent 
structures,  at  an  cxpence  which  would  have  maintained  many 
in  innocence  and  comfort  out  of  a  jail,  if  they  have  been  driven 
to  theft  by  want  } 

The  mad  Mother ;  admirable  painting  !  in  Michael  Angclo's 
bold  and  masterly  manner. 

The  Idiot  Boy  leads  the  reader  on  from  anxiety  to  distress, 
and  from  distress  to  terrori  by  mcidents  and, alarms  which, 

P4  '  though 

^99  Lyrical  Ballads. 

diough  of  the  most  mean  and  ignoble  kind,  interest,  frightCHf 
and  terrify,  almost  to  torture,  during  the  perusal  of  more  than 
a  hundred  stanzas. 

Lines  written  near  Rtchmond^^ literally  *'  most  musical^  most 
melancholy  /" 

Expostulation  and  Reply.  The  author  tells  us  that  *  these 
lines,  and  those  which  follow,  arose  out  of  c  nversition  with 
a  friend  who  was  somewhat  unreasonably  attached  to  modern 
books  of  moral  philosophy/  These  two  pieces  will  afford  our 
readers  an  opportunity  of  judging  of  the  author's  poetical  talents, 
in  a  more  modern  and  less  gloomy  style  than  his  Ballads  : 

«  Why  William,  on  that  old  grey  stone, 
Thus  for  the  length  of  half  a  day. 
Why  William,  sit  you  thus  alone. 
And  dream  your  time  away  ? 

<*  Where  are  your  books  ?  that  light  bequeathed 
To  beings  else  fort  lorn  and  blind  ! 
Up  !  Up  !  and  drink  the  spirit  breath'd 
From  dead  men  to  their  kind, 

•^  You  look  round  on  your  mother  earth. 
As  if  she  for  no  purpose  bcyre  you  ; 
As  if  you  were  her  first-born  birth, 
And  none  had  lived  before  you  !" 

<  One  morning  thus,  by  Esthwaite  lake. 
When  life  was  sweet  I  knew  not  why. 
To  me  my  good  friend  Matthew  spake. 
And  thus  I  made  reply. 

**  The  eye  it  cannot  chuse  but  see. 

We  cannot  bid  the  ear  be  still ; 

Our  bodies  feel,  where'er  they  be, 

Against,  or  with  our  will, 
«*  Nor  less  I  deem  that  there  are  powers. 

Which  of  themselves  our  minds  impress. 

That  we  can  feed  this  mind  of  ours. 

In  a  wise  passiyeness. 
•<  Think  you,  mid  all  this  mighty  sum 

Of  things  for  ever  speaking, 

That  nothing  of  itself  will  come. 

But  we  must  still  be  seeking  ? 

•'  —Then  ask  not  wherefore,  here,  alone. 
Conversing  as  I  may, 
I  sit  upon  this  old  grey  stone, 
And  dream  my  time  away." 


<  Up  !  up  !  my  friend,  and  clear  your  looks. 
Why  all  this  toil  and  trouble  ? 

Up !  up  !  my  friend,  and  quit  your  bookSi 
Or  surely  you'll  grow  double. 


Lyrical  Ballads,  'T.O^ 

«  The  sun  above  the  mountain's  head, 
A  freshening  lustre  mellow. 
Through  all  the  long  green  fields  has  spread, 
His  first  sweet  evening  yellow. 

*  Books  !  'tis  a  dull  and  endless  strife,    ' 
Come,  hear  the  woodland  h'nnet. 
How  sweet  his  music  ;  on  my  life 
There's  more  of  wisdom  in  it. 

'  And  hark  !  how  blithe  the  throstle  sings  I 
And  he  is  no  mean  preacher  ; 
Come  forth  into  the  light  of  things. 
Let  Nature  be  your  teacher. 

*  iShe  has  a  world  of  ready  wealth. 

Our  minds  and  hearts  to  bless — 

Spontaneous  wisdom  breathed  by  health,  * 

Truth  breathed  by  chcarfulness. 

*  One  impulse  from  a  vernal  wood 
May  teach  you  more  of  man  ; 
Of  moral  evil  and  of  good, 
Than  all  the  sages  can. 

*  Sweet  is  the  lore  which  nature  brings ; 
Our  meddling  intellect 

Mis.  shapes  the  beauteous  forms  of  things  ; 
— We  murder  to  dissect.  ^_ 

'  Enough  of  science  and  of  art ; 
Close  up  these  barren  leaves ; 
Come  forth,  and  bring  with  you  a  heart 
That  watches  and  receives.' 

The  Old  Alan  travellings  a  Sketchy  finely  drawn  :  but  the  tcr- 
xnination  seems  pointed  against  the  war ;  frorn  which,  howerer^ 
vit  are  now  no  more  able  to  separate  ourselves,  than  Hercules 
was  to  free  himself  from  the  shirt  of  Nessus.  The  old  tra- 
veller's son  might  have  died  by  disease. 

Each  ballad  is  a  tale  of  woe.  The  style  and  versification 
are  those  of  our  antient  ditties  :  but  much  polished,  and  more 
constantly  excellent.  In  old  songs,  we  have  only  a  fine  line 
or  stanza  now  and  then  ;  here  we  meet  with  few  that  are  fee* 
ble :— but  it  is  poesie  larmoianie.  The  author  is  more  plaintive 
than  Gray  himself* 

The  Complaint  of  a  forsaken  Indian  Woman :  another  tale  of 
woe  !  of  the  most  afilicting  and  harrowing  kind.  The  want 
of  humanity  here  falls  not  on  wicked  Europeans,  but  on  the 
innocent  Indian  savages,  who  enjoy  unlimited  freedom  and 
liberty,  unbridled  by  kings,  magistrates,  or  laws. 

TIm  Convict.  What  a  description  !  and  what  misplaced  com- 
jniserationj  on  onp  condemned  by  the  laws. of  bis  country^ 


^lo  Monthly  Catalogue,  History^  iffc. 

which  he  had  confessedly  violated  !  We  do  not  comprehend 
the  drift  of  lavishing  that  tenderness  and  compassion  on  a  cri- 
minal, which  should  be  reserved  for  virtue  in  unmerited  misery 
and  distress,  suffering  untimely  death  from  accident,  injustice, 
or  disease. 

Lifies  written  near  Thitern  Abbey, — The  reflections  of  no  com- 
mon mind;  poetical,  beautiful,  and  philosophical  :  but  some- 
what tinctured  with  gloomy,  narrow,  and  unsociable  ideas  of 
seclusion  from  the  commerce  of  the  world :  as  if  men  were 
born  to  live  in  woods  and  wilds,  unconnected  with  each  other ! 
Is  it  not  to  education  and  the  culture  of  the  mind  that  we  owe 
the  raptures  which  the  author  so  well  describes,  as  arising  from 
the  view  of  beautiful  scenery,  and  sublime  objects  of  nature 
enjoyed  in  tranquillity,  when  contrasted  with  the  artificial  ma- 
chinery and  **  busy  hum  of  men"  in  a  city  ?  The  sav;ige  sees 
none  of  the  beauties  which  this  author  describes.  The  con- 
venience of  food  and  shelter,  which  vegetation  affords  him,  is 
all  his  concern ;  he  thinks  not  of  its  picturesque  beauties,  the 
course  of  rivers,  the  height  of  mountains,  &c.  He  has  no  dizzy 
raptures  in  youth ;  nor  does  he  listen  in  maturer  age  "  to  the 
still  sad  music  of  humanity.'* 

So  much  genius  and  originality  are  discovered  in  this  pub- 
lication, that  we  wish  to  see  another  from  the  same  hand, 
written  on  more  elevated  subjects  and  in  a  more  cheerful  dis- 

position.  T)rB....yr 


For    JUNE,     1799- 

HISTORY,     l^C. 

Art.  20.  Historical  View  of  the  Rise^  Progress ^  atid  Tendency  of  the 
Principles  of  jfacohimsm.  By  t!ic  Rev.  Lewis  Hughes,  B.  D.  8vo. 
IS.  6d.    Wright.    17^8. 

'T'His  is  a  professed  compilation  from  the  work  of  the  Abbe  Bar- 
ruel;  undertaken,  as  we  arc  informed,  at  the  suggestion  of 
the  Bishop  of  Bristol.  Here  the  Abb6's  hypothesis  of  a  regular 
and  deeply* concerted  conspiracy  of  infidels,  against  the  Christian  rc- 
h'gion,  is  maintained:  but  the  proofs,  though. ihcy  display  the  zeal 
smd  address  with  which  philosophic  and  speculative  unbelievers  have 
attacked  Christianity,  do  not  establish  the  whole  of  the  declaration 
respecting  a  conspiracy .  Supposing  this  to  have  been  the  case,  how- 
ever, with  some  men  of  letters  on  the  continent,  and  supuosing  the 
Abbe  Barrucl  to  have  just  cause  of  resentment  against  them,  it  ia 
not  greatly  to  the  credit  of  our  Protestant  church,  that  we  cannot 
defend  our  reb'gion,  without  assuming  ground  occupied  by  a  Papist, 
and  palliating,  Though  not  defending,  principles  rejected  in  our  esta- 
blishment :  (such,  for  insitancei  as  Uiose  which  relate  l9  rcb'gious  or- 

15  d€r& 

Monthly  Catalogue,  Agricuitun^  tsfc  an 

dcri  and  monastic  institutions  ;)  and  without  speaking  respectfully  of 
the  Inquisition  itself*.  Popery  was  the  great 'source  of  infidelity  on 
the  continent.  That  and  Christianity  were  considered  as  synonimous 
terms.  Hence  infidelity  was  more  prevalent  in  France,  even  during 
the  monarchy,  than  among  us. — Is  it  become  necessary  for  us  to 
make  a  commu.i  caui«c  wlih  Popeiy  ?  Surely  it  is  not  prudent  to 
do  it.  A:nong  us,  our  greatest  phik)S0pher8  have  not  only  believed 
in,  but  have  been  advocates  for,  the  Christian  reh'gion  ;  and  what 
does  this  prove  but  that  Protestantism  is  mote  propitious  to  faith 
among  sensible  men  ;  and  that  our  arguments  for  the  Gospel  need  not 
partake  of  the  weakness  which,  almost  from  necessity,  adheres  to 
those  of  Catholic  apologists  ? 

If  Mr.  Hughes  had  given  a  spirited  review  of  our  own  Deistical 
writers,  and  exhibited  an  antidote  against  irreliglon  and  infidelity,  suited 
to  the  circumstances  of  Great  Britain,  he  would  have  done  more  for 
Chrigtiaiu'ty  than  will  probably  be  accomplished  by  this  epitome  of    - 
the  Abbe  Barruel.  ^  ^ .  .y; 


Art.  2 1 .  The  Praciical  Planter  ;  or,  a  Treatise  on  Forest  Planting  : 
comprehending  the  Culture  and  Management  of  planted  and  natu- 
ral Tiiiiber,  in  cvtry  Stage  of  its  Growth  :  Also,  on  the  Culture 
and  Management  of  Hedge  Fences,  and  the  Construction  of  Stone 
Walls,  &c.  By  Walter  NIcol,  Author  of  "  The  Forcing  and 
Kitchen  Gardener,"  &c.  8vo.  pp.  430.  83.  Boards.  Edin- 
burgh.— Scatchcrd,  Lundon.     1799. 

Professional  men,  especially  In  the  department  of  t2isic,Jind  ihctr 
account  In  authorship  :  for  a  book  is  a  good  advertisement,  and  it  it 
an  iRi-'.Icatlon  of  the  author's  merit  in  the  line  of  his  profession.  Mr, 
NIcol  evidently  pubhshes  witli  a  view  of  making  himself  more  known 
as  (what  Is  called)  a  landscape-gardener,  or  as  a  surveyor  and  de- 
signer of  pleasure  grounds,  plantations,  &:r.  and,  as  his  terms  arc  so 
very  moderate,  (only  one  guinea  per  day,  with  travelling  charges,  on 
hortieback,  or  by  stage-coach,)  we  will  not  throw  a  damp  on  his  en- 
deavour?. The  rural  ornamentalist  is  a  favourite  character  with  our 
nobility  and  country -gentlemen  ;  and  from  two  to  five  guineas  a-day, 
and  often  more,  with  all  travelling  charges,  not  on  horseback,  nor  by 
stage,  but  in  a  post-chaise,  arc  paid  for  his  attendance.  With  him 
an  architect  is  sometimes  associated,  and  then  ^/>  Fisto  tr  sure  to  fay 
for  havinr^  a  taste. 

Mr.  Nicol  appears  by  this  publication  to  liave  some  knowlcgc  of 
the  art  of  planting ;  and  if  his  taste  in  designing  be  equal  to  hia 
practical  experience,  his  assistance  in  planning  parks  and  shrubberies, 
and  in  making  walks  and  lines  of  approach  to  the  mansion,  may  be 
cheaply  obtained ;  of  this,  however,  the  volume  before  us  presents 
no  opportunity  of  forming  a  judgnu;nt.  It  is  a  work  resulting  rather 
from  experience  and  practical  obsei-vation,  than  from  genius :  but  it 

*  ^  The  delusion  has  extended  its  fatal  influence  to  the  reces^tes 
i:ven  of  the  Inquisitorial  Court,  and  disarmed  that  awcfui  power  of  iu 
fpijgUanci  and  its  terror.'    f*  77* 


aiz         Monthly  Catalogue,  Mathematics^  Igc. 

may  be  presumed  that  a  roan,  who  has  made  rural  Nature  his 
study,  has  been  admitted  to  the  knowlege  of  some  of  her  beautiful 

The  book  treats  of  the  situations  most  advantageously-  suited  to 
the  cultivation  of  forest  trees,— of  the  soils  adapted  to  the  different 
kinds  of  them  ;^-of  the  nursery  ;— of  hedge-rows  and  pollards  ^—oi 
thinning  and  pruning;  of  sub-dividing  large  tracts  by  belts  and 
stripes  ;— of  the  value  of  forest  timber,  and  of  various  modes  of 
fencing.  In  treating  of  these  subjects,  he  shews  himself  to  be  no 
novice ;  and  his  book  on  planting  may  be  of  considerable  use  to  those 
gentlemen  who  amuse  thcnwelves  with  being  their  own  designers  and 

Mr.  N.  might,  however,  have  compressed  his  matter  into  a  nar- 
rower compass ;  and  he  ought  to  have  explained  some  provincial 
terms  which  will  not  be  understood  in  the  southern  parts  of  Great  • 
Britain.  We  particularly  approve  his  recommending  acorns  to  be 
sown  in  young  plantations; — his  mode  of  meliorating  sterile  and  ex- 
posed districts  by  striping  and  belting ;  and  his  strong  inculcatioa 
of  the  old  maxim — If  you  want  a  targe  tree^  plant  a  small  one.  1^^ 

Art.  22.     Hints  on  Inclosing ,  jigriculturey   Slewarelshiff   and  Tythes. 

By  T.  Pallett,  Land  and  Timber  Surveyor,  Hatheld  Woodside, 

Herts.     8vo.     is.  6d.     Robinsons. 

These  remarks  are  cursory,  but  they  arc  evidently  the  result  of  ex- 
perience. i\Il  gentlemen  of  landed  property,  who  are  obliged  to 
entrust  the  care  of  it  to  others,  must  wish  their  stewards  to  peruse 
Mr.  Pallett's  detail  of  *  what  a  steward  ought  to  be.' — }/lr.  P.  wishes 
for  a  general  in  closure -bill,  and  for  an  alteration  in  the  mode  of  pay- 
ing tythc,  or  rather  for  a  substitute  for  tythes.  TV 

Mathematics,  Astronomy,  {5*r. 

Art.  23.  The  complete  Practical  j4ritl)metician,  &c.  By  Thomas 
Ktith,  Private -Teacher  of  Mathematics.  2d  Edit.  i2mo.  3s.  6d. 
bomid.     Scatcherd,  &c. 

The  first  edition  of  this  work  was  noticed  in  our  Review  for  Oc- 
tober 1789.  The  author  has  adopted  the  improvement  suggested 
by  us,  which  was  to  be  effected  by  merely  altering  the  arrangement ; 
and  the  rules  and  examples  are  now  placed  togetner.  Mr.  K.  has, 
however,  not  only  differently  disposed  the  parts  of  his  publication, 
but  has  rescinded  some  old  and  inserted  some  new  notes  ;  a  few  pages 
are  also  added  on  proportion,  square  and  cube  numbers,  &c.  "f^ 

Art.  24.  jin  Epitome  of  Astrononfy^  with  the  new  Discoveries :  in- 
cluding an  Account  of  the  Eidouranion,  or  Transparent  Orrery, 
invented  by  A.  Walker,  as  lectured  upon  by  his  Son,  W.  Walker^ 
8vo.     IS.  6d.     Robson,  &c. 

Ttiis  small  tract  is  well  calculated  to  assist  those  persons  who  at- 
tend Mr.  Walker's  Lectures  on  Astronomy.  It  has  indeed  the  com- 
mon fault  of  books  oF  this  nature,  in  abounding  in  pompous  phrase- 
ology ; — we  continually  n>eet  with  infinitude  of  worlds — mind  lost  in 
the  imno^sity  of  contemplation --&C.  expressions  which  fill  the  ear, 
|>ut  feed  not  the  mind.  Philosophy  shoyld  produce  a  thirst  for  know- 

13  lege, 

ar*       '  "\-'!C-'     »wi 

Monthly  Catalogue,  Reltgloutj  tsfc.  "213 

lege,  not  excite  wonder;  and  should  induce  the  true  and  rational 

dcvation  of  mind,  by  offering  to  man  an  object  worthy  of  hisambl-      ^  ^ 

tlon  and  within  the  compass  of  his  powers.  '        rfCOii*** 

Art.  25.  y/  plain  System  of  Geography,  connected  with  a  Variety  o^ 
Astronomical  Observations,  familiarly  discussed  in  a  Conversation 
between  a  Father  and  his  Son.  By  Evan  Lloyd,  Schoolmaster. 
Illustrated  with  Copperplates  and  Maps.  12  mo.  Boards.  £din<> 
burc^h,  1797.     London,  Richardson. 

This  book  is  intended  for  the  instniction  of  youth,  and  certainly 
18  executed  with  sufficient  abih'ty  to  answer  its  end.  Although  the 
style  is  not  entitled  to  commendation,  yet  the  manner  in*  which  the 
instruction  is  conveyed  is  not  uninteresting.  T)? 

Art.  26.    Tobies  of  Interest^  calculated  at  5  per  Cent.     Shewing  at 
one  View  the  Interest  of  every  Sum,  from  One  Pound  to  365 
Pounds.     They  are  also  carried  on  by  Hundreds  to  One  Thousand 
Pounds,  and  by  Thousands  to  Ten  Thousand  Pounds,  from  One 
Day  to  One  Hundred  Days.     To  wliich  are  added,  Tables  of  In- 
terest from  One  to  Twelve  Months.     By  Joseph  King,  Account- 
ant, LiverpooL     8vo.     pp.  227.    7s.  6d.  Boards.    Richardson. 
The  design  of  these  tables  is  sufficiently  set  forth  in  the  title-page; 
on  their  accuracy  we  cannot  undertake  to  decide.     Though  the  cal- 
culations are  made  for  5  per  cent.,  yet,  by  means  of  a  table  prefixed 
to  the  work,  they  may  be  used  for  any  other  rate  of  interest.  TJO 

RELIGIOUS,   isfc. 

Art.  27.  A  Vimrtcailon  of  tJx  Divine  Inspiration  of  the  Holy  Scnpturet^ 

and  the  Doctrines  contained  in  them,  being  an  Answer  to  Mr. 

Paine's  Age  of  Reason.    By  Thomas  Scott,  Chaplain  to  the  Lock 

Hospital.     Second  Edition.     i2mo.     is.    MatthcArs. 

We  announce  with  satisfaction  the  second  edition  of  this  pam* 
phlet,  which,  for  common  use,  we  have  already  mentioned  as  the 
best  antidote  against  "  The  Age  of  Reason."  If  we  cannot  at  all 
times  subscribe  to  Mr.  Scott's  opinions,  we  have  full  proofs  of  the 
candour  and  liberality  of  his  mind,  and  heartily  rejoice  in  the  success 
of  his  truly  Christian  exertions, 

Mr.  Scott  thus  speaks  of  this  edition  :  «  The  author  has  corrected 
some  errors  and  inaccuracies  of  the  former  edition :  and  he  has  be- 
stowed considei-able  pains,  in  rendering  the  whole  more  instructive 
and  convincing  to  the  serious  enquirer.  He  hopes,  therefore,  that 
though  the  work  is  rather  shortened,  it  is  in  many  respects  improved; 
and  especially  rendered  more  suitable  to  the  case  of  those,  who,  hav- 
ing never  read  The  Age  of  Reason,  are  yet  perplexed  with  difficulties 
concerning  the  divine  inspiration  of  the  Scriptures,  and  wish  to  have 
their  objections  fairly  considered,  their  arguments  answered,  and  their 
doubts  removed  :  and  that  it  may  better  answer  the  purpose  of  those 
benevolent  friends  of  revelation,  who  desire  to  put  such  an  answer 
into  the  hands  of  their  sceptical  acquaintance.' 

In  the  chapter  on  prophecy,  he  Fias  qualified  what  in  the  first 
edition  stood  as  an  universal  proposition.  He  now  says :  *  I  am 
confident  that  the  sober  studeiit  of  the  Bible  will  find  very  few  pas' 


2X4  Monthly  Catalogue,  Religious^  liTc. 

lageSf  in  which  the  idea  of  a  divine  impulse,  in  one  way  or  other,  is 
not  evidently  connected  with  the  words  prophet^  or  prophecying ;  ex- 
cept where  false  prophets  are  evidently  intended.'  .^ 

Art.  28.  Observations  on  the  Signs  and  Duties  of  the  present  Tln^s  : 
iwith  some  Account  of  a  Society  of  Clergymen  in  London,  who 
have  agreed  to  preach  in  Rotation  weekly  Lectures  in  each  other's 
Churcnes  and  Chapels,  on  this  important  Subject :  and  a  Summary 
of  their  Views  and  Endeavours  to  excite  a  Spirit  of  Prayer,  and  of 
.  Exertion  to  promote  vital  Godliness  at  this  alarming  Period. 
Drawn  up  by  the  Desire  of  the  Society,  and  published  with  their 
Approbation.  By  Thomas  Scott,  Chaplain  to  the  Lock  Hospi* 
tal.    8vo.     6d.    Matthews,  5cc.     1799. 

Of  Mr.  Scott's  zeal  and  Christ nui  piety,  the  public  have  had  many 
•pecimens.  In  this  addition  to  them,  the  object  proposed  by  him 
)ind  his  brethren  of  the  Society,  mentioned  in  the  title,  is  highly  laud- 
able ;  though  there  are  some  expressions  in  the  account  before  us 
which  do  not  seem  to  be  the  most  happily  calculated  generally  to 
diffuse   the  spirit  of  piety. 

Mr.  S.  begins  with  observing  that  *  an  understanding  of  the  times 
(he  does  not  mean  political  understanding)  is  peculiarly  necesuary 
to  ministers,  and  to  private  Christians  ;  since  every  man's  duty  va- 
ries, in  some  respect,  according  to  circumstance*,  and  it  cannot  be 
properly  performed  if  he  remains  entirely  uninformed  of  these  mat- 
ters ;'  and  he  farther  remarks,  when  he  comes  to  the  signs  of  the  times j 
as  they  concern  Great  Britain,  that  *  no  one  wlio  compares  facts  with 
the  Bllle  will  be  saiiguinc  respecting  ourselves.'  « 

Such  observations  seem  preparatory  to  a  statement  of  the  necessity 
of  general  repentance  and  piety  to  avert  national  judgments,  and '  to 
make  'whaf  the  Lord  Is  about  (to  use  Mr.  S.'s  familiar  expression ) 
issue  in  blessings  to  our  country: — but  this  is  not  tin;  case;  for, 
diough  the  tilu  and  departure  of  all  from  God  have  made  the  danger 
of  all,  the  universal  seeking  of  God  in  prayer  is  not  necessary  to  res- 
taove  it.  '  Our  hope  rests  (Mr.  S.  tells  us)  on  the  remnant  of  real 
Christians  scattered  through  the  land ; — they  are  the  chariots  and 
horsemen  of  the  nation  ; — they  are  the  only  persons  whose  intercessions 
for  the  land  can  be  properly  considered  as  effectual ;  and  therefore  wc 
ought  to  enquire  what  should  be  done  to  stir  them  up  to  attend  to 
the  alarming  signs  and  important  duties  of  the  times.' 

The  mode  recommended  for  stirring  up  this  remnant  of  believers  ib 
a  weekly  lecture  ;  and  the  clergymen  composing  this  Society  propose 
to  the  candid  attention  of  this  remnant  of  this  pious  and  noble  army  of 
national  deliverers^  their  sentiments  on  the  following  subjects  : 

1.  The  duty  of  intercession  for  the  nation  and  for  the  church,  in 
seasons  of  danger  and  distress. 

2.  The  nature  and  special  objects  of  those  prayers  which  may  be 
supposed  to  be  availing  on  such  occasions. 

3.  The  prevalence  of  acceptable  prayer  according  to  the  Scrip- 

4.  The  other  duties  which  are  incumbent  on  us,  along  with  our 
prayers,  in  the  present  emergency- 

MoNTHi.T  Catalogue,  Ireland.  215 

Much  of  what  Mr.  S.  advances  unckr  these  heads,  with  the  prayer 
at  the  end,  deserves  our  approbation,  and  will  be  perused  with  satis- 
faction by  all  serious  Christians.     We  have  only  to  lament  that,  to 
eminent  goodness  of  heart,  Mr.  Scott  does  not  yet  add  a  greater  ex-    * 
pansion  of  s»cntimcnt : — but  the  time  may  come.  \^^ 


Art.  29.    Speech  of  the  Right  Hon,  John  Foster^  Speaker  of  the  House 

of  Commons  of  Ireland ;    delivered  in  Committee  of  the  whole 

House,  April  nth,  1799.     8vo.     2s.  6d.     Robinsons. 

Mr.  Foster's  elaborate  investigation  of  a  very  nice  and  difficult 
«tate-problcm  has  engaged  much  of  the  pubUc  attention ;  and  we, 
who  have  already  ventured  to  express  our  satisfaction  with  the  gene- 
ral idea  of  a  national  Legislative  Union  of  the  sister  islands,  cannot 
honestly  withhold  our  acknowlegement  of  not  only  the  literary  but 
the  patriotic  merit  of  the  present  oratorical  composition. 

Allowing  this  able  statesman  to  make  the  most  of  the  ground  on 
which  he  has  chosen  to  take  his  stand,  and  to  exert  the  full  force  of 
his  eloquence  against  the  proposed  measure,  it  seems  to  be  the  gene- 
ral opinion  that  he  has  powerfully  attacked  the  principal  arguments 
which  have  been  advanced  by  Mr.  Pitt,  in  his  celebrated  speech,  Jan. 
31*;  when  he  offered  to  the  British  House  of  Commons  the  resolutions 
which  he  proposed  as  the  basis  of  an  union  between  Great  Britain 
and  Ireland.  The  Right  Hon.  Speaker  of  the  Hibernian  House  of 
Commons,  however,  in  discussing  those  resolutions,  and  weighing  in 
the  political  balance  the  importance  of  this  great  national  question^ 
takes  a  wide  compass  indeed,  beyond  the  range  of  the  English  Minii- 
ter's  oration.  He  considers  every  pohtical  and  commercial  branch 
of  the  subject,  that  has  been  agitated  by  the  principal  advocates  for 
the  great  expedient ^  on  either  side  of  the  water ;  and  he  proceeds,  witM 
manly  confidence  in  the  ample  extent  of  his  information  and  un- 
doubted abihty,  to  make  the  best  use  of  itf  in  support  of  his  decided 
opposition  to  a  plan  which  he  deems  pregnant  with  the  most  fatal  con-  • 
sequences  to  his  country. 

In  regard  to  the  state  ot  religion  in  Ireland,  Mr.  Foster  has,  very 
prudently,  chosen  to  avoid  rather  than  to  meet  the  difficulties  which 
certainly  attend  that  most  momentous  part  of  the  subject,  acknow- 
leging  that  it  is  a  topic  too  delicate  for  unnecessary  discussion :  at  the 
same  time  condemning  the  imprudence  which  had  brought  it  for- 
wards, *  as  if  the  object  were,  by  rousing  animosities,  and  setting  the 
nation  by  the  cars,  to  make  any  change,  even  that  of  surrendering 
its  liberty  and  independence,  worth  consideration,  if  not  worth  trial, 
I  will  only  observe  on  it,  that  Mr.  Pitt's  language  f  is  of  such  a  na- 
ture, that  one  would  imagine  he  had  the  two  religions  on  either  side 

*   See  M.  R.  March  last,  p.  342. 

f  This  distinguished  champion  of  the  independence  of  the  Irish, 
such  as  they  now  actually  possess  and  enjoy  it,  is  not  only  occa- 
sionally sarcastic,  but  even  severe,  in  his  glances  towards  the  British 
•  Premier.  We  might  have  quoted  some  striking  passages :  but  we 
would  rather  use  oil  than  vinegar  on  the  present  occasion. 



'   2i6  Monthly  Catalogue,  Ireland. 

of  Kim,  and  one  noas  not  to  hear  what  he  said  to  the  other.     He  tells  tlie 
Catholics,  in  his  speech,  that  it  is  not  easy  to  say  what  should  be 
the  church-estabh'shment  in  this  kingdom,  and  in  his  5th  resolution 
states  that  the  present  church-establishment  is  to  be  preserved.* 
^'    We  presume   that  the  Irish  opponents  of  the  projected   unioir^ 
will,  generally,  consider  this  famous  production,    (the  argumentive 
parts  of  which  we  are  obliged  to  pass  over  without  extracts,  for  want 
of  room,}  as  comprehending  their  great  Political  Creed: — from 
their  faith  in  which,  we  fear,  it  will  not  prove  an  easy  matter  to  con- 
vert them.    Be  that  as  it  may,  the  speech  reflects  high  honour  on  the 
AuiLiTiHS,  and   [we  doubt  uot]  on  the  integrity,  of  the  Right 
Honourable  Speaker- 
Art.  30.    Substance  of  the  Speech  of  Lord  jiuckland,  in  the  (British) 
House  of  Peers,  April  n,  1799,  on  the  proposed  Address  to  his 
Majesty,  respecting  the  Resolutions  adopted  by  the  two  Houses  of 
Parliament  as  the  Basis  of  an  Union  between  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland.     8vo.     is.     Wright. 

Union  is  a  charming  worS,  and  the  true  advocate  for  it  is  entitled 
to  esteem.  The  union  which  this  speech  endeavours  to  promote  is 
honourable  to  Great  Britain  :  but  the  great  question  is,  how  it  can  be 
carried  into  effect  without  its  appearance  in  a  different  light  to  the 
sister  kingdom  ?  *  Few,'  says  Lord  Auckland,  at  the  commencement 
of  his .  speech,  *  can  deny  the  necessity  of  some  great  change  being 
made  in  the  system  of  Irish  goveiriment.'  The  independence  with 
which  Ireland  has  flattered  herself  has  been  more  imaginary  than  real ; 
while  this  imaginary  *  independence  has  been  in  a  great  measure  the 
cause  of  depriving  her  of  the  tranquillity,  the  civilization,  and  the 
prosperity,  enjoyed  by  us. 

As  the  object  of  all  the  European  powers,  especially  those  of  the 
first  order,  is  consoIiJation,  for  the  purpose  of  united  and  powerful 
operations  both  of  attack  and  defence,  policy  calls  on  us  to  give  an 
oneness  to  the  British  empire,  and  to  consider  it  no  longer  as  made 
up  of  parts,  but  as  a  firm,  compact,  homogeneous  whole. 

Lord  Auckland  endeavours  to  remove  tne  fears  and  prejudices  of 
the  Irish,  and  to  place  the  subject  before  tbcm  in  its  true  light ;  per- 
suaded, as  he  say^,  that  •  the  present  resistance  to  it  will  give  way  to 
the  commanding  voice  of  rccihon  and  truth.' 

Lord  A.'s  remarks  are  full  of  just  observation  and  sound  reason. 
Is  it  not  true,  he  asks,  'that,  wliilst  (»reat  Britain  has  gradually  ad- 
vanced \x\  civilization  of  maiincrr.,  and  in  ever)'  art,  science,  and  im- 
provement, which  can  give  happiness,  honour,  and  security  to  nations 
and  to  individuals  ;  Irtland,  posytssing  the  same  climate,  a  fruitful 
$oil,  excellent  ports,  and  a  nunierous  people,  to  whom  the  Common 
Parent  of  all  gave  great  acutcnebo  and  ingenuity,  has  nevertheless^ 
been  at  all  times  involved  in  comparative  disorder,  poverty,  turbu- 
lence, and  wretchedness  ?  I  might  add,  without  exaggeration,  that  in 
the  600  years  since  the  reign  of  Henry  II.  there  has  been  more  un- 

*  *  What  in  point  of  fact  is  the  independence  of  a  country 
which  has  no  means  of  defence,  or  security,  or  self-preservation,  but 
through  the  aid  and  protcclloa  of  iu  rr.ore  po\\crful  neighbour?' 


Monthly  Catalogue,  Ireland.  ^x'j 

happiness  in  Ireland,  than  in  any  other  civHizcd  nation,  not  actually 
under  the  visitation  of  pestilence  or  of  internal  war,  And  all  these 
evils  may  be  traced  to  the  disjointed  and  jarrfng"  action  of  two  ud* 
equal  powers,  closely  adjacent  to  each  other,  possessing  the 'same  inte- 
rests, and  subject  to  the  same  crown,  but  with  separate  legislatures^* 
The  noble  speaker  enters  into  a  variety  of  statements  respecting 
commerce,  which  we  cannot  detail,  but  which  serve  to  prove  the  ad- 
vantages held  out  to  Ireland,  and  the  importance  of  realizing  one 
constitution,    •  having  incorporated  interests   directed  by  one  legis- 

Art.  3 1 .  The  Speech  of  Lord  Minto  in  the  House  of  Peers,  April  if, 
1799,  on  a  Motion  for  an  Address  to  his  Majesty  to  communicate 
the  Resolutions  of  the  two  Houses  of  Parliament  respecting  an 
Union  between  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  8vo.  as,  6d«  Stock- 

This  noble  orator,  who  is  also  a  strong  and  warm  advocate  for  the 
union,  discusses  the  subject  at  great  length, — ^his  elaborate  and  ener- 
getic discourse  occupying  not  fewer  than  155  very  full  pages.  His 
reasoning,  and  his  arrangement  of  the  copious  rhaterials  collected  for 
this  attentive  and  close  investigation,  are  much  to  be  commended  i 
and  his  language  is  well  suited  to  the  immense  consequence  and  dig- 
nity of  the  occasion.  We  are  particularly  pleased  with  his  manly 
avo\*'al  of  his  political  principles.  *  I  like,'  says  he,  *  to  sec  on  my 
own  and  my  country's  liberty  the  seal  Of  the  old  Whigs  ;  and  am 
apt  enough  to  think  that  counterfeit  whi.:h  dcfcs  net  bear  this  mark.' 

With  respect  to  the  highly  important  measure  which  produced  the 
debate,  his  Lordship  thus  concludes  his  judicious  and  pertinent  ob- 
servations : — •  I  have  satisfied  mv  mind,  on  the  whole  matter,  that 
this  measure  is  expedient  in  itself,  and  that  Parliament  is  competent 
to  execute  it.  I  have  expressed  a  strong  opinion,  that  the  union  of 
the  two  nations,  already  united  by  nature  in  their  interests,  must,  in 
the  order  of  human  events,  necessarily  come  to  pass ;  and  I  sliall 
conclude  by  a  sincere  and  fervent  prayer,  dictated  by  the  purest  and 
the  most  ardent  desire  for  the  happiness  of ^  both  kingdoms,  that  ihc 
blessings  sure  to  tlow  from  a  consummation  so  devoutly  to  be  wished, 
jnay  not  be  long  delayed.' 

Like  the  author  of  the  5*  Demonstration,"  &c.  hereafter  men- 
tioned. Lord  Minto  has,  in  one  of  the  various  lights  in  which  he  has 
considered  the  subject  of  a  legislative  union  between  the  two  islands, 
treated  the  general  question  philosophically.  His  Lordship,  like 
that  ingenious  author,  thus  expresses  his  persuasion  of  the  necessary 
event  (p»  29)  :  *  I  cannot  help  looking  to  the  union  not  merely  as  ;n 
advantageous  and  desirable  event,  audon  that  account  likely  to  bring 
itself  about,  but  as  certain  and  unavoidable,  although  I  shall  take 
care  not  to  commit  my  philosophy  too  rashly,  by  assigning  any  par- 
ticular period,  whether  long  or  short,  for  the  accompubhrncnt  ot  its 

Art.  J2.    Three  Letters  to  a  Nchle  Lordy  on  the  projected  Legitlativ« 
'Vnion  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.     By  a  Nobkman.  -8vo.    2«, 
Wright.    1799. 

Rev.  Juke,  1799.  Q^  Tii» 

it 9  MotOfTHLY  Catalogue,  trehnd. 

Tills  atsth^r  vindicates  and  recommends  the  proposed  union^  wkb 
most  commendable  calmness  and  judgment,  wc  do  not  remember 
ettr  to  have  perused  a  more  temperate  diecussion  of  so  important  s 
iub^cct.  The  able  writer  circumstantially  enters,  like  Mr.  Foster, 
•into  the  three  principal  divisions  of  the  question,-^«is.  the  influence 
4f  this  great  measure  on  the  Legislation,  the  Commerce,  nnd  the 
Iteh'gion  of  the  sister  country;  and  his  arguments  certainly  merit  the 
Attention  of  all  parties.  He  differs,  totally,  on  many  of  the  leading 
/  points  and  coneliisions^  from  Mr.  Foster  j  \rhom,  however,  he  names 
but  once  ;  and  then  he  proves  his  candor,  by  the  respect  with  which 
Jii  mentions  that  great  leader  of  the  Anti-  Untonhts, 

Whether  the  atrthor  of  these  letters  really  belong*  to  that  supe- 
rior class  of  our  fellow-subjects  in  which  he  has  ranked  hitflself  in  his 
-title-page/  it  is  impossible  for  us  to  say  j  we  have  therefore  only  to 
add,  that  he  writes  in  the  character  of  a  native  of  Ireland. 

Art.  35*  Union  or  Separation.  By  R.  Farrell.  8vo«  is.  Dub- 
lin. 1798. 
This  sensible  and  seasonable  pamphlet  seems  to  have  been  well* 
calculated  to  remove  the  prejudices  or  those  of  the  Irish  people,  who 
ar«  averse  from  the  projected  union  :  a  measure,  the  absolute  neces- 
sity of  W'hich  he  plainly  deduces,  in  a  style  of  reasoning  and  language 
happily  adapted  to  common  understandings,  from  the  wretched  con- 
tdition  of  the  country  under  *  the  present  system.' — The  terms  of  the 
tfnion,  he  conceives,  may  hart  the  pride  and  feelings  of  his  country- 
nien,  and  prove  especially  repugnant  to  their  ideas  (delusive  ideas!) 
<fi  independency :  but,  argues  he,  let  us^  of  two  evils,  "  chuse  the 
least."  This  is  his  inoTTo  ;  and  we  think  that,  concise  as  it  is,  it 
powerfully  aids  his  reasoning.  With  equal  decision  and  brevity,  he 
idds,  in  his  conclusion,  r  we  maylje  better,  we  cannot  be  worse./ 

Art.  34.  Essays  en  the  political  Circunutances  of  Ireland.  Written 
during  the  Administration  of  Earl  Camden.  With  an  Appendix, 
containing  Thoughts  on  the  Will  of  the  People.  And  a  Post- 
script, now  first  published.  By  Alexander  Knox,  Esq.  8vo# 
pp,  240.     58.  Boards.    Chappie. 

The  autlior  professes  to  have  used,  in  these  essays,  dispassioiratc, 
argument ;  and  that  it  was  by  no  means  his  wish  to  indulge  in  un- 
qualified censure  of  acrimonious  severity  towards  political  agitators. 
«  I  would  (says  he)  much  rather  convince  than  exasperate  them ;  and 
•I  should  be  sorry  to  excite  the  detestation  of  others  against  them,  if 
I  could  only  hope  that  they  themselves  wonld  be  led  to  rcCTCt  their 
misconduct,  and  to  open  their  bosoms  to  "  the  compunctious  visit- 
fngs  of  nature."  Notwithstanding  these  expressions  of  forbear- 
ance, the  author,  in  the  ver)'  same  paragraph,  accuses  them  of 
feeing  *  guilty  beyond  what  words  can  express  j'  and,  instead  of  tlic 
temperance  and  »pirit  of  conciliation  of  which  he  had  taught  us  td 
expect  an  appearance  at  least,  we  meet  with  a  continued  series  of 
acrimomous  and  exulting  reproach.  The  position  principally  marp- 
lained  if,  '  that,  notwithstanding  all  that  may  be  alledged  by  men 
lost  alike  to  truth  and  to  humanity,  no  fact  can  be  more  established 
tiNm  that  the  society  of  United  Irishmen,  from  the  iuat  jnoaient  of 

"7*  *  .  H» 

MONTHLT  CATlLOGlTEy  ItJmiii  aig 

Its  institution,  has  beeiiy  with  respect  to  its  leading  members,  a  band 
of  systematic  traitors  ;  that  no  possible  means  would  hare  been  ade-^ 
quatc  to  their  suppression  but  the  most  unremitting  coercion.' 

The  latter  essays  contain  Thoughts  on  the  IV'tll  of  the  People.    These 
thoughts  are  little  more  than  contemptuous  expressions.  Of  the  pub- 
lic will,  or  will  of  the  people,  the  author  says,  *  we  arc  «6metimca 
told,  that  law  is  or  ought  to  be  the  expression  ;  of  thts^  it  has  been        % 
•aid,  that  the  Legislature  should  be  the  organ,'  &c. 

The  principle  that  the  general  or  public  will  is  the  only  legitimate 
source  of  law,  the  author  denies,  and  claims  the  merit  of  disproying. 
Mr.  Knox  has  chosen,  in  this  di8<^ertation,  to  assume  that  the  general 
will  is  the  will  of  a  mob.  *  Let  us,*  he  says,  *  suppose  the  people,  a 
mixed  multitude,  set  completely  free  from  every  restraint  which  had 
been  imposed  upon  them  by  the  habits  and  customs  of  regular  society, 
the  gradations  of  rank,  the  institutions  of  civil  polity,  and  the  author 
fity  of  government,  and  in  a  situation  not  only  to  pronounce  theiff 
will,  but,  when  pronounced,  to  enforce  it.'  From  the  sequel,  it  i« 
evident  that  Mr.  K.  has  not  deceived  himself  into  a  belief  that,  in 
Such  a  situation,  the  will  of  a  nation  could  be  expressed  ;  for,  in  the 
same  page,  he  declares  that  in  no  state  of  society  would  freedom  of 
speech  be  more  completely  annihilated.  He  nevertheless  proceeds^ 
arguing  on  this  as  being  the  empln  of  the  public  wUI, 

In  a  preface,  we  are  told  that  most  of  these  essays  were  onginally 
written  *  for  insertion  in  news-papers,  or  for  circulation  in  the  form 
of  hand-bills ;'  and  that  they  are  now  republished  *  in  order  to  the 
present  restoration  of  tranquillity,  and  for  the  purpqse  of  future  in- 
formation and  Instruction.'  We  are  of  opinion  that  neither  the  sub* 
jects,  nor  the  manner  in  which  the  author  has  treated  them,  arc  well 
adapted  to  answer  the  purposes  professed ;  and  that  the  perusal  of 
this  publication  will  afford  little  either  of  pleasure  or  of  instruction  to 
readers  of  a  liberal  and  temperate  disposition.  Gcjf^'R'"'^' 

Art.  35.  Considerathnt  upon  the  StaU  of  PuhUc  AJfairs  in  the  Year 
1799.  Ireland.  8vo.  2s*  Rivingtous. 
When  we  inform  our  readers  that  these  Considerations  respecting 
Ireland  are  from  the  same  pen  which  produced  the  **  Considerations 
on  the  State  of  Public  Affairs  in  France^**,  noticed  in  our  Review,  N.S. 
vol.  XXV.  p.  456.  some  expectations  will  naturally  be  excited  in  their 
favour ;  and  by  a  perusal  ot  them  it  is  probable  that  these  expectations 
will  not,  in  any  respect,  be  disappointed.  The  author  possesses  the 
first  requisite  for  good  writing,  a  thorough  knowlcge  of  his  subject. 
Tliosc  who  wish  to  see  the  expediency  of  the  proposed  incorporation 
of  Ireland  placed  in  a  luminous  point  of  view  would  do  well  to  peruse 
this  pamphlet,  which  contains  strong  facts  and  so\ind  reasoning,  % 
lucid  arrangement  and  an  elegant  and  spirited  style ;  arising  irom 
that  liberal  and  expansive  contemplation  of  the  subject,  which  mounts 
fibove  and  despises  all  the  mean  barriers  of  party ;  winging  a  strait 
course  to  the  public  good.  It  may  not  be  prudent  for  a  man  in  a 
public  or  ostensible  situation,  to  speak  so  plainly  and  without  com* 
pliment,  as  our  author  does :  but  he  concflvcs  that  from  *  the  cakn 
and  privacy  of  the  closet,'  he  may  safelf  ^peak  out»  and  deUve;r  thQ 
froth  without  the  peceisity  of  using  varam  and  false  colouring. 

CLa  Th« 

220  MoNtHLY  CaTALOGUB,  Ireland. 

The  great  measure  of  an  incorporate  union  between  the  two  coun- 
tries, our  author  consiJcrs  on  the  first  view  as  resolved  into  thtsc  two 
questions,  decisive  of  its  fate  ;  "  Whether  the  parliaments  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  were  competent  to  treat  for  their  constituents:'* 
and  *•  Whether  the  treaty  proposed  were  beneficial  to  the  contracting 
parties  ?" 

The  conduct  of  the  parliament  of  Ireland,  in  rejecting  the  discus* 
sion  of  these  questions,  is  reprobated  as  precipitate,  as  well  as  dis- 
respectful to  the  crown.  A  proper  allowance,  however,  is  made  for 
the  prejudices  which  operate  in  Ireland  against  this  measure,  at  the 
same  time  that  it  is  proved  that  they  are  carried  to  an  unreasonable 

The  author  considers  Ireland  as  composed  of  two  distinct  parts  ; 
the  native  Irish,  and  the  English  colony  settled  there  by  conquest,  ia 
whose  hands  are  all  the  powers  of  government.  Towards  the  former, 
he  says,  we  have  not  done  our  duty.  *  It  is  certainly  a  matter  very 
little  to  our  honour,  in  any  point  of  view,  that  after  a  period  of  six 
hundred  years,  so  Httlc  progress  should  have  been  made  m  the  conci-* 
Hation  of  the  minds  of  the  Irish,  or  in  their  fusion  and  intermixture 
with  the  colony — it  is  our  cniel  -iudifference  to  the  instruction  and 
well-being  of  the  native,  and  our  obsequious  tenderness  to  the  settler, 
that  the  "  final  settlement"  of  Ireland  has  been  deferred  through  so 
many  reigns,  and  that  we  are  now  attempting  that  which  ought  to 
have  been  perfected  Ijy  every  Prince,  at  least  since  the  Reform- 

There  cannot  be  a  doubt  that  a  very  defective,  if  not  vicious,  po- 
licy has  prevailed  with  regard  to  Ireland  ;  and  that,  under  these  cir- 
cumstances, the  hostility  of  the  native  Irish  must  be  deemed  *  more 
unwise  than  unnatural.'  It  is  time,  however,  that  we  should  be  wise; 
and  the  way  to  be  wise  is  to  be  just,  and  by  justice  we  shall  conciliate 
\  their  affections. 

The  author  next  attends  to  that  part  of  the  inhabitants  of  Ireland 
which  he  has  distinguished  as  •  the  color.y  ;'  ar.d  he  exposes  the  folly 
and  ingratitude  of  their  opposition  to  the  proposed  legislative  union. 
The  state  of  America,  which  has  separatcvl  from  u:^,  h  considered, 
and  contrasted  with  the  state  of  Scotland,  wlifch  is  intoiporated 
with  us  ;  and  from  the  consequent  prosperity  of  the  latter,  a  strong 
argument  is  drawn  in  favour  of  the  projected  measure  respecting  Ire- 
land. *  Scotland  preferred  the  substantial  useful  glory  of  a  common 
sceptre  and  an  imperial  legislature,  to  the  dull  privilege  of  provincial 
greatness  and  municipal  ambition  ;  and  she  has  not  repented,  but  has 
rather  had  reason  for  exulting  in  her  prudence  and  true  magnanimity.* 
After  having  dwelt  on  the  blessings  which  have  resulted  to  Scotland 
jn  consequence  of  the  urJon,  the  author  adds ;  *  If  all  this  experi- 
ence  is  lost  and  thrown  awar,  if  this  analogy  and  contrast  are  both 
ineffectual,  I  know  not 'what  argument  cait  reach  the  decp-rcoted 
prejudice  of  Ireland.' 

The  question  of  the  competency  of  the  two  parliaments  is  treated 
as  it  deserves.  Tiie  writer  is  not  for  assembjing  the  population  of 
an  empire  on  every  n<Av  case  and  occurrence,  to  collect  the  votes  of 
labourers  and  shepherds. 

•  '  As 

MoNTHLt  CATALOGUE)  Ireland.  22 1 

"  As  to  the  adjustment  of  1782,  he  condemns  it  as  *  the  most  un- 
JQst  as  well  as  the  most  unwise  on  the  statute-book,  the  calamities 
and  crimes  springing  from  which  an  union  only  can  cure ;'  and  his 
dislike  and  aversion  to  this  act  is  only  diminished  by  his  regarding  it 
as  having  prepared  and  accelerated  that  happy  and  desirable  event. 

We  cannot  refrain  from  transcribing  what  he  says  respecting  the 
change  produced  by  the  act  of  1782,  and  the  actual  state  of  Ire- 
land. :' 

•  The  real  change  that  was  operated  in  the  colony  by  this  pre- 
tended experiment  in  the  gift  of  independence,  was  the  mere  substi* 
tution  of  influence  in  the  room  of  prerogative,  and  of  ministerial  fa- 
vour for  parliamentary  controuL  The  dependence  was  not,  nor  could 
be  changed ;  but  the  mode  and  application  of  the  principle  were 
adopted  to  a  new  and  a  worse  position,  and  transferred  from  the  con- 
stitution to  the  treasury.  Dependence  is  the  natural  and  the  neces- 
sary order  for  every  colony  that  ever  was  or  can  be  planted,  so  long, 
at  least,  as  it  requires  the  aid  and  protection  of  the  parent  country  ; 
and  to  give  it  the  name  and  qualiticatioq  of  independence,  while  na-. 
ture  and  necessity  forbid  the  substance  of  the  thing,  is  to  betray 
and  expose  it  to  corruption,  and  all  the  base  and  little  passions  of 
avarice  and  left-handed  ambition.  Did  the  Irish  colony  receive  no- 
thing, then,  by  the  act  of  1 782  ?  Did  we  confer  nothing  by  this  high- 
sounding  term  of  independence  ?  Unfortunately  we  gave  a  fatal  boon, 
the  kindness  of  which  will  be  better  conjectured  than  explained,  when 
wcxonsider  the  present  state  of  the  independent  parliament !  There 
are,  or  there  were  at  the  time  when  the  union  was  first  proposed  in 
the  Houne  of  Commons,  one  hundred  and  sixteen  placemen  in  that 
Assembly,  whose  complete  number  does  not  exceed  three  hundred* 
I  will  not  comment  upon  this  blushing  text,  nor  will  I  search  into 
the  red-book  of  the  civil-list  of  Ireland,  I  wish  only  to  be  under- 
stood, and  I  draw  a  veil  over  every  thing  that  can  disgust  or  inflame. 
The  privilege  obtained,  therefore,  was  not  to  be  independent,  which 
was  impossible,  but  the  privilege  to  be  paid  for  obedience,  which  was 
but  too  easy.  Prerogative  had  disappeared  with  the  statute  of 
George  the  First,  and  corruption  by  the  law-poHtic  had  taken  its 
place.  I  withdraw  my  eyes  from  this  filthy  spectacle  ;  I  leave  to 
others  to  detail  a  venal  peerage,  and  pensioned  lubricity  ;  the  empire 
of  the  custom-house,  and  commissions  in  the  army  given  for  sale  to 
provosts  or  to  priests.' 

We  cannot  gratify  our  readers  with  farther  extracts,  but  we  re* 
commend  the  whole  to  the  consideration  of  Catholics  and  Protest* 
ants,  of  England  and  of  Ireland. 

^rt.  36.    yf  Demonstration  of  the  Necessity  of  a  Legislative  Union  of 
Great  Britain  and  Ireland ;  involving  a  Refutation  of  every  Argu- 
ment which  has  been  or  can  be  urged  against  that  Measure.     By 
9  Philosopher.     8vo.     pp.  40.     Dublin,  1799. 
This   very   uncommon  production  places  the  subject  in  a   light 
Jn   which,  we   think,  it    has   been  seldom   viewed.      There   seems 
%Q  be  something  of  irony  in  the  title-page,  whence  the  reader  who 
)^8  seen  only  the  Advertisement  may  be  led  to  conclude  that  tic 

(^3  author 


l!za        MoNTMLT  CATAloC0ft»  Poetic  and  Dramatic. 

BBtlior  has  taken  rank  under  the  ihinbtierial  standard  :  but  this  st  %y 
no  means  the  case.  He  treats  the  question  philosophically  ;  in  order 
to  demonstrate  that  the  event  of  a  legislative  union  between  Gteat 
Britain  and  Ireland  is  inevitable  as  effect  from  cause  ;  and  probably  not 
far  instant ;  and  this  consummation  he  considers  as  the  <  poUtieaJ 
death  *  of  Ireland-'-^It  were  needless  to  add  that,  (as  the  evident 
advocate  for  Iridh  independency,)  he  does  not  himself  rejoice  in  the 
prospect  which  he  opens  to  the  view  of  his  countrymen. — ^Without 
enterine  with  the  writer  into  the  depths  of  his  politico-philosophic 
discussion,  we  only  add  that,  considered  as  a  literary  compoeitioOf  wc 
regard  his  performance  as  a  master-piece  of  eloquent  wntmg. 

Art.  37,     Gortz  ofBerUngen^    with  the  Iron  Hand.     An  Historical 
.  Drama,  of  the  Fifteenth  Century.     Translated  from  the  German 

of  Goethe*     8vo,     58.  6d^     Cadell  jun.  and  Davies. 

The  reputation  of  Goethe  is  so  well  established,  by  different  per- 
formances which  have  attracted  universal  notice,  that  his  name  is  a 
sufficient  passport  for  any  work.  The  rapid  progress  and  great  celc* 
brity  of  the  German  drama  exhibit,  indeed,  a  singular  phenomenon 
ia  literary  history.  A  nation  just  emerged  from  barbarity  offers^ 
in  the  poetical  compositions  of  its  own  language,  models  to  8ur« 
rounding  countries  which  have  been  long  favourtd  both  by  Melpo- 
mene and  Thalia  ;  and  its  first  attempts  to  imitate  foreign  writers  arc 
received  with  an  eagerness  and  an  admiration,  which  would  seem 
to  announce  that  they  have  excelled  their  originals.  The  fame  of 
pur  immortal  Shakspeare  is  scarcely  greater  among  us,  at  this  mo« 
ment,  than  that  of  Schiller  and  Goethe,  who  have  professedly  copied 
him.  Nor  is  the  influence  of  the  Teutonic  stage  confined  to  the  ter- 
rible  and  severe ;  the  sentimental  comedy  has  emigrated  from  Francei 
to  soften  the  proud  hearts  of  German  nobles,  and  has  taught  them  to 
weep  even  for  the  misfortunes  of  those  who  cannot  boast  the  honour 
of  thirty  descents. 

There  is  a  peculiar  character  of  wildness  and  energy  in  the  German 
tragedy,  which  seizes  the  imagination,  and  scarcely  leaves  time  for 
the  decision  of  the  judgment.  With  all  the  bold  irregularity  of  our 
older  writers,  theie  is  also,  in  Goethe  espcciaUy,  a  striking  attention 
to  the  manners  of  those  ages  to  which  we  are  thus  recalled.  In  the 
present  play,  the  author  presents  us  with  a  view  of  the  distracted 
atate  of  Germany,  during  the  vigour  of  the  feudal  system,  and  under 
the  weak  guidance  of  Maximilian  I.  The  insurrection  of  the  pea*- 
sants, — a  theme  hitherto  unknown  to  the  stage,  and  little  regarded 
even  in  general  history, — is  introduced,  to  add  interest  to  the  piece  } 
and  the  Secret  Tribunal^  now  generally  known  from  the  romance  of 
Herman  of  Unna,  furnishes  a  very  impressive  scene.  This  tragedy, 
though  it  evidently  bears  the  stamp  of  genius,  is  not  entirely  free  from 
defects.     Some  of  the  scenes  are  flat  and  uninteresting,  and  consume 

•  If  death,  however,  be  only  (as  righteous  and  good  men  hope  and 
believe)  a  passage  to  a  better  state,  why  all  this  fearful  apprehension 
of  the  change? 


Mo)4TRLr  CATAlOGCnRy  Poetic  mmi  DramatU;         t^i 

l^c  tune  in  tnfling  and  unoecesfary  details ;  of  others,  even  when  die 
sction  is  hurried  forwards,  the  effect  must  depend  on  the  skill  of  thlp 
perforviers,  since  the  dialogue  furnishes  little  that  is  interesting.  la 
attempting  to  avoid  an  over-strained  and  affected  manner  of  writing, 
authors  sometimes  sink  hcneath  propnety.  P)x>fessor  Go(:the  doe) 
not  always  appear  to  have  distinguished  between  writing  naturally^ 
and  writing  trivially.  We  shall  take,  without  scltrction,  a  complete 
fcene,  as  an  jevidenjce  of  our  assertion. 

*  Enter  a  Soldier* 
.  *  SoUUr,    We  hav^  had  a  tedious  chace,   but  at  last  vfc  jiavc 
brought  home  noble  game.     Cod  keep  you,  gracious  ladies* 

Elizabeth,     Falkennelm  is  then  in  your  power  ? 

SoiJter.     He,  and  three  of  hi3  attendants. 

Eitxabetb.     How  happened  it  you  were  so  long  away  ? 

Soldier •  We  lay  In  ambush  for  hi^  betvyeeu  Nuremberg  an^ 
Bamberg.  He  did  not  appear,  and  yet  we  were  certain  he  must  be 
4>n  the  way  ;  at  hH  we  got  inteUigence  that  he  had  taken  a  bye  roi.d, 
and  had  arrived  undiscovered  at  the  count  of  Schwartzenburg's. 

Elizabeth.  Schwartzenburg  i  Do  they  want  to  excit^e  him  also  to 
enmity  against  my  husband? 

Soldier.  I  told  my  master  that  was  their  intention,  the  moment  X 
heard  that  Falkenhelm  wa^  on  a  visit  there.  Well,  away  we  gallop'd 
to  the  Haslacher  wood,  and  at  length  met  ]Falkenhdm  attended  only 
^y  four  servants. 

Maria.     My  heart  trembles  with  apprehension. 

Soldier.  I  and  my  comrade,  as  my  master  had  /commanded  us. 
fastened  upon  Falkenhelm  as  if  we  would  hjive  grown  to  him,  ana 
completely  prevented  him  stirring  or  freeing  himself ;  %n  the  mean 
time  my  Lord  and  Hans  too]L  c^e  of  his  attendants ;  buf  one  of 
|hem  has  escaped  us. 

Elizabeth.  I  am  curious  to  see  this  Falkenhelm;  will  they  be  berf 
immediately  ? 

Soldier.  I  left  them  in  the  valley^  in  9  quarter  9f  sui  hour  they 
inust  arriye. 

Maria.     |Te  yalSl  be  sadly  dejected. 

Soldier.     Yen,  he  looks  gloomy  enough* 

Maria.  Ttie  sight  of  hmi  in  such  circumstances  will  pain  mc  tQ 
the  heart. 

Elizaheth.  Well,  I  will  go  and  prepare  dinner,  you  will  all  have 
good  appetites,  I  suppose. 

Soldier,     We  are  all  hungry  enough^ 

Elizabeth.  Take  the  keys  of  the  cellar,  »nd  {^lA  ^gmf  of  the  best 
wine,  you  have  well  deserved  it.  [^Exit.\ 

Chajflef.     Aunt,  I  will  go  with  yovf. 

M^ria.     Cgme,  boy!  ^Exeunt, "^ 

Matiet , Soldier. 

Soldier.  The  Ud  does  not  take  after  Kis  fsither,  or  he  woi)Id  have 
gone  with  me  to  the  stabfc. 

'Enter  GoRTZ   of  BerUngen^    and   Aoelbert    of  Falkenhelm  mnth 

yfttendantj.  ■ 

Gortz.  {Laying  his  sword  and  helmet  on  the  table.)  Unbuckle  my 
p^ir^ss  here,  and  give  roc  my  cloak.    Rest  w^  now  tartc  swc^t  tq 

■    ■    ■  ^         04  »f, 

^14        Monthly  Catalogue,  Poetic  and  Dramatic. 

roc.  Brother  Martin  thou  sa ids t  well !  Falkcnhelm,  you  have  kept 
u^  in  breath.  [^Falkenhelm  does  not  amtvcry  hut  walks  up  and  down  in 
great  agttation,)  Be  of  good  courage,  come,  disarm;  Where  are 
your  cloaths  ?  I  hope  ihcy  have  not  been  lost  in  the  scuffle — (to  the 
page"^  ask  his  pagts.  Open  the  bac:;;age,  and  see  that  nothing  is 
missing,     I  can  lend  you  ♦oine  of  n.ine. 

FalLenhelm.     Let  me  remain  as  I  am,  it  signifies  nott 

Gortx,  I  can  give  you  a  nice  clean  dress  enough  :  to  be  sure  it  is 
only  coarse  stuff,  'ti^i  grown  too  tight  for  me  ;  I  h^d  it  on  at  the 
iiiarriage  of  his  highness  the  Count  Palatine,  that  day  when  your 
bishop  shewed  so  much  rancour  against  me.  I  had  sunk  ^wo  ot  his 
vessels  on  the  Mayne  about  a  fortnight  before,  and  as  I  and  Francis 
of  Sickingen  went  into  the  Hart  inn  at  Heidelberg  ;  half  way  up  the 
stairs  there  is  a  landi.ig  place  with  an  iron  railing,  you  know  ;  and 
there  stood  the  bishop,  who  shook  hands  with  Francis  as  he  passed 
up,  and  as  I  followed  gaye  me  too  his  hand.  I  laughed  within  my- 
self, and  said  to  the  Landgrave  of  Hanap,  who  was  always  gracious 
to  me,  "  The  bishop  took  me  by  the  hand,  I'd  wager  any  thing  he 
cfid  not  know  me."  The  bishop  overheard  me,  for  I  spoke  aloud  on 
purpose,  and  coming  up  to  mp  m  a  great  passion,  he  said,  ••you  have 
guessed  right,  it  was  only  because  I  did  not  know  you  that  I  offered 
you  my  hand."  My  Lord,  I  answered,  I  perceived  you  mistook 
use,  4ind  since  that  was  the  case,  there  you  have  your  hsmd  again. 
Then  the  little  man  grew  as  red  as  a  lobster  with  rage,  and  ran  to 
pomplain  of  me  to  count  Lewis,  and  the  prinpe  pf  Nassau,  Wc 
have  often  laughed  about  it  since. 

Falkenhelm,     I  entreat  you,  leave  me  to  myself. 

Goriz,  For  what  reason — {earnestly y)  I  pray  you  fee  at  ease.  You 
^rc  in  my  power,  but  I  will  never  misuse  it. 

Falhrikelm,  I  never  felt  a  feqr  on  that  account.  Youf  honor  and 
your  knighthood  both  forbid  you. 

Coriz,     And  you  know  well  that  they  both  are  sacred  to  me. 
•  Falkenhelm,     I  am  a  prisoner — of  the  rest  I  am  careless. 

t^ortx.  You  should  not  talk  thus.  Suppose  ypu  had  to  do  with 
princes  who  would  throw  ycu  loaded  with  chains  into  a  dungeon,  and 
perhaps  comr;;and  the  watch  to  rouje  you  at  every  quarter  from  your 
sleep,  or — 

[^The  attendants  com:  in  with  cloaths  y  Falkenhelm  disarms  *  and  put^ 
■  thmi  o/j.] 

Enier  Charles. 

Charles,     Good  morrow,  Father. 

Govt::.,  Good  morrow  Ijoy,  [kissing  him)  how  have  you  been  of 

Charles,     Very  clever,  father,  my  aunt  says  I  am  very  clcrcr. 

Gortx,      So  ! 

Charles,     Have  you  brought  ipc  any  thing  home  ? 

Goriz,     No;  not  tliis  time. 

Ch^r!es,  IHe  Karjita  great  deal  sjncc  you've  been  gone.  Shall  I 
tell  you  the  story  of  the  goor^  boy  ? 

Gertx.     After  dinner,  after  dinner. 

Charles.     I  know  something. 


Monthly  Catalogue,  Poetic  and  Dramatic.        22g 

Gorix.    Why,  what  may  that  be  > 

Charles.     "  Yarthausen  is  the  name  of  a  Tillage  and  castle  on  the 
rfvcr  Yart,  which  has  belonged  for  two  centuries  by  right  ind  by  in^ 
bcritance  to  the  Lords  of  Berlingen." 
■  Gort%.     Do«t  thou  know  the  Lord  of  Beriingen  ? 

Charles.     ( Looks  stedfastly  at  him, ) 

Gortz,  {^Asidcy  laughing)  Through  sheer  learning  he  docs  not 
know  his  own  father.  ( fo  the  child)  Why  to  whom  docs  Yar- 
thausen belong  ? 

Charles,     **  Yarthausen  is  a  village  and  castle  on  the  river  Yart.'* 

Gortz.  That  was  not  what  I  asked :  I  was  acquainted  with 
every  path,  wood,  and  wild  of  it,  before  I  knew  what  river,  village, 
or  castle  meant.     What,  is  thy  mother  in  the  kitchen  ? 

Charles.     She  is  getting  some  roast  lamb  and  turnips  ready. 

Gortz.     Thou  canst  tell  that  then,  little  scullion  boy. 

Charles.     And  my  aunt  is  roasting  an  apple  for  my  supper^ 

Gortz.     Can't  you  eat  it  raw  ? 

Charles.     It  tastes  better  roasted. 

Gortz.  Thou  must  ever  have  something  set  apart  for  thee.  Fal* 
kenhelm,  I  will  return  to  you  immediately :  I  must  go  and  see  my 
wife.     Come,  Charles ! 

Charles.     Who  is  that  man  ? 

Gortz.     Go,  make  him  welcome,  and  tell  him  to  be  chearful. 

Charles.  There,  man  !  there's'  my  hand  for  thee.  Be  merry^ 
Why  dinner  will  be  ready  directly. 

Falkenhelm.  {^Taking  him  up  in  his  arms  and iissing  him)  Happ]^ 
Child  !  who  can  imagine  no  greater  evil  than  the  delay  of  tne  dinner  t 
God  give  you  much  joy  of  the  boy !    Beriingen. 

Gortz.  Where  there  is  much  light,  there  will  also  be  strong  sha- 
dow»     Yet  was  he  welcome  to  mc.     Wc  will  see  what  is  to  be  done. 

[^Exeunt  Gortz  and  Charles.']^ 

We  do  not  give  this  extract  either  as  the  best  or  the  worst  part  of 
the  whole ;  it  conveys  a  tolerable  idea  of  the  execution  of  the  pliy  in 
general.  The  egotism  and  garrulity  of  the  hero,  by  which  the  reader's 
attention  to  his  importance  is  perpetually  solicited,  cannot  fail  to  ex* 
cite  some  disgust  in  the  judicious  admirers  of  Shakspeare ;  who  will 
immediately  recollect  the  calm  dignity  and  unaffected  sublimity  of  his 
heroic  characters.  It  must,  besides,  occur  to  the  critical  reader^ 
that  the  interest  is  much  weakened  by  the  author's  custom  of  ddi* 
neating  characters  by  narratives  of  past  events,  instead  of  expressions 
of  their  present  feelings.  Where  the  German  author  runs  into  a 
multiplicity  of  little  circumstances,  which  disperse  and  enfeeble  in* 
stead  of  accumulating  the  reader's  feelings,  our  bard  would  have 
seized  the  leading  features  with  the  boldness  of  a  master,  and  have 
left  the  others  in  the  shade* 

We  have,  in  our  language,  a  writer  of  acknowleged  genius,,  who 
closely  resembles  in  manner  the  popular  German  authors,  though  he 
IS  not  a  dramatist ;  and  if  wc  were  inclined  to  hazard  a  bold  conjec- 
ture, we  migl^t  suggest  the  probability  that  some  of  the  defects  of 
pur  neighbours  originate  in  their  admiration  of  Richardson.  The 
fame  passion  for  unlimited  detail,  and  the  same  interminable  flow  of 


aa4        MQKTHi;f  C^TALOGUI^j  PoitU  and  Dramatic. 

dialogue,  pervade  them;  yet  the  sensibility  and  enthusiasm  which  pre^H 
io  their  works  extort  the  applause  of  the  reader,  in  spito  ot  their 
nregularities.  The  dialogue,  in  all  Richardson's  novels,  is  so  level, 
that  it  has  never  furnished  a  single  quotation  ;  and  it  would  be  very 
difficult  to  prove  his  knowlege  of  the  heart,  from  any  unconnected 
•entence.  He  abounds  in  descriptions,  not  in  maxims.  Yet  no  per- 
son of  taste  and  feeling  can  read  his  works,  without  e^cperiencing 
the  strongest  interest  in  his  plots,  and  without  contracting  a  kind  of 
aittachment  to  his  principal  characters.  This  is  the  sensation  pro- 
iuced  l>y  the  tragedy  of  Goethe.  We  read  with  increasing  curiosity, 
yet  we  retain  no  striking  passage,  as  we  proceed  \  and  though  our  pas- 
•ions  are  agitated  fre(}uently  before  the  conclusion,  we  do  not  revert 
to  any  scene  on  which  wc  can  dwell  with  particular  fondness.  Oa 
the  contrary^  those  minute  particulars,  which  roused  attention  at  the 
first  perusal,  prove  insipid  on  ^  reyiew  of  the  performance. 

We  are  aware  that  many  of  the  faults,  which  we  have  noticed,  arc 
imputed  to  the  prevalent  admtrauon  of  Shakspeare  amon^  the  Ger- 
man dramatists.  The  errors  of  Shakspeare  would  be  readily  forgiven 
ia  any  man  who  should  approach  his  excellence :  but  we  confess  that 
be  hsLS  not  been  frequently  brought  to  our  recollection  in  the  presenf 
work,  {f,  however,  luxuriance  of  style  be  a  promise  of  gopd- writing 
in  the  infancy  of  art,  as  Quintilian  establishes  it  to  be  in  that  of  the 
individual,  we  may  still  ho^pe  to  sec  unexceptionable  dramatic  pieces 
produced  by  the  German  SchooL  When  its  writers  shall  elevate 
themselves  more  to  the  majestic  simplicity  of  the  Creek  Tragedians, 
^d  w^eir  they  shaB  attend  to  the  correct  representation  of  human 
passions  more  than  to  stage-effect  and  the  impression  of  vulgar  pre* 
jtidices,  we  may  receive  frpm  them  production^  worthy  of  9)ir  study 
IMidQW  tears*  -J^. 

/^rt.  «8.     Adelaide  of^  Wtdfiigen^  a  Trac^dy,  in  Four  Acts,  (exem- 
plifying the  Barbarity  which  prevailed  during  the  Tl\irtecqth  Cen- 
tiiry  J|^{rom  the  German  of  Augustus  Von  Kotzebue.     By  Benji^- 
min  Thompson,  jun.     ^yo.     28.     Vemor  and  Hood. 
It  has  been  frequently  observed,  that  Professor  Kotzebue's  plays 
^ft  distinguished  bj  mat  latitude  of  morals.   In  the  present  instance, 
^^  conceive  that  his  licence  has  been  extended  too  fer ;  and  we  can- 
not hdp  thinking  that  he  has  acted  very  injudiciously,  in  combining 
«n  attack  on  bigptry  and  hypocrisy  with  something  like  a  vindication 
»f  incest.     We  should  have  dismissed  an  inferior  writer  from  our  bar 
with  9  summary  rebuke,  but  the  popularity  of  this  author  renders  his 
ciTors  extremely  dangerous.     The  intended  moral  of  the  play  seems  to 
1)e,  that  superstitious  prejudices  are  the  bane  of  society :  but  surely 
BO  wise  nor  good  man  would  rank  detestatiqn  of  an  incestuous  mar- 
page,  though  contracted  from  the  ignorance  of  the  parties,  among 
Uameable  feelings :    y^t  the  innocent  and  virtuous  heroine  of  the 
piece  is  driven,  by  discovering  that  her  Husband  is  h^r  brother,  to 
the  murder  of  her  <;hildren.     This  is  an  unnecessary  and  shocking 
.termination  of  the  action,  and  it  is  very  improperiy  made  to  pass  be- 
fore the  eyes  of  the  audience.     We  may  truly  sav,  after  having  gone 
through  the  play,  that  wc  «*  have  slipped  full  wfth  horrors  j"  thougli 


MONTHLT  CATAtoQUE^  PBitic  and  Dramatic.        217 

mt  perceive  no  salutary  eSect  from  the  agitation  of  the  passions  pro« 
djuccd  by  It. 

This  tragedy  contains  more  of  Kotzcbue's  faults,  and  fewer  of  his 
excellencies,  than  any  of  his  numerous  productions  that  have  come 
under  our  notice.  To  his  former  worksy  we  have  given  our  tribute 
of  applause  ;  it  may  not  be  useless,  therefore,  in  the  present  instanoe^ 
to  point  out  some  of  his  defects. 

Probability  u  violated,  throughout  this  pby ;  die  Countess  of 
Wulfingen  is  introduced,  in  the  first  scene  wWe  she  makes  her  ap«- 
pearance,  carrying  two  pitchers  of  water  from  a  well  in  the  villafe* 
This  proof  of  humility  reminds  us  of  Foote's  Piety  in  Pattau,  and  ia 
not  to  be  excused  by  the  barbarous  manners  of  the  age.  There  are 
customs  and  modes  of  hfe,  which,  however  true  and  usual  at  certain 
jperiods,  are  totally  unfit  for  dramatic  representation.  A  tragic  poet» 
who  should  produce  Andronuiche  making  a  mash  for  Hector's  coursers, 
or  feeding  them,  on  the  stage,  might  quote  Homer's  authority,  with- 
out being  able  to  save  himself  from  ridicule.  These  arc  not  the  fim^ 
wcnientla  recommended  by  Horace. 

Another  obvious  defect  of  this  pUy  is,  that,  however  improbable 
the  plot  may  appear,  the  author  has  depended  so  much  on  it,  that  he 
has  not  finished  one  character,  excepting  the  superstitious  timidity  of 
Old  Bertram.  There  are  no  phrases,  no  sentiments  in  the  dialogue^ 
which  take  possession  of  the  reader's  mind  \  we  are  hurried  on  by  the 
rapidity  of  the  action  ;  and  wherever  that  seems  to  pause,  we  are  in^ 
structed  in  the  feelings  of  the  characters,  not  by  their  own  expressions, 
but  by  the  help  of  marginal directtonf  to  the  actors.  Without  this  ncir 
species  of  tuition,  many  pathetic  pages  in  our  author  would  excite 
neither  pity  nor  terror.  If  one  of  his  characters  should  merely  lav^ 
to  say,  <<  how  do  you  do  ?"  the  reader's  feelings  would  be  little  in* 
terested :  but,  should  he  be  informed  by  the  friendly  interpreten 
within  crotchets,  that  these  words  are  to  be  spoken  [very  moumfu!!y^ 
fr  with  real  agitation^  though  under  a  constrained  appearance  of  indiffar* 
ewe']  he  would  doubtless  sympathize  with  the  aimcted  orator.    . 

This  invention,  it  must  be  confessed,  is  much  superior  to  Mr. 
Bayes's  plan  for  "  insinuating  the  plot  into  the  boxes  5"  for  not  only 
is  the  jcu  du  theatre  thus  conveyed  with  full  eficct  to  the  reader,  but 
the  whole  expence  of  thought  and  invention  in  the  dialogue  is  re- 

In  justification  of  these  strictures,  we  shall  cite  the  following  paasagCi 
from  that  trying  scene  in  which  Sir  Hugo  Is  suddenly  infohned  of 
the  casual  marriage  contracted  between  his  son  and  daughter,  during^ 
^  his  absence  in  Palestine.  This  situation  would  have  severely  tasked  the 
invention  of  a  tragic  writer  of  the  Old  School ;  horror,  remorse,  afiec* 
tlon,  and  shame,  would  have  been  displayed  in  bursts  of  impassioned 
eloquence.  The  German  hero's  speech  consists  of  two  words ;  *  fypSl 
Proceed!'  quiet  words  in  themselves:  but  they  affc^  the  reader  in  a 
wonderful  manner,  by  means  of  the  marginal  diiectioas^  which  art 
irery  pathetic  indeed. 


[^Starts  Rhe  a  man  <tvho  suddenly  aples  a  fhantom^  kii  tat  cownagi 
tnough  to  run  towards  it,  and  unmasi  it.     Ti^  mu^lfi  ^  U^JaUf  fir 


2i8^       Monthly  Cataeogue,  PofiU  and  Dramatic.^ 

some  moments^  express  an  inward  struggle ^  ivklch^  however^  toon  suh* 
i'tdes.       That  serenity ,    ivklch    ever  accorrpa riles  firmly-rooted  principles ^  • 
Resumes  its  place  it:  his  countenance,  and  he  turns  to  Bertram*^     Well  I 

ThiR  pantomime  reminds  us  of  PufPs  actor  in  tlic  Critic,  who  in« 
culcatcs  so  many  political  truths  by  the  significant  manner  of  shaking 
bis  head.  Cervantes  compares  authors,  who  have  recourse  to  similar 
means  of  moving  the  passions,  to  those  painters  who  are  obliged 
to  write  under  their  figures,  this  is  a  cock,  or  this  is  a  Hon,  for  the 
information  of  the  spectators :  but  the  device  was  never  carried  to 
«uch  a  length  in  his  time.  Had  this  been  the  only  instance  of  the 
practice,  we  should  have' overlooked  it :  but  it  occurs  so  frequently 
in  Kotzebue's  works,  that  we  cannot  forbear  to  notice  it.— How  dif- 
fcrently  is  the  silent  ahguish  of  Shakspcare's  Macduff  impressed  on 
our  -feelings !  We  need  not  apologize  for  quoting  the  passage^ 
though  it  must  be  fresh  in  the  memories  of  most  of  our  readers : 

Rosse,    Your  castle  is  surprized  :  your  wife  and  babes 
Savagely  slaughter'd:  to  relate  the -manner, 
Were,  on  the  quarry  of  these  murdered  deer. 
To  add  the  death  of  you, 

ffalcolm.    Merciful  Heaven ! 

Wliat>  Man,  ne'er  pull  your  hat  upon  your  brows, 
Qive  sorrow  words :  the  grief  that  does  not  speak. 
Whispers  the  o*er  fraught  heart,  and  bids  it  break. 

Macdufm    My  children  too  ! 
There  need  no  marginal  notes  to  inform  us  what  have  been  the 

workings  of  MacdufPs  passions,  previously  to  this  exclamation  ;  it  is 

the  cry  of  Nature,  and  penetrates  every  heart.     Let  us  try  how  thi« 

J>athetic  scene  would  appear  in  the  Teutonic  style : 

•  Malcolm.     Thunder  of  Heaven  ! 

Macdtf/f,  [Draws  forwards  his  bonnet,  so  as  to  conceal  his  eyes  j 
crosses  his  arms  on  his  breast ;  stamps  ;  gnaws  his  under-lip ;  the 
whole  muscles  of  the  body  expressing  violence  of  resentment,  grief, 
^nd  desire  of  revenge ;  he  then  looks  up  to  heaven,  after\vard  tums^ 
to  Rosse,  and  says,  in  a  brbken  voice]  Go  on  !  JW** 

Art.  39.       The    Virgin  of  the   Sun.      A  Play,   in  Five  Acts.      By 
.   AugU9tU8  Von  Kbtzebuc,     Trausbted  from  the  gcfiuine  German 

•  Edition,  by  Anne  Plump tre.     8vo.     2s.  6d.     Phillips,  Symondsi 
.    &c.     1799. 

After  the  copious  remarks  which  we  have  made  on  the  preceding 
play,  we  have  little  to  add  on  the  subject  of  this.  We  meet  here 
with  fresh  proofs  of  the  author's  capacity  for  better  things ;  more 
extravagance  of  plot,  more  attacks  on  superstition,  and  more  marginal 
directions.  We  acknowlege,  however,  amid  all  the  writer's  errors^ 
that  this  piece  excites  considerable  interest ;  and  that  it  may  be  rea4» 
once,  with  satisfaction  : — but  he  is  evidently  deficient  in  judgment 
and  labour ;  without  which  no  powers  of  invention  can  deliver  to 
tnankmd  a  production,  in  which  ther^  \yiU  upt  be  somrthing  that 
t^y  would  wiUingly.  reslgq, 


Monthly  Catalogue,  Poetic  and  Dramatic^        225 

We  have,  in  this  play,  many  attempts  at  tlic  subh'me,  in  which 
Kotzcbue  has  not  succeeded*  Such  is  the  following  speech  of 
RoUa,  when  he  is  informed  that  Cora  is  condemned  to  die : 

"  Tremble  then,  O  earth,  and  let  thy  whole  surface  become  de- 
tolate !  Groan  !  groan  !  yc  hills  !  Thou  fire,  burst  forth  in  the  val- 
leys [valUes]  and  consume  the  fruits  of  the  soil,  that  the  fertile  spots 
may  no  longer  be  crowned  with  verdure,  but  the  whole  earth  appear 
as  one  vast  scene  of  conflagration  !  Rise,  ye  terrors  of  Natuic,  yc 
storms  and  whirlwinds,  that  I  may  breathe  more  freely  amid  your 
mighty  conflicts, — that  the  voice  of  my  agony  may  contend  with 
your  roarings !  that  my  arm  may  slay  more  rapidly  than  the  light- 
ning itself.* 

We  remember  a  similar  passage  in  a  burlesque  tragedy,'  which  had 
som^  celebrity  in  the  days  of  our  youth,  and  which  was  considered  as 
the  successor  of  Hurlothrumbo : 

♦*  A  blow  !  shall  Bombardinian  take  a  blow  ? 

Blush,  blush,  thou  Sun  !  start  back,  thou  rapid  Ocean  ! 
Hills,  Vales,  and  Mountains,  all  commixing  crumblc» 
And  into  chaos  pulverize  the  world ! 
For  Bombardinian  has  recciv'd  a  blow. 
And  Chrononhotonthologos  shall  die  !*'— 
Even  this  tirade  of  Rolla,  however,   is  out-done  in  a  succeedln^f 
Speech,  where  he  threatens  to  kill  his  enemies  after  he  is  dead  : 

*  Sooner  shall  he  be  stretched  upon  the  earth,  senseless,  motion- 
less, a  breaihless  corpse!  Yet  let  him  not  even  then  be  trusted  hastily  I 
examine  carefully  that  every  spark  of  life  be  really  extinguished,  since 
if  only  one  be  left  smothering,  it  will  assuredly  burst  forth  into  a 
fiame,  and  consume  the  persecutors  of  Cora  I" 

This  stroke  seems  rather  calculated  for  the  meridian  of  Tipperary, 
than  that  of  Vienna  or  London.  We  can,  however,  assure  the  nu- 
merous admirers  of  this  poet,  that  this  is  by  no  means  the  worst  of 
his  performances.  Fet. .  JX 

Art.  40.  The  Reconciriation  :  a  Comedy,  in  Five  Acts.  Translated 
from  the  German  of  Augustus  Von  Kotzcbue.  8vo.  3  s, 

In  this  comedy,  more  attention  is  paid  to  the  diacrimination  of 
character,  than  in  some  of  the  preceding  dramas :  but  it  is  unfor- 
timatcly  over-run  with  an  exuberance  of  sentiment ;  a  fault  which 
the  Germans  seem  to  have  contracted,  JHSt  as  we  have  been  getting 
rid  of  it.  Here  are  a  sentimental  shoemaker  and  house-maid,  who 
open  the  piece,  and  give  a  view  of  the  characters,  in  the  following 
delectable  dialogue : 

*  IVilL     Good  morrow  to  you.  Miss  Ann. 

•  jinn.     Thank  you,  honest  WiUiam. 

•  IV'dL    How  are  all  the  family?  how  docs  the  old  gentlemaa  come 



*  jinn.    He  has  had  a  tolerable  good  night ;  he  is  getting  better 
every  day. 

*  Wili,    Upon  my  soul  I  am  glad  of  it,  for  the  sake  of  your  good 
nistressi  and  for  your  own  sake  too,  Miss  Ann. 

i30         MoinrHtt  CitalOGOT,  Foetid  and  Dramattc. 

•  Ann.^  You  arc  right  there ;  for  luch  »  g^od  place  I  shall  nevrt" 
kavc  again.  Be  our  pittance  ercr  so  scanty,  my  master  das  no  better 
iare  than  myself  |  and  when  love  and  affection  distribute  the  breadf 
ti;i  matter  whether  the  sUccs  be  large  or  small.  There  is  mahy  a  lady't 
inaidy  indeed,  that  has  greater  wages  than  mine,  and  that  dresset  in 
^ilk  and  muslin  :  but  then  the  mistresses  are  sometimes  so  ^uter  and 
ill-tempered — never  pleased — no  pin  will  do  unlen  pinned  ten  timet 
over — and  every  fold  in  a  handkerchief  is  to  be  twisted  into  a  thou* 
•and  different  shapes,  before  it  will  suit  their  fancy.  But  my  young 
mistiessy  up  she  gets  in  a  minute,  dressed  she  is  in  another,  and  wanttf 
no  assistance  whatever. 

*  Will,  And  carries  always  the  smile  of  a  Madonna  on  her  conn* 
fiance.       * 

«  yinn.  I  never  yet  heard  her  utter  an  angry  word  in  my  life. 
«  Will,  Her  lips  seem  not  to  be  formed  for  that  neither. 
<  jfnn.  Ah,  she  is  a  good  child,  indeed  \  she  wil]  never  be  so  much 
as  out  of  temper.  She  has  borne  the  long  illness  ef  her  father  with 
uncommon  constancy  and  resolution.  The  old  man  might  mutter  and 
grumble  ever  so  much,  she  would  be  courteous  and  resigned.  She 
has  not  slept  a  wink  these  many  weeks,  and  would  not  suffer  me  to 
tit  up  by  the  old  gentleman  ;  as  soon  as  the  clock  struck  ten  she 
tlwikl  bid  me  go  and  lie  down.  In  the  beginning  I  was  very  uneasy 
about  it.  Miss  is  young,  thinks  I ;  she  may  be  well*disposed  for 
aught  I  know,  bu^  she  may  fall  asleep  ;  and  when  young  people  have 
4nee  shut  their  eyes,  not  even  a  thunderclap  will  rouse  them.  But  I 
tras  in  the  wrong  box  there :  Miss  Charlotte  would  nod  by  her  fa^^ 
tfier't  bed-side,  but  at  the  least  cough  she  would  be  at  his  serx'ice.' 

Thisy  it  may  be  said,  is  Nature :  but  it  it  certainly  not  la  belle 
Naiure.  In  the  description  of  Village-Manners,  the  bUicksmiths'  or 
biiiiert'  thopt  would  furnish  tcenes  perfectly  natural,  but  very  dis" 
dotting.  1  he  rustics  introduced  here  are  distinguished  by  nothing 
uat  can  apologize  for  their  production  on  the  stage ;  while  they 
talk,  the  reader  yawns,  and  the  plot  stands  still. 

In  the  character  of  Frank  Bertram  and  his  Servant,  we  perceive 
an  attempt  to  copy  Uncle  Toby  and  Trim  :  but  the  recollection  is 
father  un&vourable  to  Kotzebue ;  for  Stetne  po^bessed  the  art  of 
hutting  too  welly  to  permit  insipidity  to  constitute  any  part  of  their 
qualities.  J^, 

Art.  41  •  Feudal  Times ;  or  the  Banquet  Gallery ;  a  Drama,  in  Two 
Act9.  Written  by  George  Colman,  the  Younger.  8vo.  is.  6d. 
CadelL  Jan.  and  Davies.     1799. 

This  drama  being,  as  the  author  humbly  informs  us,  a  mere  vehicle 
for  well-painted  scenes,  ingenious  machineiy,  and  mubic,  rather  than 
containing  in  itself  poetry,  plot,  or  character,  no  fame  is  to  be  expect- 
ed from  its  dramatic  merit.  Had  Milton,  when  he  wrote  his  Mask  of 
Comus,  been  of  this  opinion,  would  he  have  thought  it  worth  while 
to  b^sto^  so  much  pains  and  poetry  on  that  exquisite  production  ? 
Our  lyric  bards,  at  present,  seem  to  think  that  any  nonsense,  if  it  be 
wdl4unedi  will  do  for  music ;  or,  as  Mr.  Colman  contemptuously 
calls  it,  Sing'Sonp;  and|  under  this  prejudicty  they  take  it  for  granted 
fk^  Bcither  genius  norpains  can  be  necessary  in  arranging  the  fable» 


Monthly  CAtALoGUE,  Poetic  and  Dramatic.        131 

atrikiag  out  new  characters,  enlivening  the  dialogue^  or  poHihing  the 
•oogs ;  and  thus  they  perpetuate  the  idea  of  nomaue  being  a  fitter 
excuse  for  linping  than  good  poetry  would  be.  Wc  will  just  remind 
our  lyric  scnbes,  that  no  musical  piece  ever  fully  succeeded  on  oot 
'  ^^e  without  dramatic  merit ;  which  is  the  more  essential  in  <mr 
national  tlieatres,  because  the  dialogue  is  declaimed,  and  intelligible 
to  all  hearers,  and  not  recited  to  musical  sounds  like  the  Italian  rtcU 
tative.  The  French  comic  operas,  performed  in  the  same  manner  ta 
ours,  are  all  as  well-written  dramas,  exclusively  of  the  merit  of  the 
musical  airs,  as  any  pieces  entirely  intended  for  declamation  $  and  Me* 
tastasio's  Melo«-dramas  are  not  the  less  fit  for  music,  because  they  are 
admirably  constructed)  and  abound  with  beautiful  sentiments  in  the 
dialogue,  as  well  as  ekquisite  poetry  in  the  ^rs  which  terminate  each 

Though  the  first  act  of  Feudal  Tinui  chiefly  consists  in  no?9C  (we 
'  beg  Mr.  Kelly's  pardon)  and  show^  the  incidents  of  the  second  act 
are  sufficiently  interesting  to  excite  fear  for  the  success  of  th^  ploty 
and  terror  for  the  safety  of  the  principal  characters.  We  cannot  help 
adding  to  the  preceding  reflections!  that  the  words  of  the  songs  are 
uncommonly  rough,  and  in  want  of  lyrical  selection;  However 
harsh  and  rude  our  Celtic  dialect  may  be,  compared  with  that  of 
Italy,  Mason,  in  his  Elfrida  and  Caractacus,  has  manifested  the  pos« 
sibility  of  giving  such  a  variety  and  polish  to  the  lyric  measures,  with* 
out  enfeebling  the  sense,  as  clearly  point  out  to  the  musical  composer^ 
tiie  kind  of  melody,  whether  pathetic,  graceful,  or  spirited,  that  wiu 
best  suit  the  numbers,  and  embellish  and  fortify  the  ideas  of  the  poeU 
We  are  not  told  at  what  period  of  tifne  we  are  to  imagine  that 
Fitzallan,  the  principal  character  of  the  piece,  lived :  but,  as  the  in- 
cidents, scenery,  and  decorations,  carry  us  up  to  Gotliic  peViods  and 
feudal  contentions,  we  doubt  whether  the  cottume  of  those  times  will 
allow  of  such  a  knowlege  of  the  use  of  gunpowder,  as  the  discfhargc 
of  cannon  and  the  springing  of  mines  imply.  P^  3  • 

Art.  42.  The  Peckbam  FroFu :  or  Nell  Gfvyn.  A  Comedy,  ill 
Three  Acts.  8vo.  is.  6d.  Hatchard.  1799- 
The  scene  of  this  little  drama  is  laid  at  Peckham  in  Surry,  where 
Charles  the  Second  frequently  resided  with  some  select  friends.  The 
jokes  and  freaks  of  this  witty  and  thoughtless  monarch  and  his  hct* 
tious  companions  have  been  so  well  preserved  by  tradition,  and  rdi- 
tailed  from  Joe  Miller,  that  they  are  become  too  old  and  thread-batiK 
for  present  wear.  Yet  we  must  own  that  the  language  of  the  dialogue 
is  netvy  ho^irevcr  antient  may  be  the  jokes.  We  believe  thalt  the  fol- 
lowing words  and  fashionable  cant-phrases  were  not  current  during 
the  last  century :  revolts ^  retrospective^  felicitous ^  eventful^  hebdomadat^^ 
habit  of  intimacy  f  matrimonial  contact^  decided  affrobatioUf  give  you  credti 
for  that  fun  f  bold  to  tell  you,  &c. — The  title  ^  Miss  was  not  given  t6 
^spinsters,  however  young  and  beautiful,  in  the  time  of  Nell  Gwyn  : 
"^  it  was  Mrs.  Eleanor  Gw)n,  Mrs.  Ann  Killigrew,  Mfs.  ArabeOii 
Hunt,  and  even  Mrs,  Anastasia  Robinson,  at  the  beginning  of  thi^ 
present  century.  , 

The  bons  mots  of  Voltaire  and  his  friends  have  been  lately  drama - 
tistd  at  Paris,  in  a  similar  manner,  in  a  piece  entitled-  Unejoum^e  de 


232        Monthly  Catalogue,  Poetic  and  Dramatic. 

Femay^  written  by  a  junto  of  four  different  authors :  Pies,  Barrc, 
Radety  and  Desfontaincs.  We  have  not  seen  this  drama :  but  the 
French  joumidist8  say  that,  its  object  being  to  unite  all  the  charac- 
teristic Matures  of  Voltaire  in  one  frame,  the  attempt  has  perfectly 
•ucceeded.— Wchavc  heard  that  Mr.  Jcmingham  is  the  author  of 
the  drama  before  us.  TK^B— 

Art.  43.    The  DucarJfd  Secretary  ;  oVf  the  Mysterious  Chorus-    Ar 
Historical  Play,  in  Three  Acts.     By  Edmund  John  Eyre,  of  the 
Thieatres  Royal  Bath  and  Bristol.     8vo.     2s.     Longman. 
Prefaces  complaining  of  the  ill-behaviour  of  managers,  and  of  the 
plagiarisms  of  rival  bards,  are  so  frequently  penned,  by  authors  of  re- 
jected plays,  that  we  can  scarcely  prevail  on  ourselves  to  read  them  ; 
but  to  comment  on  them,  or  to  enter  into  the  merits  of  the  cause  for 
the  information  of  our  readers,  is  beyond  our  most  industnous  ef- 
forts.    Many  complainants  are  indeed  unable,  in  telling  thcit*  own 
story,  to  make  either  the  hearer  or  the  reader  understand  their  griev- 
ances ;  and  if  they  do,  inquiry  still  remains  to  be  made  into  the  ac- 
curacy of  their  deposition.     So  much  for  the  Preface. 

The  writing  of  this  piece  appears,  in  -some  scenes,  far  from  con- 
temptible ;  yet  the  author  is  not  always  correct  in  his  historical  facts, 
nor  in  his  delineation  of  the  principal  characters.  The  eulogiura  of 
Queen  EUzabeth  on  Admiral  Blake,  previously  to  the  year  1588, 
inSeed  surprized  us :  as  that  great  seaman  and  supporter  of  Cromwell 
was  not  bom  till  1599!  We  do  not  very  well  understand  how  the 
son  of  the  Earl  of  Leicester  comes  to  be  Lord  Frederic  ;  the  title  of 
Lord  before  the  christian-name  only  belonging  to  the  younger  sons  of 
Dukes  and  Marquisses.  If  Frederic  was  the  eldest  son  ot  the  then 
Earl  of  Leicester,  his  title  must  have  been  Frederic  Lord  Dudley^  the 
first  honour  conferred  by  Elizabeth  on  her  favourite. — On  the  whole, 
we  do  not  much  wonder  that  this  production  was  not  received  by  a 
London  manager :  indeed  it  docs  not  appear,  as  ye%  to  have  been 
repircsentcd  on  any  stage.  .  T^c 

Art.  44.  Laugh  when  you  can  :  a  Come«Iy,  in  Five  Acts.  As  per- 
formed at  the  Theatre  Royal,  Covcnt  Gaidcn.  By  Frederic  Rey- 
nolds.    8vo.     2s.     Longman.     1799* 

It  ever  seems  inauspicious,  when  much  mirth  is  promised  previously 
to  the  relation  of  a  story,  or  to  the  appearance  of  a  new  play  or  new 
character  on  the  stage.  Perhaps  expectation  may  be  raised  to  an 
insatiable  degree  ;  or,  from  a  perversity  in  human  nature,  there  may 
be  an  unwillingness  even  to  laugh  by  compulsion.  There  is  a  great  difE- 
culty  in  obtaining  a  laugh  or  a  tear  on  the  credit  of  an  autl.ui's  pro- 
missory notes.  Traps  for  wit,  and  traps  for  mlrlh,  arc  alike  uncer- 
tain of  their  object. — We  have  never  been  present  at  the  representa- 
tion of  this  comedy,  and  arc  unable  to  judge  of  its  effects  on  the 
stage  :  but  we  must  own  that,  on  perusal,  our  old  and  rigid  muscles 
were  seldom  convulsed,  or  our  dignity  diminished  by  risibility. — In- 
deed the  chief  business  of  this  jocular  play  being  the  seduction  of  a 
married  woman,  and  the  dishonour  and  distress  of  a  worthy  husband, 
it  cannot  possibly  be  rendered  comical  by  the  flippant  jokes  of  pro- 
flii^ate  characters. 

*9  yi^f^ 

Monthly  CATALocStJE,  Politics^  Finance^  (sfc.       233 

The  Prologue  is  a  parody  on  Pope's  celebrated  Prologue  to  Addi- 
on's  Cato.  The  first  act  begins  with  the  dcvelopement  of  a  fine-gen- 
tl«man-inn-keepcr,  a  modem  Boniface  ;  who  does  not  indeed  associate 
with  highwaymen,  though  he  is  extremely  familiar  with  jockeys  and 
gamblers.  The  insolence  of  this  gentleman's  self-importance  is  sar- 
castically comic:  but  the  subsequent  scenes  are  serious  villainy,  mixed 
with  the  grave  censure  and  moral  reflections  of  an  honest  negro  ser- 
vant, and  the  mischievous  calumny  and  plots  of  an  envious  old  maid. 
This  seems  to  be  the  business  of  la  comedle  larmolante,  not  of  contes  ^ 
rlre.  Indeed,  Miss  Emily's  wish  to  be  married,  and  the  hoaxing  bet, 
•re  not  unpleasant. 

Act  the  second  contains  serious  distress  and  determined  h'berti- 
liism  throughout,  except  in  the  farcical  determination  of  the  hoax'* 
ing  bet. 

In  Act  the  third,  the  fable  is  but  little  advanced.  Indeed  we  dis- 
cover now,  for  the  first  time,  who  is  Emily's  guardian  :  but  though 
the  young  lady  is  in  close  confinement:,  she  offers  her  service  to  *  male 
inquiries  after  Mortimer.' 

The  fourth  and  fifth  Acts  are  confused,  and  the  denouement  is 
brought  about  in  an  aukward  manner.  We  know  not  what  turn 
Mr.  Lewis  may  have  given  to  the  part  of  Gossamer^  the  Momus  of 
the  piece :  but,  in  perusal,  the  jokes  are  dat,  and  the  humour  xs 
neither  natural  nor  pleasant.  T\T'D 

POLITICS,     FINANCE,     l^C.  ^ 

Art.  45.  Three  Essays,  on  Taxation  of  Income,  With  Remarks  on 
the  late  Act  of  Parliament  on  that  Subject.  On  the  National 
Debt ;  the  Public  Funds  ;  on  the  probable  Consequences  of  the 
Law  for  the  Sale  of  the  Land  Tax  ;  and  on  the  present  State  of 
Agriculture  in  Great  Britain  :  with  a  Scheme  for  the  Improve- 
ment of  ever)'  Branch  of  it,  and  Remarks  on  the  Difference  be- 
tween National  Produce  and  Consumption.  8vo.  pp.  140.  38. 
Cadell  jun.  and  Davids.     I799. 

The  author  of  these  essays  recommends  that  all  assessments  should 
be  laid  on  income,  and  that  articles  of  consumption  should  be 
entirely  relieved  from  taxation.  He  argues  respecting  the  in- 
equality of  taxation  on  consumption,  that  the  sc  who  expend  their 
full  income  must  contribute  in  a  greater  proportion  than  those 
who  live  only  on  a  small  part ;  and  that  such  taxes  are  objection- 
able on  accx)unt  of  the  great  additional  cxpcnce  which  the  mode 
of  collection  throws  on  the  consumer.  It  is  obvious  that  taxes  on 
consumption  must  greatly  obstruct  commerce  :  but,  where  the  neces- 
ttties  of  government  are  so  great  as  at  present  they  are  in  Great 
Britain,  a  branch  of  revenue  so  productive  as  the  customs  and  excise 
could  not  be  spared,  nor  indeed  any  other  tax,  wi:;hout  an  equiva- 
lent.— It  is  likewise  a  principle  in  the  author's  plan  of  finance,  to 
raise  sufficient  for.  the. whole  of  the  expenditure,  and  a  surplus 
beyond,  within  each  year.  All  this,  he  is  of  opinion,  can  with  case 
be  obtained  by  means  of  taxing  income  only. 

In  so  short  a  time  as  that  which  has  elapsed  since  the  adoption 

of  the  iivcome  tax,  it  has  become  a  fashion  in  financial  speculations 

to  regard  It  us  a  resource  inc:chaustible,  and  capable  of  effects  far 

Ruv.  June,  1799.  R  beyond 

234      Monthly  Catalogue,  Politics^  Ftname^  tic. 

beyond  the  most  sanguine  of  all  former  calculations.  *  Fortunatetf 
for  us,'  says  the  author,  *  it  appears  still  to  be  in  our  power,  by 
placing  all  future  assessments  upon  income,  instead  of  laying  them  on 
articles  of  consumption,  to  raise  such  an  ample  sum  yearly,  as  may 
not  only  put  It  In  the  power  of  government  to  add  a  large  sum 
annually  to  the  sinking  fund,  and  tiius  speedily  to  lessen  many  of 
those  taxes  which  chiefly  seem  to  require  it ;  but  to  provide  fully 
for  th^  cxpencts  of  the  war,  of  whatever  duration  it  may  be.  Let 
the  people  be  convinced,  that  an  efficient  plan  is  set  on  foot  for  re- 
moving, in  a  moderate  length  of  time,  the  severest  part  of  the  bur- 
dens with  which  they  are  assessed,  and  they  will  cheerfully  give 
ivhatever  may  be  required.  If  a  tenth  part  ot  their  income  will  not 
prove  sufficient,  there  is  much  reason  to  beh'eve  tliat  they  would 
give  an  eighth,  a  sixth,  or  even  a  fourth,  if  it  should  be  requisite. 
Most  amply,  indeed,  would  they  be  repaid  for  this  kind  of  sacrifice  ; 
the  effect  of  which  would  be  permanent,  while  any  inconvenience  or 
distress  which  such  an  extraordinary  advance  might  induce,  would 
prove  short  and  temporary.' 

With  respect  to  taxation  on  consumption,  should  it  ever  be  in- 
tended to  give  relief,  it  would  be  reasonable  to  make  a  distinction  in 
favour  of  useful  and  necessary  consumption  ;  as  all  beyond  that,  being 
a  species  of  waste,  may  properly  be  regarded  as  a  just  object  of 
taxation,  by  which  it  would  be  rendered  oTsome  use. 

The  sale  of  the  land  tax,  which  is  the  subject  of  the  second  essay, 

is  disapproved  as  being  not  only  disadvantageous  to  the  purchaser, 

but,  in  the  opinion  of  the  author,  detrimental  to  the  public,  *  by 

giving  a  high  artificial  value  to  the  funds,  thereby  attracting  too 

.  great  a  proportion  of  the  national  wealth  towards  them.* 

The  agriculture  of  Great  Britain,  in  the  author's  judgment,  \% 
capable  of  improvement  *  so  as  to  yield  considerably  more  than  double, 
probably  three  times,  the  present  amount  of  it.'  The  principal  part 
uf  the  scheme  of  improvement  proposed  is  the  giving  large  and  pro- 
perly directed  premiums  ;  and,  by  lending  sums  of  Money,  to  the 
amount  of  a  million  in  every  year,  to  the  cultivators  and  prnprielors 
of  land,  to  be  free  of  Interest  for  twenty  years  : — or  even  d'juble  that 
sum.  The  author  shews  a  tenderness  for  the  proprietors  of  land, 
for  which  we  can  see  no  just  reason.  *  The  proprietors  of  the  whole 
territor}-  of  the  kingdom'  he  describes  as  being  *  the  poorest  claes  in 
t4ic  community  ;'  and  in  their  favour  he  would  have  the  land  tar 
repealed.  The  occupiers  of  land  are  those  who  pre  most  inune- 
diatcly  Interested  in  its  improvement ;  yet,  the  general  benefit  being 
so  much  concerned,  there  appeai*$  good  reason  for  giving  encourage- 
ment, and,  perhaps,  occasionally,  assistance,  to  the  cultivator.  Where 
the  occupier  is  the  proprietor,  having  no  rent  to  pay  out  of  the  pro- 
duce, he  must  be  supposed  to  be  the  less  in  need  of  assistance. 

It  appears  to  us  that  the  author  entertains  too  high  an  opinion  of 
the  resources  of  the  country ;  that  he  thinks  too  lightly  of  the 
burthens  of  high  taxes ;  and  that  he  much  undcr-ratcs  our  necessities. 
If,  under  the  present  circumstances,  the  affairs  of  the  nation  can  be 
conducted  so  as  to  prevent  any  considerable  increase  in  the  pre*sent 
debt,  it  will  be  doing  much ;  more  we  think  it  would  not  be  wi.^e  to 


Monthly  Catalogue,  PoJitUs,  Finance,  bfc.       235 

undertake ;  for  wc  agree  not  in  opinion  with  those  who,  as  taxes 
become  heavier,  believe  that  the  ability  to  bear  taxation  is  increased. 
Many  of  the  remarks  in  these  essays,  however,  merit  much  attention. 
The  tax  on  income,  the  writer  argues,  ought  to  have  been  extended 
to  incomes  considerably  under  60/. ;  and  that  the  scale  of  gradation 
should  have  been  continued  in  some  degree  of  proportionable  increase 
on  incomes  beyond  200/. — We  shall  conclude  this  article  with  the  foU 
lowing  extract,  containing  the  author's  ideas  on  the  benefits  which 
might  be  derived  to  the  country,  from  a  more  general  use  qf  com- 
mittees of  members  of  parliament : 

*  The  most  .important  advantages  have  been  derived  from  the  exer- 
tions of  every  committee  that  has  yet  been  appointed  for  the  investi* 
gat  ion  of  political  matters  ;  and  the  reason  is  obvious :  in  the  election 
of  committees,  men  of  abilities  only  are  fixed  on  ;  chiefly  those,  in- 
deed, who,  from  their  situation  in  life,  their  pursuits,  and  other 
circumstances,  are  supposed  to  be  peculiarly  fitted  for  the  purpose 
for  which  they  are  chosen  ;  and  who,  therefore,  with  only  one  ob- 
ject ill  view,  very  commonly  obtain  all  the  information  with  regard 
to  it  which  it  is  possible  to  procure  :  by  which  they  are  enabled  to 
elucidate,  in  the  best  possible  manner,  every  subject  with  which  they 
are  entrusted.  Now,  why  may  not  similar  advantages  be  obtained 
in  the  management  of  every  object  of  equal  national  importance  ? 
Might  not  permanent  committees  be  established,  at  the  beginning  of 
every  parliament,  each  consisting  of  a  few  select  members  ?  and  to 
every  committee  some  important  national  object  being  entrusted, 
such  views  would  soon  be  obtained  of  all  ot  them  as  we  arc  never 
likely  to  possess  from  any  other  plan. 

*  In  these  committees,  the  nation  would  enjoy  this  important  ad- 
vantage,  of  having  men  of  the  first  abilities  and  knowledge  in  busi- 
ness brought  into  action,  who,  from  not  being  enabled  to  deliver  their 
sentiments  as  public  speakers,  are  often  entirely  lu5>t,  or  never  heard 
of  in  the  full  meetings  of -parliament  ;  but  who  might  often  be  well 
fitted  for  giving  the  clearest  and  best  views  on  every  point  in  whi^h 
they  should  have  occasion  to  act  with  more  confined  numbers. 

*  In  this  manner,  many  of  the  most  able  men  in  the  nation  nu'ght 
at  all  times  be  cniph^yed,  and  with  no  expence  to  government,  in 
giving  tiie   utmost   possible  perfection  to  every  scheme  of  public 

»""'')'•*  Capt-B... 

Art.  46.     Necessity  of  destroying    the    French   Repuhlicy    proved   by 
Facts  and  Arguments.     Translated  from  the  French  by  the  Au- 
thor, with  Additions.     8vo.     is.  6d.     Dtbrett,   &c.      1799* 
A   review  is   here   taken   of  the   actual  slate  of  each  European 
power,  and  of  I  he  designs  of  Republican   France  ;    from  which  it  is 
inferred  that  theie  can  be  no  reliance  on  treaties  of  peace  with  her, 
since  her  present  ciicumsi antes  command  and  oblige  her  to  make  a 
jest  of  any  covenant  v^hich  she   may  form   with   sovereigns.     There 
is,  const  >^  ently,  the   most   urgCiit   necessity  for  crushing  this  all- 
devouring  Hydra.  , 

The  powers  of  Europe  not  only  seem  to  be  of  this  opinion,  hut 
appear  to  be  rapidly  advancing  to  the  completion  of  thdr  object.        \r-.    ..- 

Viz  Art-  '•^' 

13^        Monthly  Catalogue,  Politics^  Finandiy  fffc. 

Art.  47.  Neutrality  of  Prussia.  Translated  from  the  German* 
8vo.  IS.  Wright. 
Wc  are  told  that  this  pamphlet  has  been  read  with  a\idity  on  the 
eontinent.  Its  object  is  to  reprobate  neutralityy  and  to  stimulate 
Prussia  to  re-join  the  coalition  against  France.  It  takes  a  view  of 
the  relative  situatioa  of  all  the  states  of  Europe  towards  France, 
points  out  what  they  are  to  expect  from  its  present  government, 
and  undertakes  to  delineate  the  real  interests  of  Prussia,  and  her 
means  of  safety.  The  author  notices  the  jealousy  existing  between 
the  courts  of  Vienna  and  Berlin  as  the  cause  of  the  Neutrality  of 
Prussia  :  but  he  calls  on  the  latter  to  reflect  ihat  the  fall  of  Austria 
would  be  a  sure  prelude  of  her  own  destruction.  He  fears,  however, 
that  the  favourable  moment  for  the  dehverance  of  Europe  is  past : 
but,  before  this  time,  he  has  probably  altered  his  opinion.  The 
victories  of  the  allii."s  in  Italy  have  happily  changed  the  face  of 
European  politics ;  yet  it  may  be  proper  for  Prussia  to  consider 
whether  a  co-operation  with  Austria  be  not  preferable  to  a  treacherous 
peace  with  the  French  Directory.  Tlie  powers  of  Europe  are  ex- 
nortcd  not  to  temporize,  but  to  act  with  union  and  firmness.  jjfo 

Art.  48.  j4n  Inquiry  into  the  Truth  of  the  tTvo  Positions  of  the  French 
Oeconomists,  that  Labour  employed  in  Manufactures  is  unpro- 
ductive, and  that  all  Taxes  ultinrdtely  fall  on  Land.  By  Daniel 
Wakefield.     8vo.      is.      Rivingtoiis.      1799. 

Tlie  French  ccconomists  are  among  the  first  writers  in  modern 
timc.^,  who  applied  analysis  to  tlie  important  subject  of  national  pio- 
spc'.ity.  The  various  details  into  v/jiieh  tiny  ciitcrcd,  supplied  aa 
abundance  of  materials  for  enabling  siicccc^ding  authors  to  con-ect 
their  errors,  and  to  improve  tlwlv  svilcm.  iMr.  Hume,  in  his  poli- 
tical ebsays,  and  after  him,  u.oie  fully  and  more  elal.oiaicly,  Dw 
Smitli,  ill  hit  Wcahh  of  Nations,  in  oppobitiv)!!  to  the  French  aco- 
nomists,  who  rLfer  iiatiunai  v-.euith  to  one  only  ^oiu-c,  pi*.ve  that 
It  results  from  many  sources  ;  and  when  tlicy  conjoin  land  and  labour, 
they  n'ican  by  tlic  l.:::cr  i;c>t  rnt-icly  labonr  bestowed  on  the  gnmnd, 
but  all  other  k'lr.^l^  cf  profitable  induMry.  In  doing  tliir,  the)  h^ve 
recurred  to  the  dcctiine  of  one  of  the  lr.;^t,  and  'jy  far  the  ;,reatCvr, 
of  ail  political  aconomibts  ;  who  taugiit  tlmt  labour  was  ilie  only 
just  measure  of  the  value  of  all  pr:sses>ioi;?,  ar:d  clearly  o.phuntd  the 
distinction  between  laLou/  in  a  politicai  sense  picducLi've,  and  Loour 
merely  useful  *. 

In  returning  to  this  anticnt  system,  however.  Dr.  Smith  is  still 
80  hr  influenced  by  the  Frencii  c::conomiilf^,  that  he  conslds-rs  land- 
holders as  a  productive  cla><s  ;  whcrtaj,  in  Lirictn.ciis  of  lar.gucigt;, 
land-holders  are  mere  receiveis  of  rer.t.^  ;  and,  in-teaJ  «,f  being 
labourers  and  producers,  are  the  verie.t  idlers  a.d  tliC  ;^;ei:ien  co/.- 
SUiiRis  in  society.  The  exigency  of  the  preseiit  cii^ij  has  indeed 
turned  them  to  their  proper  employment,  the  dcf'-nc*  of  thfir 
country  ;  3  kind  of  labour  certairdy  hi<-hly  useful  and  liunourablej 
bat  not  in  the  political  sense  productive  f . 

*  Sec  Aristotle,  Gillies's  translation,  vol.  i.  p.  271.  and  vol.  ll.  p.  5K. 
f  See  our  Review  of  Dr.  Gray's  pamphlet,  entitled  Essential Prin-  of  the  Wealth  of  Nations i  &c,  vol.  Jtxiv,  p.  31. 


Monthly  Catalogue,  Politics ^  Fwance^  t^c^         237 

In  Mr.  D.  Wakefield's  pamphlet  now  before  us,  the  doctrines  of 
^he  French  oeconomists  are  attacked  with  force  of  argument,  and  in- 
genuity of  illustnition  ;  and  some  of  Dr.  Smith's  strictures  oa  their 
system  are  placed  in  a  new  and  striking  light :  but  our  limits  will 
not  permit  us  to  enter  into  any  satisfactory  detail  on  the  subject  j 
^nd  we  can  only  rccomiren<i  the  pamphlet  to  the  attention  of  those 
who  interest  thcm.-.clvl-^.  in  the  di.ioussion.  4Til*«*S* 

^n.  49.  ^  Country  Parson* s  Jdilrcss  to  his  Fiocky  to  caution  them 
against  being  miJcd  by  the  Wolf  in  Sliccp's  Cloathing,  or 
receiving  Jacobin  Teachers  oi'  Sedition,  who  mtrude  themselves 
under  the  specious  Pretense  of  instructing  Youth  and  preaching 
Christianity.  Vy  Fidncis  Wollaston,  Rector  of  ChisLhurst,  Kent. 
8vo.     IS.     Wilk-ie.     'I799. 

From  this  lanc'able  display  of  the  abominable  principles  and 
dangerous  practices  (in  most  parts  of  Europe)  of  what  is  called 
the  *  Jaccl'u!  party,'  we  shall  extract  a  passnj^e  v. hich  may  afford  new 
information  to  many  of  our  reader?,  respecting  the  origin  of  that 
denomination  ; — although  wc  have  somewhere  noticed  it  before: 

*  The  court  of  France,  t,urroui:dtd  and  bcfieged  as  it  was,  with 
the  false  philosophers  of  Voltiiiie,  the  l'ol!o\ver8  of  Rousseau  in  his 
ideal  scheme,  and  the  enlightened  of  Wei8hau;)t,  having  had  many 
of  the  adepts  belonging  to  each  sect  introduced  ipiperceptibly  into 
every  department,  and  become  leading  men  at  the  liead  of  affairs  in 
that  nation,  wa;<  ripe  for  an  explosion  when  the  signal  should  be  given. 

*  The  time  for  that  sigial  was  now  arrived.  The  distress  ni  the 
finances  of  that  court,  and  the  di  position  of  the  last  king  of  France 
to  relieve  the  burthens  of  his  people,  and  to  consult  their  wishes, 
gave  rise  to  a  meeting  of  the  nobles  for  that  purpose  ;  a  meeting 
fiecretly  instigated  by  those  \^\ni  wished  for  a  new  scene  of  things. 

*  At  the  iiead  of  the  free -masons  i.i  France,  and  grand  master  of 
their  order,  was  that  infamous  wietch  the  last  duke  ot  Orleans,  (who 
afterwards  took  the  name  of  Egalite,  or  Equality  ;  though  it  is  well 
known  that  the  ol>taining  of  the  crown  itj-elf  was  the  real  ob}cct 
at  the  bottom  of  his  hi  art,)  having  under  him  little  short  of  3CO 
regular  lodge^i  of  free-masons,  dispersed  in  as  many  towns  in  that 
nation,  subject  with  iir.jjlicit  obedience  to  his  nod.  A  general  meet- 
ing of  tliem  was  summoned  at  Paris  \  and  did  meet  in  the  church  of 
tiic  Jacobirjf,  ;  one  of  tlie  religious  orders  at  that  time.  To  this  very 
numerous  meeting  of  tlie  free-masons,  some  leading  disciples  from 
Wencliaupt  were  sent  as  delegates :  delegates  from,  other  clubs  and 
other  societies  to  inflame  these  with  the  farther  de^ii^^ns  of  the  en- 
hghtentd  or  illuminated  followers  of  Weishaupt.  In  that  they  liuc- 
ceeded  too  well.  To  the  liberty  and  equality  of  o\  iginal  free-masonry  ;  • 
to  the  fierce  rancc-r  of  Voltaire  and  his  Fclf-callcd  philosophers  againit 
Jesus  Ciiri.'it  a:ul  his  religion  ;  to  the  democratic  principles  of  Roub- 
sean,  and  his  visionary  bchemes  about  the  origin  of  all  government  ; 
these  delegates  added,  the  r.ige  of  Wei^*iiaupt  and  his  pretended  more 
enlightened  followers,  agiiinst  all  kings,  or  rather  against  all  who 
under  any  title  bear  any  rule  among  men.  The  fiery  spirit  of  the 
French  kindled  at  once  into  a  flame.  The  names  of  free-mason,  of 
philosophers,  of  friends  to  a  social  compact,  of  illurainc  or  cnlight- 


138  MoNTHi^Y  Catalogue,  Miscellaneuts. 

cT»ed,  were  from  that  instant  all  absorbed  in  the  one  name  of  Jacobfn, 
The  others  are  heard  no  more.  Jacobin  became  the  name  ;  hberty 
and  equality  the  watchword  ;  while  a  rancorous  liatred  against  all 
good  order  and  all  good  faith  among  men,  was  the  object,  openly 
pursued  from  that  day  by  a  most  numerous  Horde ;  which  had  been 
training  up  gradually  during  60  ytars  to  a  most  stupendous  lughth, 
#  to  become  the  scourge  of  the  earth.' 

Wc  u'.idcrstand  tliat  the  intrusion  of  certain  sectarists,  into  the 
author's  parish,  gate  rise  to  this  Adilras  ;  which,  though  designed 
for  his  own  Flock,  he  thinks  Riay  have  its  use,  in  cautioning  others 
against  a  practice  of  the  Jacobin  Societies,  of  which  few  are  suffi- 
ciently aware.  It  were  to  be  \vished,  that  the  Law  gave  to  the  Mi- 
nister of  a  Parish  the  Power  of  proceeding,  \x\  a  summary  Way, 
agai.'tst  such  as  intrude  unasked  into  the  'Fold  committed  to  his 

Mr.  Wollaston,  wc  apprehend,  is  the  respectable  writer  of  whom, 
as  a  man  of  science,  we  have  more  than  once  taken  honorable 
notice,  in  the  course  of  our  literary  labours ;  we  have  now  had  the 
pleasure  of  beholding  him  \\\  the  still  more  revered  cliaractcr  of  aa 
active  and  zealous  Christian  minister, 


Art.  50.      Proposals  for  fnrm'iT!^  by  Suhcripthrty  in  the  MetropoTis  of 
(he  Brll'nh  Empire,  a  Public  Instltut'ion  for  diffusing  the  Knowlege 
and  facilitating  the  general  L)truduction  of  useful  Mechanical  In* 
vcniions  and  Jmprovin:enfSy  and  for  teaching,  by  Courses  of  Philo* 
8ophical  Lectures  and   Experiments,  the   Application  of  Science 
to  the  common  Purp(^scs  of  Life.     By  Benjamin  Count  of  Rum- 
ford,  F.  R.  S.   &c.     8vo.     6d.     Cadcll  jun.  and  Davies.      1799. 
In  this  pamphlet  are  explained  the  reasons  which  render  it  desirable 
to  create  an  institution,  such  as  is  described  in  the  title-page-     The 
writer  likewise  gives  the  circumstances  of  the  origin  and  progress  of 
the  in?titulion  ;   tlie  terms  of  subscription  ;    the  present  subscribers; 
the  manager*?;   and  the  regulations,  laws,    &lc.  which  arc  proposed 
to  be  adopted. 

The  union  of  art,  of  science,  of  speculative  truth,  and  of  prac- 
tical utility,  which  formerly  wa">  indolently  desired  rather  than  actively 
attempted,  has  of  Utc  years  and  'm  many  ircti'.nces  been  accomplished. 
To  promote  such  an  union,  no  one  has  laboured  with  greater  zeal 
or  n.ore  success  than  tire  autlior  of  tne  present  proposals.  With  un- 
ctasi;:^  activity,  he  has  exerted  himself  to  increase  the  convenicncies  of 
life,  aiul  to  e.ilarge  the  stock  of  human  happiness.  In  founding  the 
.present  institution,  he  seems  desirous  of  perpetuating  his  benevolence, 
and  *j^  eusuring  a  continuance  of  that  activity  which  labours  lo  at- 
tain what  Bacon  calls  the  true  and  legitimate  goal  of  Science  ;  the  * 
endowment  of  life  with  new  inventions,  and  new  sources  of  abiuid- 
ancc.     May  success  continue  to  crown  his  laudable  endeavours  !  W^^ 

Art.  51.  Biographical  ylftccdoics  cf  the  Founders  of  the  French  Republic ^ 
and  of  other  eminent  Characters  wlio  have  distinguished  thtm^tlvcs 
in  the  Progress  of  the  Revolution.  Vol.  II.  12x110.  pp.  47c?. 
cs.  Boards.     Johnson,  5wC. 


MoNTHi.T  Catalogue,   Miscellatuout.  239 

The  first  volume  of  these  anecdotes  was  noticed  in  our  Number  for 
December  1797  ;  the  second  difTtrs  not  materially  in  character.  Its 
contents  are  also  very  amusing  :  but  they  may  also  require  occasional 
correction.  A  less  sparing  citation  of  authoiities  would  better  have 
enabled  the  critical  reader  to  estimate  the  authenticity  of  the  facts  re- 
lated. A  collection  80  various  in  style  is  probai)ly  the  work  of 
Various  pens.  Many  articles,  as  those  respecting  Brissot,  Coudoicet, 
Mirabeau,  Roland,  &c.  are  drawn  up  with  siperior  information 
and  ability  : — but  too  many  personages  aie  introduced.  Where  the 
public  importance  of  a  character  is- small,  and  where  individual  pecu- 
liarities arc  not  prominent,  as  in  the  case  of  Pogge,  Chalier,  Cociian, 
&c.    it  is  most  convenient  in  a  foreign  country  wholly  to  forget 

them.  Tay. 

Art.  52.  Provincial  Copper  Coins,  or  Tohens,  issued  between  t!ie 
Years  1787  and  1796,  engraved  by  Charles  Pye  of  Birmingham, 
from  the  Originals  in  his  own  Possession.  8vo.  is.  each  Plate. 

These  engravings  are  offered  to  the  public  as  a  substitute  for  a 
callection,  or  complete  scries,  of  the  coins  above  mentioned,  which 
many  have  been  desirous  of  attaining,  but  have  failed  in  the  attempt. 
The  number  of  plates  is  thirty-six,  each  plate  containing  five  coiiw, 
with  the  obverse  and  reverse.  Those  which  have  been  best  executed 
the  engraver  has  endeavoured  to  keep  by  themselves.  We  have  no 
doubt  that  they  will  all  be  deemed  fair  representations  of  their  ori- 
ginals. — Somcjof  the  later  coins,  we  arc  told,  were  struck  not  for 
circulation,  but  merely  for  the  collectors;  so  that  several  were  unknown 
at  the  places  whence  they  derive  their  names.  The  greater  part  of 
them  are  to  be  considered  as  halfpennies. — An  index  is  added,  which 
gives,  (as  far  as  they  could  be  obtained,  J  with  the  names  of  places, 
those  also  of  the  peuons  by  whom  the  dies  were  executed.  JIv  . 

Art.  53.  Copies  of  original  Letters  from  the  Army  of  General  Bona^ 
parte  in  Egypt,  intercepted  by  the  Fleet  under  the  Command  of 
Admiral  NcUon.  Parttk;-:  iSecond.  With  an  English  Tran^la* 
tion.  Bvo.  4s.  6d.  sewed.  Wright.  I799» 
In  our  Review  for  Fchuiary  la-t,  p.  231,  we  gave  some  account 
of  the  former  part  of  liie  publication  c)f  these  interceptt  :  letters. 
This  second  collection  is  made  by  the  editor  of  Part  I.  which  cir- 
cumstance will  be  considered  as  a  suflicicnt  recommendation  with  re- 
spect to  the  great  article  of  authi  nticitv. — These  tiuly  curious 
letters,  which  never  reached  the  hands  of  those  to  whom  thev  were 
directed,  (and  to  whom,  no  doubt,  they  would  have  proved  highly  in- 
teresting,) are  chiefiy  v/ritten  by  Bonaparte  himself,  and  by  his  of. 
fleers  ;  and  they  are  introduce  J ^  as  was  the  preceding  set,  by  tiie  ani- 
mated, sarcastic,  but  pertinent  observations  of  the  loyal  and  exulting 
editor.  There  is  likewise  given,  by  way  of  appendix^  a  very  curious 
letter  [both  in  the  original  Greek  and  \n  an  English  trant^lation]  frcm 
the  Metropolitan,  the  Arciibi.-hop,  of  Constantinople,  addressed  to 
the  •*  Most  dear  and  honoured  Nobility, — and  all  ye  Christians  of 
CorfcUy  Cephalonin,  ZantCy.  C^r'tgo,  Ithacay' St,  Llaure,  &c.  our  1  e- 
loved  Children  in  the  Lord,  &c.  £cc."  earnestly  and  pious  exhcrti?  g 
ihtro  to  persevere  in  their  loyalty  to  the  Ottoman  Porte  ;  and  to  co» 
o||cxate  with  the  allied  powers  in  resisting  the  iuvasion  of  the  impiou» 

8  and 


and  treacherous  Frencli.  The  letter  is  well  adapted  to  the  Occasion  5 
but  whether  his  sublime  Highness  will  fully  confirm  and  feub'«» 
Rtantiate  the  promise  made  (in  his  name)  by  the  good  Mctropo* 
litan,  that  the  inhabitants  of  tlie  Archipelago  "  shall  have  full  power 
to  select  whatever  form  of  government  they  shall  judge  most  conducive 
to  the  benefit  of  their  country, — either  the  aristocratical  constitution 
of  Ragu'^a,  or  any  other  that  may  please  them  better/'— is  a  matter 
which  must  be  left  to  the  manifestation  of  time. 
Art.  54.    Reports  of  the  Society  for  bettering  the  ConfTttlon  and  increasing 

ihe  Comforts  of  the  Poor.    V^ol.  I.    1 2  mo.    2s.    Becket,  &c.   1798- 

In  our  account  of  the  second  Number  of  the  Report?  here  collec- 
tively republished,  it  was  observed  that  tracts  relating  to  matters  so 
uncommonly  useful  and  interesting,  especially  to  the  poor,  should  be 
published  at  the  cheapest  rate,  so  that  they  might  be  convcuiently 
circulated  among  that  class  of  readers  who  were  concerned  in  their 
contents. — In  a  word,  that  the  poor  might  read  them. 

It  is  possible  that  the  hint  then  thrown  out  may  have,  in  some  dcf  rcc, 
attracted  the  notice  of  the  gentlemen  who  superintend  the  business 
of  the  society.  Accordingly,  we  here  see  an  edition  of  the  separate 
Reports^  which  constitute  the  first  volume,  and  which  may  be  pur- 
chased for  one  third  of  the  cost  of  the  original  publications. 

This  instance  of  judicious  attention  to  the  proper  management  of 
the  concerns  of  the  society  merits  our  due  approbation  ;  yet,  still,  we 
fear  that,  our  wish  is  not  fully  accomplished  ;  for  can  it  be  supposed 
that  readers,  circumstanced  as  are  those  here  describul,  can  always^ 
till  their  condition  is  bettered,  well  alTord  to  purchase  a  book  at  even 
so  moderate  a  pi  ice  as  two  shillings  V — We  8j)oke  ol  three -penny  pam* 
phletSf  as  more  suitable  to  the  circumstances  of  the  labouring  classes. 

In  the  mean  time,  the  benevolent,  the  charitable,  and  the  patriotic 
may  have  opportunities  of  distributing  the  present  edition  of  the^r// 
volume  ;  which  contains  the  first  Six  Reports,  re-printed  from  the 
large  octavo  edition.  The  seventh  and  eighth  Numbers,  in  part  of 
the  second  volume,  have  also  made  their  appearance. 

We  do  not  at  present  recollect  any  work  whieli  we  could  mention 
in  answer  to  the  inquiries  of  our  conespondent  Clara. 

F.  P.  is  not  perfectly  correct  in  saying  that  it  is  our  custom  to  an- 
nounce works  which  are  yet  in  the  press.  We  rarely  do  it,  dnd  only 
in  cases  of  large,  important,  or  foreign  publications.  In  the  present 
instance,  we  m.ust  beg  to  decline  the  insertion  of  F.  P.'s  advertisement. 

Wc  have  received  Mr.  Ashdowne's  letter,  but  must  refrain  from  any 
farther  discussion  of  the  subject. 

jIn  Old  Friend  is  received,  and  transmitted  to  the  gentleman  to 
whose  remark  it  bears  reference. 

C:>  In   the   last  Appendix,    p.  490.   1.  22.    for   ::  i  :2 /+    read 

5:  i :  2  X  i -f  ;  507. 1.  8.  for  <  luildy  r.  built ;  572.  1.  8.  for  *  vary  then' 

.  vary  :  then.  . .«. . 

r.  vary  ;  then, 


T.  H..E     ..  ..,-  ;     • 


For    JULY,      1799. 

Aat.  I.    Travels  in  the  Interior  Dutrictt  of  A/rlea  i  perfohned  undef 

.   ttie  Direction  and  Patronage  of  the  African  Attociation,  in  the 

Years  1795*  i796>  and  1797.     By  Mungo  Park,  Surgeon.   With 

an  Appendix,  Containing  Geographical  Illustrations  of  Africa,  br 

Major   RennelL      4to.     pp.460*     xLiis.  6d.   Boards*    NicoL 

A  T  length  the  narrative  o£  Mr.  t^atk  ha^  appeared ;  and 
^^  public  curiosity,  ^hich  has  been  highly  excited,  will  now 
seek  its  gratification.  Yet,  what  has  happened  in  similar  casesy 
^hen  expectation  has  been  immoderately  raised,  will  happen  in 
this  \  and  we  shall  hear  of  hopes  un-rcalized,  and  curiosity  dis* 
appointed :  hopes  which  had  perhaps  no  distinct  object  of  com* 
pletion,  and  curiosity  which  required  to  be  gratined  with  the 
narration  of  events  stupendous  in  their  magnitude,  or  improbable 
in  their  strangeness* — Among  those,  however,  who  balanced  the 
difficulties  of  an  undertaking  like  that  of  Mr.  Park,  and  the  means 
by  which  those  difficulties  were  to  be  encountered ;  who,  put* 
ting  aside  childish  or  inordinate  expectations,  calmly  computed 
the  result  of  the  undertaking,  if  successful;— there  will  be  no 
complaint  q\  disappointment.  The  countries,  through  which 
the  travels  were  to  be  made,  had  been  rarely  aad  imperfectly 
explored  :  the  little  that  was  known  of  them  proved  that  they 
were  full  of  various  and  great  obstacles :  though  the  history 
of  the  manners  and  dispositions  of  the  people,  at  whose  mercy 
the  traveller  must  be,  slightly  depended  on  vague,  scanty,  or 
suspicious  accounts,  yet  there  was  sufficient  ground  for  sus* 
pecting  that  some  of  these  people  were  inhospitable,  cruel, 
and  rapacious ;  and  if  physical  and  moral  impediments  oppose 
the  solitary  traveller,  with  what  arms  can  he  meet  them  ?  The 
mind  may  rise  superior  to  all  circumstances  of  distress,  yet  the 
body  (nusc  at  length  yield  to  continued  hunger  and  toil :  hu* 
man  fortitude  and  sagacity  are  limited  in  their  operation ;  cru- 
elties may  be  borqe,.  and  the  snares  of  designing  malice  may 
be  avoided  :  but  wliat  escape  is  there  from  a  foe  who  strikes 
without  mercy,  without  provocation,  and  without  restraint  ? 
'  llism'issrng,  however,  the  question  whether  the  expectation  of 
jh.ose^who  previously  estimated  the  success  of  the  undertaking 

Vol..  xxxx.  S  bf 

24%  Park'/  Travels  in  Africa. 

b«  disappointed,  or  not,  every  one  must  allow  that  it  was  pTO« 
secuted  with  a  most  rare  perseverance,  in  despite  of  obstacles 
which  really  presented  themselves,  and  which  were  unforeseen 
iti  their  nature,  number,  and  magnitude.  Common  evils  had 
been  calculated :  but  Mr.  Park  was  exposed  to  some  which 
were  beyond  the  apprehension  of  terror  or  the  conception  of 
despondency.  The  people  among  whom  he  was  to  travel  were 
known  to  be  poor,  and  ^crc  therefore  justly  suspected  to  be 
thievish :  but  it  was  scarcely  to  be  irriagincd  that  they  would 
plunder  openly,  with  impunity,  and  with  insult.  The  disposi- 
tron  of  the  Moors  was.  said  to  be  cruel :  but  it  might  be  pre- 
sumed that  they  would  not  be  cruel  without  incentive.  Could 
the  traveller  be  in  a.  more  calamitous  situation  than  when  at 
the  mer<;y  of  a  needy  and  ferocious  people,  among  whom  he 
might  be  plundered  at  leisure  and  at  will,  and  with  whom  even 
the  assasination  of  him  would  be  a  meritorious  act  ?  In  sudi 
circumstances,  enterprize  was  useless,  or  led  to  destruction. 

*  My  ihstructibw  *  (says  Mr.  P»rk)  were  very  plain  and  concise* 
I  was  directed,  on  fny  arrival  in  Africa,  <<  to  pass  on  to  the  river 
Niger,  either  by  the  way  of  Bambouk,  or  by  such  other  route  as 
•hould  be  found .  most  convenient. '  That  I  should  ascertain  the 
course,  and,  if  possible,  tlie  rise  and  termination  of  that  river.  That 
I  should  use  my  utmost  exertions  to  visit  die  principal  towns  or  cirics 
in  its  neighbourhood,  particularly  Tombuctoo  and  Houssa ;  and 
that  I  should  be  afterwards  at  liberty  to  return  to  Europe,  either  by 
the  way  of  the  Gambia,  or  by  such  other  route,  as,  under  all  the 
then'  qxtsting  'ciirumstanccs  of  my  situation  and  prospects,  should 
appear  to  me  tj[>  be  most  advisable." 

These  instructions  were  not  completely  fulfilled,  but  the 
mission  of  Mr.  Park  is  not  therefore  to  be  deemed  fruitless. 
Those  who  sent  him  were  aware  that  many  difficulties  were 
likely  to  attend  the  undertakingt  but  the  obstacles  of  penetrat- 
ing into  Africa  might  possibly  have  been  exaggerated,  or  a 
fortunate  combination  of  circumstances  might  diminish  them  J 
in  which  cases,  the  adventurer  must  be  provided  with  instruc- 
tions  to  direct  his  farther  researches.  Tombuctbo  and  Houssa 
were,  if  possible,  to  be  visited  :  but,  if  that  were  impracticable, 
the  undertaking  was  not  to  be  supposed  to  have  failed:  they 
were  rather  proposed  as  terms  or  limits  to  the  expedition; 
sufficiently  distant  indeed  under  the  most  fortunate  union  of 
circumstances.     Of  the  rise,  course,  and  termination  of  the 

.  *  For  our  account  of  this  laudable  Association,  and  of  its  early 
proceedings,  sec  M.  R»  N.  S.  vol.  ii\  (1790)  p.  60.- — See  also  Mr. 
•Edwards^.,Abstract  of  Mr.  Park's  account  of  his  Travels,  M.  R.  voL 

.wL  p.  436'  „      . 


ParVi-  Trxnek  m  Africa.  t43 

Niger,  the  course  only  has  been  ascertained;  and  a  mostim* 
portant  determination  it  is,  confirming  the  assertions  of  antient 
writers,  and  preventing  all  farther  controversy.  » 

The  narrative  of  Mr.  Park  is  simple  :  he  seems  to  havt  dc> 
scribed  things  as  he  saw  them,  and  to  have  consulted  his 
senses  rather  than  his  imagination ;  he  is  unwilling  to  glut 
credulity  by  the  narration  of'  wonders ;  he  draws  no  exaggo^ 
rated  picture  of  his  sufferings  and  dangers;  nor  does  he  ascribe 
to  his  own  sagacity  any  event  which  resulted  from  chance  ot 
accident.  The  manners,  dispositions,  and  customs  of  the  people 
cure  detailed  fully  and  (we  believe)  faithfully :  for  if  what  is 
described  be  not  real,  at  least  that  which  is  invented  is  pro- 
bable, since  we  discover  no  remarkable  deviation  from  the 
manners  which  have  been  observed  to  prevail  among  other 
people  in  like  circumstances  :^they  are  what  we  should  have 
supposed  them  to  be,  from  the  light  which  former  travels  afibrdw 
Human  nature,  in  its  general  characters,  is  nearly  the  sam6  iH 
all  times  and  in  all  places;  admitting  modifications  from  the 
influence  of  climate,  and  from  arbitrary  regulations,  which  it 
is  the  business  of  the  traveller  to  note  ;  and  which  Mn  Park 
has  noted.  Those  readers,  then,  who  seelc  in  the  present 
work  for  what  is  marvellous  and  anomalous,  will  seek  in  Vain; 
The  author  found,  on  the  borders  of  the  Desert  and  on  the 
banks  of  the  Niger,-  what  has  been  found  in  all  countries;  a 
mixture  of  good  and  evil ;  he  saw  no  people  exempted  from 
the  iniiuence  of  passion,  and  solely  guided  by  a  predominating 
reason  ;  no  consummate  polity  and  pure  religion :  bat*  forms 
of  government,  weak,  imperfect,  or  oppressive;  the  wildest 
fanaticism  and  th^  most  debasing  superstition.  The  inbabttt 
ants  of  Africa,  possessing  few  arts,  could  have  few  of  ths 
conveniences  of  life  ;  and  without  books,  they  must  be  with- 
out  any  stores  of  imagery,  principles  of  science,  and  compter 
hension  of  knowlege.  Their  wants  were  found  to  be  few",  yet 
their  means  scarcely  adequate  to  supply  them ;  andf  their  vices 
and  virtues  were  gross,  simple,  and  circumscribed  in  theif 
operation.  Their  schemes  of  inventioir,  and  their  scenes  of 
happiness,  are  beneath  the  envy  or  the  imitation  of  an  Earo^ 
pean.  Human  nature  is  shewn  in  Africa  nearly  ra  its  lowest 
scale  ;  and,  after  having  learnt  what  Its  inhabitants  think,  en« 
joy,  and  can  do,  we  must  exclaim,  with  Kafra  the  slave-driver^ 
•*  Black  men  arc  nothing  ♦.'* 

Two  descriptions  of  readers,  however,  may  possibly  com* 
pfaun  of  disappointment,  after  the  perusal  of  Mr.  Park's  Tra- 
tels  :  but  they  are  such  as  no  author  will  be  very  ambitious  to 

p  —  -   —  ■  ■  ■         ■ '  ■ ■ 

♦  See  Travels,  p.  359. 
c         *  S  a  satisfy; 

t44  ParV/  TrMch  h  A/ricA. 

Mtitfy ;  thcbne,  tliose  who  purposely  ask  too  much  ;  At  oth<»V 
those  who  aie  indefinite  in  the  object  of  their  expectations^ 
and  know  not  what  it  is  which  they  demand.     To  all  other 

Crsons^  who»  by  a  sense  of  the  obstacles  and  the  means  of  com* 
titig  them)  tempered  the  zeal  of  hope ;  or  who  saw  a  distinct 
object  in  it|  by  the  light  of  other  Travels )  the  present  work  will 
appear  important,  as  having  considerably  augmented  the  know* 
lege  of  what  its  most  learned  commentator  calls  the  moral 
and  physical  geography  of  Africa. 

We  now  proceed  to  take  more  particular  notice  of  the  cod* 
tents  of  this  volume)  and  in  doing  this,  we  shall  endea** 
vour  it  present  our  readers  with  a  variety  of  particulars,  in 
addition  to  the.  brief  abstract  which  we  made  of  Mr.  £dwards's 
epitome  of  Mr.  Park's  Travels,  in  our  Review|  vol.  xxvi. 
P*  436,  already  cited.  We  shall  also  perhaps,  unavoidablyi 
jTcpeat  some  circumstances  which  were  before  mentioned  :  but 
this,  if  it  should  so  happen,  the  reader  will  excuse. 
.  The  instructions  given  to  Mr^  P.  have  already  been  men* 
tiofsed.  In  consequence  of  them,  he  left  England  for  Africa,  22d 
May  1 795,  and  arrived  at  Pisatiia,  a  British  factory  on  the  rivet 
Oambia,  5th  July.  The  first  object  of  the  author,  on  his  arrival 
at  this  place, .  was  to  learn  the  Mandxngo  languagci  as  being 

Jenerally  spoken  in  the  parts  through  which  he  was  to  travel. 
>n  the  ad  of  Decembef,  he  left  Pisania,  accompanied  by  a 
Negroe  servant  who  spoke  both  the  English  and  theMandingo 
tongues,  and  by  a  Negroe  boy  who  spoke  the  language  of  the 
SerawooUieSf  an  inland  people.  His  baggage  consisted  of  pro* 
visions  for  two  days,  linen,  a  small  assortment  of  beads,  amberi 
and  tobacco,  an  umbrella,  a  pocket  sextant,  a  magnetic  com-* 
pass,  a  thermometer,  two  fowling  pieces,  two  pair  of  pistols^ 
and  other  small  articles*  His  course  was  easterly  towards  the 
kingdom  of  WooUi ;  the  capital  of  which,  Medina,  he  reached 
on  the  5  th  December.  He  stopped  here  a  day,  and  was 
kindly  treated  by  the  King,  who  tried  to  dissuade  him  from 
the  journey  \  warning  him  of  the  fate  of  Major  Houghton.  On 
the  next  day,  howeveri  having  procured  a  guide,  the  traveller 
pursued  his  j5urliey,  and  on  the  8th  reached  Kolor.    On  the 

J^th  he  proceeded^  and  on  the  nth  arrived  at  Koojar,  the- 
rontier  town  of  WooUii  Here  he  drank  a-  liquor  resembling 
beett  and  in  fact  made  from  corn  previously  malted,  with  bitter 
foots  instead  of  hops. — To  reach  the  kingdom  of  Bondou,  he 
was  obliged  to  pass  a  wilderness  of  twt  days'  journey }  in  cross« 
ing  which  he  was  accompanied  by  three  Negroes,  elepliant 
hunters.  On  the  r3th  he  reached  Tallika  the  frontier  town  o( 
Bondou,  the  inhabitants  of  which  are  Mohammedan  Foulabsi 
one  of  the  four  great  classes  into  which. the  inhabitants  on  the 

I    ..  banks 

PartV  traveU  in  Africa.  «45 

bank$  of  the  Gambia  arc  divi4cd.  At  Fattccohda,  Ac  capital 
of  Bondou,  where  Mr.  P.  arrived  on  the  21st  of  December,  he 
was  introduced  to  the  King  Alraami,  who  had  behaved  un- 
kindly to  Major  Houghton.  The  ignorance  ^xui  canning  of 
this  Prince  are  thus  related : 

*  Wc  found  the  monarch  sitting  upon  a  mat,  and  two  attcndaotl 
with  him.  I  rq)eatcd  what  I  had  before  told  hhn  conccmiDg  the 
dbjcct  of  my  journey,  aod  my  reasons  for  passing  through  his  country. 
He  seemed,  however,  but  half  satisfied-  The  notion  of  travelling 
for  curiosity,  was  ^uitc  new  lo  him.  He  thought  it  impossible,  he 
said,  that  any  man  in  his  senses  Wj0uI4  undertake  so  dangerous  a 
journey,  merely  to  look  at  th^s  country^  atvd  its  inhabitants :  hpw* 
ever,  when  I  offered  to  shew  him  the  contents  of  niy  portrnantea;i, 
and  every  thing  belonging  to  me,  he  was  convince4 ;  «ixd  it  was 
evident  that  his  suspicion  had  arisen  from  a  belief,  that  every  white 
man  must  of  necessity  be  a  trader.  When  I  had  delivered  my  prci 
scnts,  he  seemed  well  pleased,  and  was  particularly  delighted  with 
^he  umbrella,  which  he  repeatedly  furled  and  unfurled,  to  the  great 
admiration  of  himself  and  his  two  attendants ;  who  could  not  for 
some  tinie  comprehend  the  use  of  this  wonderful  machine.  After 
this  I  was  abogiit  to  take  my  leave,  when  the  king,  desiring 
me  to  stop  a  while,  began  a  long  preamble  in  favour  of  the  whites ; 
extolling  their  immense  wealthy  and  good  dispositions.  He  next 
proceeded  to  an  euloMum  on  my  bhie  coat,  of  w)udi  the  yellow 
buttons  seemed  pardcuTarly  to  catch  his  fancy  ;  and  he  concluded  hf 
entreating  me  to  jpsesent  him  with  it ;  assuring  me,  for  my  conso<^ 
iation  under  the  losp  of  it^  that  he  would  wear  it  on  all  public  oc- 
casions, and  inform  fvery  one  who  saw  it,  of  m)r  great  libei;ality 
towards  him.  The  request  of  an  African  prince,  in  nis  owp  domi*^ 
nions,  particularly  when  made  to  a  stranger^  comes  little  sj^ort  of  a 
command.  It  is  on|ly  a  way  of  ql^taining  by  gentle  means,  what  he 
can,  if  he  pleases,  take  by  force ;  and  as  it  was  against  my  i«')terest 
to  offend  him  by  a  refusal,  I  very  quietly  took  off  my  coat,  the  only 
good  one  in  my  possession^  ^n^  kid  it  at  his  &a.' 

The  following  is  the  author*^  description  of  Bondou : 

*  Bondou  is  bounded  on  the  east  ^y  Bambouk  ;  on  the  sotith-cast, 
and  south,  by  Tenda,  andjjbe  Simbani  Wilderness ;  on  the  south* 
Mrest  by  Woolli ;  on  the  west,  by  Foota  Torra;  and  on  the  norths 
by  IWaaga. 

*  The  country,  like  that  of  WooDi,  is  very  generally  covered 
with  woods,  but  the  land  is  more  elevated,  and  towards  the  Faleme 
river,  rises  into  considerable  hills.  In  native  fertility  the  soil  is  not 
surpassed,  1  believe,  foy  any  part  of  Africa. 

«  From  the  central  situation  of  Bondou,  between  the  Gambia 
and  Senegal  rivers,  it  is  become  a  place  of  great  resort,  both  for 
the  Slatees,  who  generally  pass  tnroii{;h  it,  in  going  from  the 
coast  to  the  interior  countries;  and  for  occasional  traders,  who 
frequently  come  hither  from  the  inland  countries,  to  purchase  salt. 

S  3  •  Thtse 

^46  P^kV  Travils  in  Aflriea. 

/  These  diffeient  branches  of  commerce  are  conducted  principally 
by  Mandingoes  and  Serawoollies,  who  hive  settled  in  the  country. 
These  merchants  likewise  carry  on  a  considerable  trade  with  Gedumah, 
and  other  Moorish  countrier.,  barteting  corn  and  blue  cotton  cloths 
for  salt ;  which  they  again  baiter 'in  £^etttila  and  other  districts  for 
irony  shea-butter,  and  small  quantities  of  gold-dust.  They  likewise 
•cU  a  variety  of  sweet  smelling  gums  packed  up  in  small  bags,  con- 
taining each  about  a  pound.  These  gums,  being  thrown  on  hot 
embers,  produce  a  very  pleasant  odour,  and  are  used  by  the  Man- 
dingoes  tor  perfuming  their  huts  and  cloth^<t. 
.  *  The  customs,  or  duties  oh  travellers,  are  very  heavy  ;  in  almost 
every  town,  an  ass-load  pays  «  bar  of  European  merchandize,  and  at 
Fatteconda,  the  residence  of  the  king,  one  Indian  baft,  or  a  musket, 
and  six  bottles  of  gunpowder,  are  exacted  as  the  common  tribute. 
Ky  means  of  these  duu'es,  the  King  of  Bondou  is  well  supplied  with 
arms  and  ammunition  ;  a  circumstance  which  makes  him  formidable 
to  the  neighbouring  states. 

'  The  inhabitants  differ  in  their  complexions  and  nation^  man- 
ners from  the  Mandingoes  and  Scrawoollics,  vrith  whom  they  are 
frequently  at  war.  Some  years  ago  the  King  of  Bondou  crossed 
the  Falem6  river  with  a. numerous  army,  and  after  a  short  and  bloody 
campaign  totally  defeated  the  forces  of  Samboo  King  of  Bambouk, 
who  was  obh'ged  to  sue  for  peace,  and  surrender  to  him  all  the  towns 
alongthe  eastern  bank  of  the  Faleme. 

.  *  The  Foulahs  in  general  ^as  has  been  observed  in  a  former 
Chapter^  are  of  a  tawny  complexion,  with  small  features,  and  soft 
silky  hair ;  next  to  the  Mandingoes  they  are  undoubtedly  the  most 
considerable  of  all  the  nations  in  this  part  of  Africa.  Their  original 
country  is  said  to  be  Fooladoo  (which  signifies  the  country  of  the 
Foulahs)  ;  but  they  possess  at  present  many  other  kingdoms  at  a 
great  distance  from  each  other.:  their  complexion,  however,  is  not 
exactly  the  same  in  the  different  districts  ;  in  Bondou,  and  the  other 
kingdoms  which  are  situated  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Moorish  terri- 
tories, they  are  of  a  more  yellow  complexion  than  in  the  southern 

*  The  Foulahs  of  Bondou  are  naturally  of  a  mild  and  gentle  dis- 
position, bat  the  uncharitable  maxims  of  the  Koran  have  made  them 
less  hospitable  ^to  strangers^  and  more  reserved  in  their  behaviour, 
than  the  Mandingoes.  They  evidently  consioer  all  the  Negro  nativt  s 
as  their  inferiors  ;  and  when  talking  of  different  nations^  always  rank 
themselves  among  the  white  people. 

•  Their  government  differs  from  that  of  the  Mandingoes  chiefly 
in  this,  that  they  are  more  immediately  under  the  influence  of  the 
Mahomedan  laws  ;  for  all  tKe  chief  men  (the  king  excepted)  and  a 
large  majority  of  the  inhabitants  of  Bondou,  are  Mussulmen,  and 
the  autliority  and  laws  of  the  Prophet,  are  every  where  looked  upon 
as  sacred  and  decisive.  In  the  exercise  of  tlteir  faith,  however,  they 
are  not  very  intolerant  towards  such  of  their  countqrme;!  as  still  rc- 
^in  their  ancient  superstitions.  Religious  persecution  is  not  known 
among  them,  nor  Is  it  necessary  ;  for  the  system  of  Mahomet  is  made 


ParkV  Traveh  in  Africa^  247 

to  extend  iuelf  by  means  abundantly  more  efficacious  :'<— by  estabb'th*, 
ing  small  schools  in  the  diffei-ent  towns,  where  many  of  the  Pagao 
is  Veil  as  'Mahomedan  children  are  taught  to  read  the  Ktoran,  and 
instructed  in  the  tenets  of  the  Prophet.  The  Mahomedan  priests 
f5x  a  bias' on  the  mmds,  and  form  the  character  of  their  young  dis- 
eiples,  which  no  accidents  of  life  can  ever  afterwards  remove  or  alter. 
Many  of  .these  h'ttle  schools  I  visited  in  my  progress  through  the 
countT}',  and  observed  with  pleaBOre  the  great  docility  and  submissifo 
deportment  of  the  children,  and  heartily  wished  they  had  had  better 
instructors,  and  a  purer  religion.  .  . 

<  With  the  Mahomedan  faith  is  also  introduced  the  Arabic  lan- 
guage, with  which  most  of  the  Foulahs  have  a  slight  acquaintance. 
Their  native  tongue  abounds  \try  much  in  liauids,  but  there  is  some- 
thing unplcarant  m  the  manner  of  pronounang  it.  A  stranger,  on 
heanng  the  common  conversation  of  two  Foiilahs,  would  imagine 
that  they  were  scolding  each  other. 

<  The  industry  of  the  Foulahs,  in  the  occupations  of  pasturage,  and 
•gricnhure,  is  every  where  remarkable.  Even  on  the  banks  of  the 
Gambia,  the  greater  pait  of  the  corn  is  raised  by  them ;  and  their 
herds  and  flocks  are  more  numerous  and  in  better  condition  than  those 
of  the  Mandingoes ;  but  in  Bondou  they  are  opulent  in  a  high  degree^ 
and  enjoy  all  the  necessaries  of  life  in  the  greatest  profusion.  They 
display  great  skill  in  the  management  of  their  cattle,  making  them 
extremely  gentle  by  kindness  and  familiarity.  On  the  approach  of 
night,  they  are  collected  from  the  woods,  and  secured  in  folds,  called 
korrecs,  which  are  constructed  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  different 
villages.  In  the  middle  of  each  korree  is  erected  a  small  hut,  wherein 
one  or  two  of  the  herdsmen  keep  watch  during  the  night,  to  prevent 
the  cattle  from  being  stolen,  and  tq  keep  up  the  nres  which  are 
kiildied  round  the  korree  to  frighten  away  the  wild  beasts. 

<  The  cattle  are  milked  in  the  mornings  and  evenings :  the  milk 
is  excellent ;  but  the  quantity  obtained  from  any  one  cow  is  by  no 
means  so  great  as  in  Europe.  The  Foulahs  use  the  milk  chieny  as 
an  article  of  diet,  and  that,  not  until  it  is  quite  sour.  The  cream 
which  it  affords  is  very  tliick,  and  is  converted  into  butter  by  stirring 
it  violently  in  a  large  calabash.  This  butter,  when  melted  over  a 
gentle  fire,  and  freed  from  impunties,  is  preserved  in  small  earthen 
pots,  and  forms  a  part 'in  most  of  their  dishes;  it  serves  likewise 
to  anoint!^  their  heads,  and  is  bestowed  very  liberally  on  their  faces 
and  arms. 

«  But  although  milk  is  plentifal,  it  is  somewhat  remarkable  that 
the  Foulahs,  and  indeed  all  the  inhabitants  of  this  part  of  Africa, 
are  totally  unacquainted. with  the  art  of  making  cheese.  A  firm  at- 
tachment to  the  customs  of  their  ancestors,  makes  them  view  with 
an  eye  of  prejudice  every  thing  tliat  lookr'like  innovation.  The 
heat  of  the  climate,  'aridf  the  great  sirarcity  of  salt,  are  heM  forth  as 
unanswerable  objections ;  and  the  whole  process  appears  to  tkem 
too  long  and  troublesome,  to  be'  attended  with  any  solid  advantage. 

•  Besides  the  cattle,  which  constitute  the  chief  wealth  of  the 
Foulahs,  they  possess  some  Excellent  horses,  the  'breed  oF  which 
.teems  to  be  a  mixture  of  the  Arabian  with  the  original  African.'* 

S  4  Leaving 

248  Park*/  Travels  in  Africa. 

Leaving  Bondoi^,  Mr.  Park  proceeded  to  the  Idngdpm  of 
Kajaaga ;  the  inhabitanti  oiP  which  are  called  Serawoolli^s  ;  a 
trading  people,  and  deriving  considerable  profit  from  the  sale 
of  salt  and  cotton  eloths.  At  Joag,  the  frontier  town,  he  wa^ 
illrtreated,  and  robbed  of  half  his  effects  by  order  of  Batcheri» 
King  of  Kajaaga.  Here  he  embraced  a  fsvourable  opportunity 
of  prosecuting  his  journey  to  the  kingdom  of  Kasson,  under 
the  guidance  of  Demba  Sego,  the  King's  nephew :  to  pay  for 
whose  protection,  he  was  plundered  of  half  of  his  remaining 
effects  by  Demba  and  his  father.  Eager  to  quit  people  who 
sold  their  kindness  at  so  dear  a  rate,  Mf.  P.  on  the  foth  of 
January  1796,  left  Tessee,  the  frontier  tdwn  of  Kasson,  on  hi^ 
way  toKponiakary,  the  capital.  BetweenTessee  and  Kooniakary 
lay  the  town  of  Jumbo,  the  native  place  of  a  blacksmith,  one  of 
Mr.  P.'s  companions.  We  shall  extract  the  simple  and  affect- 
ing  account  of  the  intervievv  between  ^he  African  artist  and  hU 

<  About  two  miles  farther  to  the  eastward,  we  passed  a  large  towif 
called  Madina ;  and  at  two  o'clock  came  in  sight  of  Juxnbo,  the 
blacksmith's  native  town,  from  whence  he  had  been  absent  more 
than  four  years.  Soon  after  this,  his  brother,  who  bad  by  some 
means  been  appnzed  of  his  coming,  came  out  to  meet  him,  accom- 
panied by  a  smging  man:  Jie  brought  a  horse  for  the  blacksmith, 
that  he  might  enter  his  native  town  m  a  dignified  manner  ;  aftd  h^ 
desired  each  of  us  to  put  a  goo^l  charge  m  ppwdfsr  into  oqr  |^ns. 
file  singing  man  now  led  the  way,  IfoUowed  py  the  two  brothers  \ 
and  we  were  presently  joined  by  a  number  of  people  from  the  town, 
all  of  whom  demonstrated  great  joy  at  seeing  their  ol(l  acquaintance 
the  blacksmith,  by  the  most  extravagant  jumping  and  singing.  On 
entering  the  town,  the  singing  man  began  ai^  ca^tcmporp  spng  in 
praise  of  the  bkcksmith,  extglUng  his  courage  in  having  overcome 
so  many  difficulties  \  and  cpndudiqc;  with  a  strict  injunction  to  hi^ 
friends  to  dress  him  plenty  of  viptuafs. 

*  When  we  arrived  at  the  blacksmith's  place  of  residence,  we  . 
(lismquntply  and  fired  our  muskets,  ^he  meeting  between  \^m  an4 
his  relation^  was  very  tender  \  fof  these  rude  children  qf  paiure,  fre^ 
|rom  restraint,  display  their  emotions  in  the  strongest  and  mo|t 
f  xpressive  manner.  Amidst  these  transports,  the  blacksmith's  age4 
mother  was  led  forth,  leaning  uppn  a  staff.  Every  one  ms^de  way 
for  her ;  and  she  stretched  out  her  hand  to  bid  her  son  welcome. 
Being  totally  blin^*  sh^  stroked  his  hand?,  arms,  and  face,  wit^ 
great  care^  and  -seemed  highly  dehghted  that  her  latter  days  were 
plessed  by  his  return,  and  that  her  ears  once,  more  heard  the  music 
of  his  voice.  From  this  interyicw  \  was  fully  convinped,  that  what* 
f*ver  difference  therp  ts  between  the  Negro  and  European  in  the  coif* 
formation  of  the  nose  and  the  colpur  of  the  skin,  there  is  non^  in 
fhe  genuine  sympathies  and  characteristic  feelings  of  our  common 

f  During 

ParkV  Travels  in  Jfnca.  249 

*  During  the  tumult  of  these  congratulationi,  I  bad  letted  mv* 
•df  apart»  by  the  side  of  one  of  the  huts,  being  unwilling  to  ai* 
terrupt  the  flow  of  filial  and  parental  tenderness ;  and  the  attention 
of  the  company  was  so  entirely  taken  up  with  the  blacksmitht  that 
I  believe  none  of  his  friends  had  observed  me.  When  all  the  peonle 
present  had  seated  themselves^  the  bhuJcsmitk  was  desired  by  Us 
father  to  give  them  some  account  of  his  adventures ;  and  silence  being 
commanded,  he  began ;  and  after  repeatedly  thanking  God  for  the 
success  that  had  attended  him,  related  every  materud  occurrence 
that  had  happened  to  him  firom  his  leaving  Kasson  to  his  arrival  at 
the  Gambia  ;  his  employment  and  success  in  those  parts  \  and  the 
dangers  he  had  escaped  in  returning  to  his  native  country.  In  the 
latter  part  of  his  narration^  he  had  i^uently  occasion  to  mention 
me ;  and  after  many  strong  expressions  concerning  my  kindness  to^ 
him,  he  pointed  to  the  place  where  I  sat*  and  exclaimed,  affilU  iti 
tiring^  **  see  him  sitting  there/'  In  a  moment  all  eyes  were  turqed 
upon  me  ;  I  appeared  like  a  being  dropped  from  the  douds ;  every 
one  was  surprised  that  they  had  not  observed  me  before ;  and  a  fine 
women  and  children  expressed  great  uneasiness  at  being  so  near  a 
man  of  such  an  uncommon  appearance.  Bv  degrees,  h^eever,  thtir 
apprehensions  subsided ;  and  when  the  Uacksmith  assured  them 
that  I  was  perfectly  inoffensive,  and  would  hurt  nobody,  .some  of  than 
ventured  so  far  as  to  examine  the  texture  of  my  clothes ;  but 
many  of  them  were  still  very  suspicious ;  and  when  by  accident  I 
happened  to  move  myself,  or  look  at  the  young  duldren,  their 
mothers  would  scamper  off  with  them  with  the  greatest  precipitatipOf 
In  a  few  hours,  however,  they  all  became  reconciled  to  me.* 

At  Koonlakary,  the  author  wa$  treated  kipdiy  by  the  S^ogt 
who  had  seen  Major  Houghton  and  bad  presented  him  with  a 
horse.  On  account^ of  an  impending  war,  which  was  likely, to 
involve  the  kingdoms  of  Kasson,  Kajaaga,  Kaarta,  and  Bam* 
barra,  the  traveller  remained  in  Kasaon  till  the  3d  of  February^ 
when  he  resumed  his  journey,  and  arrived  on  the  12th  at  Kem^ 
moo,  the  capital  of  Kaarta.  Here  he  was  introduced  to  the 
King,  Daisy  j  who  advised  him  to  return  to  Kasson,  or,  if  he 
was  determined  to  proceed,  to  take  a  circuitous  route  through 
the  Moorish  kingdom  of  Ludamar,  into  Bambarra.  From 
Kaarta  to  Bambarra  he  could  not  immediately  proceed,  with* 
out  the  danger  of  being  apprehended  as  a  spy.  As  Mr.  Park 
was  unwilling  to  spend  the  rainy  season  in  Uie  interior,  he  re* 
Aolved  to  follow  the  route  through  Ludamar,  which  Daisy  pre* 
scribed ;  and  accordingly,  on  13th  February,  he  left  KemmoOf 
and  arrived  on  the  14th  at  Marina;  near  to  which  place  he 
taw  two  Negroes  gathering  what  they  called  tomberonge. 
As  the  account  of  these  tombcrongs  is  important,  we  shall  ex* 
^act  it : 

'  These  are  small  farinaceoiu  berries,  of  a  yeUoW  colour  and  de- 
licious tasir,  which  X  ^ne|r  $9  bf  the  fruit  of  the  rhtmmu  lotus  of 


^Q  ParkV  Travih  in  Zlftkd.  " 

Ljnnsmt.  Toe  Negroes  shewed. us-. tin>  lam .  baskets  fuH,  which 
they  bad  collected  in  the  opufse  of  the  day.  These  bernes  are  much 
f^teemfid  by  the  natives,  ^)\q  cpnTcrt  them  into  a  sort  of  bread,  by 
txposing  them  for  some  days  to  the  sun»  and  afterwards  pounding 
them  gently  in  a  wooden  mortar,  until  the  farinaceous  part  of  the 
berry  is  separated  fropi  the  stone.  This  meal  is  then  mixed  with  a 
little  water,  and  formed  jnto  cakes.;,  which,  when  dried  in  the  sun, 
mcmUe  in^olouf  and  fllivour  the  sweetest  gingerbread.  The  stones 
%re •afterwards  pt}t  into  a-yesteji  of  water,  and  shaken  about  so  as  to 
teparatethe  meal  wb.icb;^ay  still  adhere  to  them  :  this  communicates 
m  sweet  ai)d  agreeable  taste  to  the  water,  and  with  the  addition  of  a 
little. ]|ounded  millet^,  forms  a  pleasant  gruel  called  fondly  which  ia 
ihe  common  breakfast  iti  many-  parts^  of  Ludamar,  during  the  montlis 
of  February  and  March.  The  fruit  is  collected  by  pp];eading  a  cloth 
iq^n  the  ground)  and  beating  the  brandies  with  a  stick.. 
.  *  The  lotus  is  very  commpn  ia  all  the  kingdoms  which 'I  visited  { 
but  is  found  in  the  gfreausi  pleuty  on  the  sandy  soil  of  Kaartaj, 
Xiudamar}  aad-'the  nortlKTii  parts  of  B^inbarra^  .^hl^re  it  is  one  of 
ihe  most  common  shrubs  of  .the  country.  I  had  observed  the  same 
qpSCJes  at.  Gambia,  and  had  an  opportunity  to  make  a  drawing  of  a 
branch  in  flower,  of  which  an  engraving  is  given..  The  lea\'es  of  the 
^CfflCt. slu-ub  are,  howevcrj  much  smaller;  and  more  rcsembh'ng,  iu 
Ast  particular,  those  represented  in  th$;  engraving  giveir  by  Dc5« 
i[>ntainc9»in  theM^moiics  de  T Academic  Royale  des  Sciences,  178S, 

.  *  Aa  this  shrub  is  .found  in  Tunis,  an4  also  in  the  Negro  kingdoms, 
and  as  it  furnishes  the  natives  of  the  latter  with  a  food  resembling 
bread,  and  also  with  a  3wect  liouor,  which  is'much  relished  by  them, 
there  can  fee  little  doubt  of  its  being  the  lotus  mentioned  by  Plmy, 
ti  tie  food  of  the  Lybian  Lotophagi.  Ah  army  may  very  well  have 
been  fed  with  the  bread  I  have  tasted,  made  of:the  meal  of  thefrttit, 
St  is  said  by  Pliny  >to  have  been  done  in  Lybia  ;  and  as  the  taste  of 
the  bread  is  sweet  and  agreeable,  it  .is  not  likely  that  the  soldiers 
would  complain  of  it**  ....  j  .  .  , 

•  On  tl)ei8th,  Mr.  P^.nrrhretl  at  Simhlng,  the/rootier  town 
Df  Ludamar.  It  wasfrism  this  village,  he  says,  that  Major 
Houghton,  deserted  by-  his  Negroc  servants,  wrote  his  List 
lette#  with  a  pencil  to  Dr.  Laidley*.     ..:...■ 

'*  This  brave  but*  unfortunate' hianjitavfflg  turmmiWted  many  dff- 
ficiilties,  had  taken  a  northerly  direction,  and  endoarourtd  t6  pass 
through  the  kingdom  of  Lti^aman  where  1  afterwards  learned 
the  foTlowtng  particulars  conOTrhing  his  melancholy  fate.  On  his^r- 
rival •  at- Jarhi}  he  got  acquainted  with  certain  Mooiish  merchants 
who  were  traVelling  to  Tishcet  (a  place  near- the  salt  piuin  th^ 
Great  Desert,  ten  days'  journey  to  the  northward)  ^>^p^rchaae  8a\t^ 
and  .the  .^^ori  at  the  es^pense  of  a^musket  and^sothe  tobacccy  en- 
gaged them  to  convey  him  thither.  It  is"  impo'ssiferc  to'forin.  any 
o;h^r  opinion  on  this  determination,  than  that  the  Moors  intenlidnally 
deceived  him^  either  with  regard  (i>  tile 4tiute' that  he  wished  to  pur- 
sue, or  ^e  sMe  of  the-in^«nn^te^Mniry  Ibaivsiiifl.JarrifandSQiB- 
'    -*  buctoo. 

ParkV  Tnnels.inrAfncitv  a|I 

buctoo*  Their  intention  probably  was  to  jiob^d,leaye.biin  in  |be 
Desert.  At  the  end  of  two  days  he  suspected  their  treachery,  as^ 
insisted  on  returning  to  Jarra.  Finding  him  perist  In  this  deteriou- 
nation,  the  Moors  robbed  him  of  every  thing  he  possessed*  and  went 
off  with  their  camels ;  the  poor  Major  being  thus  desert ed»  returpe4 
pn  foot  to  a  watering  place  in  possession  of  the  Moors,  called  Tarni* 
He  had  been  some  days  without  food,  and  the  unfeeHng  Moors  jre* 
fusing  to  give  him  any,  he  sunk  atlast  under  his  distresses.  Whether 
he  actually  perished  of  hunger,  or  \i-as  murdered  outright  by  tbc 
savage  Mahomedans,  is  not  certainly  known  ;  his  body  was  dragged 
into  the  woods,  and  I  was  shewn  at  a  distance,  the  spot  where  hit 
remains  were  l«ft  to  perish.* 

The  war,  which  obliged  Mr.  P.  to  deviate  into  Ludamar, 
arose  from  the  circumstance  of  a  few  bullocks  having  been 
stolen  from  the  Bambarrans  by  the  Moors,  and  sold  to  the 
Dooty,  or  chief  man  of  a  town  in  Kaarta;  the  cattle  were 
claimed,  but  in  vain  ;  and,  in  his  method  of  declaring  war,  and 
of  announcing  the  fate  of  his  enemy,  the  King  of  Bambarra  ft* 
sembled  the  iScythians  who  sent  to  Alexander  a  mole  and  t 
bundle  of  arrows,  as  emblems  of  their  arts  and  prowess  : 

•  With  this  view  he  sent  a  messenger  and  a  party  of  horsemen  to 
Daisy  King  of  Kaarta,  to  inform  him  that  the  King  of  Bambarra, 
with  nine  thousand  men,  would  visit  Kcnunoo  in  the  course  of  Ac 
dry  season ;  and  to  desire  that  he  (Daisy)  would  direct  his  slaves  tft 
sweep  the  houses,  and  have  every  thing  ready  for  their  accommodil* 
tion.  The  mdsew^er  concluded  thij  insulting  notification  by  prtf» 
senting  the  Kin?  with  a  pair  of  iron  snndals  ;  at  the  same  time  %6ik 
ing,  that  <*  until  such  time  as  Daisy  had  worn  out  these  sandab 
in  his  flight,  he  should  never  be  secure  from  the  arrows  of  Bam- 

Of  the  origin  of  the  Moorish  tribes  who  inhabit  the  borderf 
of  the  Great  Desert,  little  more  seems  to  be  known  than  whaj 
is  related  by  Leo  the  African,  whose  abridged  account  is  as 

*  Before  the  Arabian  Conquest,  about  the  middle  of  the  seventh 
century,  all  the  inhabitants  of  Africa,  whether  they  were  descended 
from  Numidians,  Phoenicians,  Carthaginians,  Romans,  Vandals,  or 
Goths,  were  comprehended  under  the  general  name  of  Maurip  or 
Moors.  All  these  nations  were  converted  to  the  religion  of  Mahomet^ 
during  the  Arabian  empire  under  the  Kaliphs.  About  this  time 
many  of  the  Numidian  tribes,  who  led  a  wandering  life  in  the  De- 
sert, and  supported  themselves  upon  the  produce  of  their  cattle, 
retired  southward  across  the  Great  Desert,  to  avoid  the  fury  of  the 
Arabians  ;  and  by  one  of  those  tribes,  says  Leo,  (that  of  Zanhara) 
were  discovered  and  conquered  the  Negro  nations  on  the  Niger,  dj 
the  Niger,  is  here  undoubtedly  meant  the  river  of  Seneg^,  whi(^ 
ia  the  Mandingo  language  is  called  Bqfing^  or  the  Black  River. 


2$%  FtcA^s 'Travels  in  Africa. 

*  To  what  extent  these  people  are  now  spread  over  the  African 
eo&tmenty  tt  it  dxfficuk  to  ascertain.  There  is  reason  to  beliere,  that 
their  dominion  stretches  from  West  to  £ast»  in  a  narrpw  line  or  belt 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Seqegal  (on  the  northern  side  of  that  river, ) 
to  the  confines  of  Abyssinia*  They  are  a  subtle  and  treacherous 
'  race  of  people ;  and  take  every  opportunity  of  cheating  and  plunder- 
ing the  credulous  and  unsuspectmg  Negroes.  But  their  manners 
and  general  habits  of  life  will  be  best  explained,  as  incidents  occur 
in  the  course  of  my  narrative.' 

On  Mr.  Park's  arrival  at  Jarra,  the  frontier  town  of  the 
Moorish  kingdom  of  Ludamar,  he  solicited  by  presents  the 
leave  of  Ali,  the  King,  to  pass  through  his  territories  \  which 
was  granted.  The  author  accordingly  left  Jarra  on  the  27  th  of 
February  \  and  here  began  his  mialortunes.  The  Moors,  un- 
feeling, proud,  ignorant,  and  fanatical,  hissed,  shouted  at, 
tnd  abused  him  \  they  plundered  him,  and  openly  ;  for  it  wa9 
lawful,  they  said,  for  a  Mohammedan  to  plunder  a  Christian. 
yk.  P.  however  pursued  his  journey,  and  on  March  14^1 
leached  Sampak^  a  Urge  towi^ ;  where  he  lodged  at  the  bouse 
of  a  Negroe  who  m^de  gunpo^rder. 

<  The  nitre  is  procured  in  considerable  quantities  finom  the  ponds 
which  are  filled  in  the  rainy  season,  and  to  which  the  cattle  resort  for 
^coolness  during  the  heat  of  the  day.  When  the  water  is  evaporated*  a 
white  efflorescence  is  observed  on  th?  mud,  which  the  natives  collect 
and  purify  in  such  a  manner  f  s  to  answer  t^eir  pyrpos^.  The  Moors 
•opply  them  with  sulphur  fron^  the  Medkerr^neai) ;  and  the  process 
is  completed  by  pounding  the  different  article^  together  in  a  wooden 
fVortar.  The  grains  are  very  unequal,  and  the  sound  of  its  ex- 
plosion is  by  no  means  so  sharp  as  that  produced  by  European  gua« 

At  the  village  of  *Samce,  Mr.  Part  was  seized  by  a  party 
of  Moors,  and'  conduacd  back  to  Bcnown,  the  residence  of 
Ali.  He  sufFeted  here  all  that  religious  hatred  and  sportive 
cruelty  could  inflict;  solitude  and  confinement  were  punishments 
too  light  for  a  forlorn  traveller  and  a  Christian  ;  and  except 
the  persecution  was  continual,  the  malice  of  the  Moors  was 
not  satisfied.  His  eyes  were  to  have  been  put  out  merely  be- 
cause they  looked  like  cat*^  eyc^,  and  he  escaped  death  only  by 
the  circumstance  of  a  pistol  twice  missing  fiie. 

At  lengih,  after  a  variety  of  hardships,  Mr.  Park  was  fortu- 
nate enough  on  the  2d  of  Julv  to  escape  from  the  Mcors.  Tra- 
versing the  wilderness,  in  which  he  suffered  exceedingly  from 
hunger  and  thirst,  on  the  5th  July  he  reached  a  Negroe  town 
called  Wawra,  belonging  to  Mansong  King  of  Bambarra. 
Continuing  his  journey  from  this  place,  in  company  with  some 
inhabitants  of  Kaarta,   he  passed  through  several  towns  of 

Bambarra  \ 

mbarra  $  and  on  the  2  ist  of  July  he  came  in  nght  of  Sego, 
1  <  of  the  great  object  of  his  mission ;  the  long  sought«for 
ger,  glittering  to  the  morning  sun,  as  broad  as  the  Thames 
Westminster,  and  flowing  slowly  to  the  iasi%»ari. — <  I  hast- 
ed to  the  brink/  says  Mr.  Park»  <  and,  having  drank  of  the 
Iter,  lifted  up  my  fervent  thanks  in  prayer,  to  the  great  Ruler 
all  things,  for  having  thus  far  crowned  my  endei^ours  with 

The  city  of  Sego,  the  capital  of  Bambarra,  consists  of  four 
tinct  towns,  two  on  the  northern  and  two  on  the  southern 
e  of  the  Niger.  These  are  surrounded  with  high  mud 
Us  ;  the  houses  are  built  of  clay,  and  are  of  a  square  form, 
th  flat  roofs  :  the  number  of  inhabitants  is  nearly  thirtf 
>usand.  'i'he  boats  here  used  for  crossing  the  Niger,  or  Jo« 
a,  (great  waters,)  are  composed  of  the  trunks  of  two  large 
es  joined  together,  not  side  by  side,  but  endways.  1&» 
rk  was  prevented  from  crossing  over  to  the  southern  bank 
the  Niger,  by  an  order  from  Mansong  King  of  Bambarra^ 
1  was  advised  to  spend  the  night  in  a  distant  village.  At 
s  village,  however,  no  one  would  receive  biqa }  and  be  was 
sparing  to  pass  the  night  on  the  branches  of  a  trec»  in  hunger 
d  amid  a  storm,  when  he  was  relieved  by  a  woman  who  was 
urning  from  the  labours  of  the  field.  It  was  at  the  hut  of 
s  female  that  his  wants  were  relieved  and  his  sorrows  sung. . 
i'he  female  part  of  the  family  lightened  their  labour  by  songSy 
;  of  which  WHS  composed  extempore;  for  I  was  myself  the 
>ject  of  it.  It  was  sung  by  one  of  the  young  women,  die 
t  joining  in  a  sort  of  chorus.  The  air  was  sweet  and  plain* 
!,  and  the  words,  literally  translated,  were  these.— <<  The 
ids  roared,  and  the  rains  fell.— -The  poor  white  man,  faint 
I  weary,  came  and  bat  under  our  tree.— He  has  no  mother 
bring  him  milk  \  no  wife  to  grind  his  corn.  Cboru:.  Let  us 
|r  the  white  man  \  no  mother  has  he,  &c.  &c/'-— At  the  end 
the  volume,  we  find  these  words  formed  into  verse  by  the 
ichess  of  Devonshire,  and  set  to  music  by  Ferrari.  7bf 
ig  is  as  follows  ; 

*  The  loud  wind  roat'd,  the  rain  fell  last: 
The  White  Man  yielded  to  the  blast  2 
He  sat  him  doK^n,  beneath  our  tree  % 
For  weary,  sad,  and  faint  was  he. 
And  ah,  no  wife  or  mother's  care. 

For  him,  the  milk  or  corn  prepare : 


•  7ht  IVhitt  Man  shall  our  pity  than  f 
Alasf  no  nvtfe  or  mother's  earCf 

For  him,  the  milk  or  corn  fn^ari. 

II.  The 

%f}^  fiStVi  Travds  h  Juries. 

.:••■.    ;  •      ...       ,j^..   .  •  .•       ,.• 

. .  .    #.  Yfiir  Btorm  i»  6'cr ;  the  tempest  part ; 
-  •  ^  Ani  yitPtf*^  voice  has  hush'd  the  blait/ 
The  wind  »  heard  in  Whisperllbw  ;  - 
•The  White  Man  far  away  most  go  ;— 
.    ^      .3ut  .erer  in  his  heart  willbear 

J^membrMce  of  thfp.N^p'^.csrc.  .        . 


^  Goy  White  Many  go  i^ia  ninth  the^hear 
.  .J,-.  V   Tif^Negno^f  tuuL^  the^egro^s  prayer  ; 
l::."    :  ^.I^-^PfP^^^^^  ofibfi  Negroes  care  J  : 
:rThc£ingof  Bambarra.  having  heard,  from  the  Moors  of 
l^ego^  uhftivourab]^  reports  cif  Mr.  P.,  sent  him  a  bag  con* 
ta&img. five  thousand  kowries  *,  and  an  order  to  quit  Sego;  lA 
eonsfeqiience  of  wbich^  the  traveller  proceeded  eastward  along 
the.  banks  .6fth^  Niger.     Near  to  a  town  called  Kabba,  he 
observed  the  people  eoflec^vi^  the   fniit  of  the  Shea  trees^ 
from  which* the  vegetable  bikter  is  prepared. 

^  ThfcSi^f  rees  (say^'Mi'.  IJ.)  gtow  in  great  abundance  all  over  this 

Krt  M>f  *'Fambarral  They  arc  not  planted  by  the  natives,  but  are 
tin4;grt»wiflg 'naturally  in  the  woods;  and,*  in  clearing  wood  land 
for  culrtvatiion^  every  tree  is  cut  down  but  the  Shea*  The  tree  it- 
self vilry.  touch  reseiables  the  American  oak;  and  the  fruit,  from 
the.keri^^l.of  which,  beihg.&st  dried  in  the  sun,  the  butter  is  pro* 
parcd^  by  boiling  tlie  kernel  in  water,  has  somewhat  the  appearance 
of  a  Spanish  olive.  The  kernel  is  enveloped  in  a  sweet  pulp,  under  . 
a  thin  green  rind';  and  the  butter  produced  from  it,  besides. the  ad- 
vantage of  its  keeping  the  whole  year  witliout  salt,  is  whiter, 
firmer,  arid,  to  my  palate;  of  a  richer  flavour,  than  the  best  butteV 
I^evtfr  tasted  made  from  cow*6  milk.  The  growth  and  preparation 
trf.  this  eommodity  seem  to  be  among  the  fost  objects  of  African 
todostry  in  this  and  the  neighbouring  states ;  and  it  constitutes  a  main 
aitticld  of  their  inland  commerce.' 

-  Pursuing  his  course  along  the  banks  of  the  Niger,  which  arc 
very,  delightful,  Mr.  Patk  passed  through  the  towns  of  Modi- 
hth  andKea,  and  reached  Moorzan ;  here  he  crossed  the 
Niger  to  Silia,  the  end  of  his  journey  eastward.  The  rda- 
aons  which  detcrmincd.him  to  ]proQeed  no  farther  are  sufficient 
to  justify  him  ;  he  was  wome  down  by  sicknesSi  hunger,  and 
fatigue  i  he  was  without  any  article  of  value  to  procure  provi- 
sions ;  the  King  of  Bambarra's  kowries  were  nearly  spent ;  if 
he  were  to  subsist  by  charity,  he  must  rely  cxn  Moorish  charity; 
if  he  continued  his  journey,  it  must,  t^  through  ^  country 
subjected  to  the  power  of  Moors,  and  he  bad  experienced  the 

-.  '  — I 

*  Kowries,  or  small  shells,  250  of  which  are  uearly  equal  In  value 
to  a  shQling. 

.     -  Moors 

Moors  to  be  metciless  fanatics :  he  might*  g«in  no  tftevinforstitiolfri 
and  what  he  had  gained  might  perish  with  him;  Before  He  left 
Silla,  howcTcr,  he  inquired  from  Moorish  and  Negrqe  tniderSy 
the  course  of  the  Niger,"  and  tfte  connfries  situated 'in  its  vi- 
cinity. '  The  irrformittion  wliich' tc  reiceivcrd  will  be.foand  in 
pp.  2 1 3—2  r  7.  .  We  hpd.dc§igiv^cltqe;c tract  it,  bu(  we  jJctceive 
that  our  limits  will  not  admit  so  farge  a  quotation.— -As  to  the 
ytent  of  th&.Nig«E,  Mr^  P.'s  best^^nfbrmanCs  were  ignorant  6^ 
its  termination ;.  dt:scribing  tlx  amazing  length  of  its  course 
qnly  ia  generahtermsi  and  saymg  that  theybeKeye  2/  tj^nj  u 
thi  worlds r end,  •  ; A     .  •  ./;  -  . . 

Owing  to  the  swarrtpf  on;  the'^sirtitherh  "batik  ^f  th«  Niger, 
Mr.  P.' was  oblijged  to  rctnrn  westward  on  the  northern  bank* 
^e  avoided  Scgo;  and,  instead  of  re- tracing  Kis  former  route, 
he  continued  his  jqurnfy  alpbg.  the  Niger  i'dep<?nding  (f>tji, 
precarious  subsi^tencei  fiid  for  acconunodatiop^  on  the^  cbarifjc 
of  the  NegKoeSr  and  some4fi?es  purchasing  relief  by '  wiition 
saphies,  or  charms  to  prOciir^^f  esillJi.-inid  aj^oid  qiisfoftufte;  \a 
these  saphies,  both  the  Moharn'me'dair' and  Pa^n  native*  place 
i  Buperstttious  confidence.         ;      "' .  . 

At  a  town  called  Bamraakoo^,  Mf*.'-3P.  quitted  the  Nijgef,  and 
proceeded  to  Sibrdooloo,  the  fronrieritbwn  of  the  kingdom  of 
Manding.  After  having  remained  here  a  few  days^  he  pur<p 
sued  his  journey  to  Kamalia,  where  he  was  kindly  received  bf, 
a  Bushrecn  named  Kafra  Taura.  Kafra  informed  Mr.  P.  that 
k  was  impossible  to  pass  the  Jalonka  Wiidernes&  at  that  season 
of  the  year  :  he  offered  to  lodge. and  subsist  him  till  the  tima 
when  the  rivers  should  be  Tordable  and  the  grass  burnt ;  and 
finally  to  take  him  along  with  the  caravan  to  Gambia.  Influx 
cfnced  by  the  kindness  of  Karfa,  and  by  the  prospect  of  dangem 
which  awaited  him,  if  he  immediately  pursued  his  jbumey^ 
JUr.P.  remained  at  Kamalia  from  the  i6tb  of  September  to  the 
19th  of  April.  During  this  long  interval,  he  was-diligent  in 
augmenting  his  information  concerning  the  climate,  the  produc«- 
tions  of  the  country,  the  manners,  customs,  and  dispositions  of 
the  natives^  and  the  chief  branches  of  their  commerce.  Of 
the  climate^  winds^  &c.  he  thus  writes : 

*  The  whole  of  .my  route,  both  in  going  and  returning,  having 
been  confined  to  a  tract  of  coimtry  bouudcdnearly  by  the  12th  and 
I  Cth  parallels  of  latitude,  the  reader  must  imagine  that  I  found  the 
cumate  in  most  places  extremely  hot ;  but  no  where  did  I  feel  the 
heat  so  intense  and  oppressive  a«  in  the  camp  at  Benown,  of  which 
mention  has  been  made  in  a  former  place.  In  some  parts,  where  the 
(Country  ascends  into  hills,  the  air  is  at  all  times  comparatively  cool ; 
ypt  none  of  the  districts  which  I  traversed,  could  properly  be  called 
tnountaiflous.  About  the  middle  of  June,  the  hot  and  sultry  atmo* 
3  sphere 

15^  ^^Vf  Trawtf  In  Jfriei. 

iplicreil  aptated  by  violent  gotts  of  wind,  (calkd  MnmbAf/y)  acdbih* 
panied  with  thunder  and  rain.  These  usher  in  what  it  denominated 
ib$  rmaf  ieaumi  which  eontinucs  until  the  month  of  November. 
]>uria|^  this  time,  the  diurnal  rains  are  veiy  heaiyy  ;^  and  the  prevail- 
iag  wmdi  are  from  the  south- wett.  The  termination  of  the  rainy 
teason  is  likewise  attended  with  violent  tornadoes  ;  after  which  thie 
wind  shifts  to  the  north-east,  and  continues  to  blow  from  that  quartert 
iiiring  the  rest  of  the  year. 

<  When  the  wind  sets  in  from  the  north-east,  it  produces  a 
llriDndefful  change  in  the  face  of  the  country.  The  grass  soon  be- 
eomes  dry  and  withered ;  the  river*  subside  very  rapidly,  and  many 
of  the  trees  shed  thdr  leaves.  About  this  period  is  commonly  fek 
the  iMrmo^iM,  a  dry  and  parching  windf  blowing  from  the  north-east, 
and  accompanied  by  a  thiek  smbaky  haze ;  through  which  the  sun 
appears  of  a  dull  red  colour.  This  wind,  in  passin?  over  the  great 
desert  of  Sahara,  ao^uires  a  very  stronjg  attraction  for  humidity,  and 
parches  up  every  thmg  exposed  to  its  current.  It  is,  however, 
reckoned  vcrv  salutary,  particularly  to  Europeans,  who  generally 
fceover  their  health  during  its  continuance.  I  expcrieneed  immediate 
ratief  from  sickneH,  both  at  Dr.  Laidley'e,  and  at  Kamalia,  during 
the  harmattan.  Indeed,  the  air  during  the  rainy>ea8on  is  so  loaded 
with  moisture,  that  cloths,  shoes,  truoKs,  and  every  ^hing  that  is  not 
dose  to  the  &re,  become  damp  and  mouldy ;  and  the  inhabitants 
may  be  said  to  live  in  a  sort  of  vapour  bath :  but  this  dry  wind 
braces  up  the  solids,  which  were  before  relaxed,  gives  a  cheerful 
flow  of  spirits,  and  is  even  pleasant  to  respiration.  Its  ill  effects  are, 
that  it  produces  chaps  in  theUps,  and  afflicts  many  of  the  natives  with 
tore  eyes. 

•  Whenever  the  grass  is  sufficiently  dry,  the  Negroes  set  It  oft 
fire }  but  in  Ludamar,  and  other  Moorish  countries,  this  practice  {» 
not  allowed ;  for  it  is  upon  the  withered  stubble  that  the ,  Moors  feed 
thdr  cattle,  until  the  return  of  the  rains.  The  burning  the  grass  in 
Mandinff  exhibits  a  scene  of  terrific  grandeur.  In  the  middle  of  the 
night,  I  could  see  the  plains  and  mountains,  as  far  as  my  eye  could 
reach,  variegated  with  lines  of  fire  ;  and  the  light  refitctea  on  the 
sky,  made  iTie  heavens  appear  in  a  blaze.  In  the  day  time,  pillars 
of  smoke  were  seen  in  every  direction  ;  while  the  birds  of  prey  were 
observed  hovering  round  the  conflagration,  and  pouncing  down  upon 
the  snakes,  lizards,  and  other  reptiles,  which  attempted  to  escape 
from  the  flames.  This  annual  burning  is  soon  follovred  by  a  fresh 
and  sweet  verdure,  and  the  country  is  thereby  rendered  more  healthful 
and  pleasant. 

*  Of  the  most  remarkable  and  Important  of  the  vegetable  pTX>^ 
ductions,  mention  has  already  been  made  ;  and  they  are  nearly  the 
same  in  all  tlie  districts  through  wliich  I  passed.  It  is  observable, 
however,  that  although  many  species  of  the  tdible  roots,  which 

•  grow  in  the  West-India  Islands,  arc  found  in  Africa,  yet  1  never 
saw,  in  any  part  of  my  journey,  either  the  sugar.cane,  the  coffee, 
or  the  cacao  tree ;  nor  could  I  learn,  on  inquiry,  that  they  were 
known  to  the  natives.  The  pinc-appIe,  and  the  thousand  other 
delicious  fruits,  which  the  industry  of  civxUzcd  man  (improving  the 


ParkV  frave/s  in  Ajfidt*  iyf 

tounties  of  nature )»  has  brought  to  so  great  perfection  in  the  troK 
pical  climates  of  Amcrica>  are  here  equally  unknown.  I  observed^ 
indeed,  ^  few  orange  and  banana  <rees,  near  the  mouth  of  the 
Gambia ;  but  whether  they  were  indigenous^  or  were  formerly  planted 
there  by  some,  of  the  white  traders,  I  could  not  positively  learn* 
1  suspect,  that  they  were  onginally  introduced  by  the  Portuguese. 

*  Concerning  property  in  the  soil ;  it  appeared  to  me  that  the  landt' 
In  native  woods,  were  considered  as  belonging  to  the  king,  or  (where 
the  ffovemment  was  not  monarchical)  to  the  state.  IJV^en  any  in- 
dividual of  free  condition,  had  the  means  of  Cultivating  more  land 
than  he  actually  possessed,  he  applied  to  the  chief  man  of  the  districty 
who  allowed  him^  an  extension  of  territory,  on  condition  of  forfeiture 
if  the  lands  were  not  brought  into  cultivation  by  a  given  period. 
The  condition  being  fulfilled,  the  soil  became  vested  in  tne  possessor  ; 
and,  for  aught  that  fippeared  to  me,  descended  to  his  heirs. 

*  The  population,  however,  considering  the  extent  and  fertility  of 
the  soil,  and  the  ease  with  which  lands  arc  obtained,'  is  not  veiy 
great,  iti  the  countries  which  I  visited.  I  found  many  extensive 
and  beautiful  districts,  entirely  destitute  of  inhabitants  {  and  m  •  ge« 
neral,  the  borders  of  the  different  kingdoms,  were  either  very  thinly. 
peof^ed*  or  entirely  deserted.  Many  places  arc  likew'Sw'  unfavourable 
to  population,  from  being  unhealthful.  The  swampy  banks  of  the 
Gambia,  the  Senegal,  and  other  rivers  towards  the  Coast,  are  ot 
tjiis  description,  rerhaps,  it  is  on  this  account  chiefly,  that  tKc 
interior  countries  abound  more  w^ith  inhabitants,  than  the  maritime 
districts ;  for  all  the  Negp-o  nations  that  fell  under'  my  observation,, 
though  divided  into  a  number  of  petty  independent  spates,  subsist' 
chiefly  by  the  same  means, 'live  nearly  in  the  same  temperature,  and 
possess  a  wonderful  similarity  of  disposition.  The  Mandinfiroes,  in 
particular,  arc  a  very  gentle  race ;  cheerful  in  their  dispositions,  in* 
quisitive,  credulous,  simple,  and  fond  of  flattery.  Perhaps,  the  most 
prominent  defect  in  their  character,  is  that  insurmountable  propen- 
sity, which  the  reader  must  have  observed  to  prevail  in  all  classes  of 
them^  to  steal  from  me  the  few  effects  I  was  possessed  of*' 

Concerning  the  disposition  of  the  women,  Mr.  Park's  testi- 
mony agrees  with  that  of  Mr.  Lcdyard;  They  are  uniformly' 

Among  the  Negroes,  plurality  of  wives  is  allowed.  Al- 
though the  African  husbands  possess  unlimited  authority,  they 
are  not  cruel,  and  rarely  jealous:  instances-of  conjugal  infi- 
delity are  not  common. 

The  Africans  have  no  astronomical  knowlege  ;  and  the  little 
which  they  pretend  to  know  of  geography  is  fal|t :  they  ima- 
gine that  the  earth  is  an  extended  plain,  beyond  which  is  the 
sea ;  or  river  of  salt  water  \  and  on  the  farther  shores  of 
which  arc  situated  two  countries  called  Tobaudo  doo  and  Jong 
sang  doo,  *  the  land  of  the  white  people/  and  *  the  land  where 
slaves  are  sold.' 

Rev.  Jult,  1799.  T  In 

2gt ,  Park'/  Travels  in  J/rksm . 

In  a  chapter  on  the  state  and  sources  of  slavery  in  AfriCJi,^ 
Mr.  P.  declines  the  discussion  of  the  question  how  far  the' 
system  of  slavery  is  promoted  by  the  slave  traffic  carried  on  by 
the  nations  of  Europe,  and  merely  expresses  his  belief  that,  ia 
the  present  unenlightened  sute  of  the  minds  of  the  Africans, 
<  a  discontinuance  of  the  slave  trade  would  not  be  attended 
vith  so  [such]  beneficial  effects  as  many  wise  and  worthy  persons 

The  length  of  our  extracts  and  observations  prevents  ns  from 
noticing  the  manner  of  collecting  gold  dust,  and  the  process 
observed  in  washing  it.  We  must  go  back  to  Kamalia^  and 
hasten  Mr.  Park*s  return  to  England. 

On  the  19th  of  April,  Mr.  P.  with  Karfa,  four  slatees,  and 
the  caravan  of  27  slaves,  left  Kamalia,  and  on  the  23d  they 
entered  the  Jallonka  Wilderness ;  which  was  traversed  on  foot, 
and  with  great  expedition,  in  five'days:  the  distance  acrosa  the 
Wilderness  is  an  hundred  miles.  After  having  crossed  the 
black  river,  a  principal  branch  of  the  Senegal,  the  caravan 
arrived  on  May  3d  at  MalacoUa  ;  where  Mr.  P.  obtained  in- 
formation of  a  war  which  had  happened  between  the  Kings  of 
Foota  Torra  and  of  Jalbff.  The  account  of  this  war  is  »ngu- 
l^r  and  curious ;  it  remmds  us  of  the  story  of  Tamerlane  and 
Bajazct  *. 

•  Tlic  King  of  Foota  Torra,  inflamed  with  a  real  for  propagating 
}nn  religion,  had  tent  an  embassy  to  Darnel,  similar  to  that  which 
lie  had  sent  to  Kawon,  as  related  in  page  79.  The  ambassador^  on 
the  present  occasion,  was  accompanied  by  two  of  the  principal 
Buehreens,  who  carried  each  a  large  knife,  fixed  on  the  top  of  s 
long  pole.  As  soon  as  he  bad  procured  admission  into  the  pre- 
sence of  Darnel,  and  announced  the  pleasure  of  his  sovereign,  he 
•rdered  the  Bushreens  to  present  the  emblems  of  hit  nussion.  The 
two  knive&  were  accordingly  laid  before  Damel,  and  the  ambassador 
wplained  himself  as  follows  :  "With  this  knife,  (said  he,)  Abdul - 
kader  will  condescend  to  shave  the  head  of  Damel y  ifDamcl  will  em- 
brace thcMahomedan^faith;  and  with  this  other  knife,  Abdulkader  will 
cut  the  throat  of  Damel,  if  Darnel  refuses  to  embrace  it :— take  your 
choice.'*  Damel  coolly  told  the  ambassador  that  he  had  no  choice  to 
make :  he  neither  chose  to  have  his  head  shaved,  nor  his  throat  cut  5 
and  with  this  answer  the  ambassador  was  civilly  dismissed.  Abdul- 
kader took  his  measures  accordingly,  and  with  a  powerful  aimy 
invaded  Damcl's  country.  The  inliabitants  of  the  towns  and  villages 
filled  up  their  wells,  destroyed  their  provisions,  carried  off  their 
effects,  and  abandoned  their  dwellings,  as  he  approached.  By  this 
means  he  was  led  on  from  place  to  place,  until  he  had  advanced  three 
day's  journey  into  the  country  of  the  Jaloffs.  He  tiad,  indeed,  met 
with  no  opposition  ;  but  his  army  had  suffered  so  much  from  the 
'  '  '       •  ^  •  'I       ^—i— 1  ■  1 11    a 

*  •  Gibbon,  vol.  vL  410. 


ParkV  Travels  In  Africa,  Sjp 

fcarcity  of  water,  that  several  of  hw  meo  had  died  by  the  wav» 
This  induced  him  to  direct  his  march  towards  a  watering  place  m 
the  woods,  where  his  xrcn,  having  quenched  their  thirst,  and  being 
overcome  with  fatigue,  lay  down  carelessly  to  sleep  among  the  bushes. 
In  this  situation  they  were  attacked  by  Darnel  before  daybreak, 
and  completely  routed.  Many  of  them  were  trampled  to  death  as 
the)'  lay  asleep,  by  the  Jaloff  horses  ;  others  were  killed  in  atten^pt- 
ing  to  make  their  escape ;  and  a  still  greater  •  number  were  taken 
prisoners.  Among  the  latter,  was  Abdulkader  himself.  This  am- 
bitious, or  rather  frantic  prince,  who,  but  a  month  before,  had  seiit 
the  threatening  message  to  Darnel,  was  now  himself  led  into  hit 
presence  as  a  miserable  captive.  •  The  behaviour  of  Darnel,  on  this 
occasion,  is  never  mentioned  by  the  singing  men,  but  in  terms  of 
the  highest  approbation  ;  and  it  was,  indeed,  80  TXtracftdinary,  fa 
^n  African  prince,-  that  thp  reader  may  fintj  it  difficult  to  give  credit 
to  the  recital.  When  his  royal  prisoner  was  brought  be/ore  hiin  la 
irons,  and  thrown  upon  the  ground,  the  magnanimous  Damel^-in- 
stead  of  setting  his  foot  upon  his  neck,  and  stabbing^  him  Vith-^liit 
spear,  according  to  custom  in  such  cases,  addressed  Tum  as  follows* 
**  Abdulkader,  answer  me  this' question.  If  the  chance  of  war  had  • 
placed  me  in  your  situation^  and  you  in  mine,  how  would  you  have 
.  treated  me  V*  *^  I  wonM  'have  thrust  Vfty  speaf  tnfb  ybur  heart  j'* 
returned  Abdulkader  with  great  firmness,  ^<  and  I  know  that  a  simihr 
fate  awaits  me.''  "  Not  so,  (said  Damel)  my  spear  is  indeedincd 
with  the  blood  of  your  subjects  killed  in  battle,  and  I  could  now 
give  it  a  deeper  stain,  by  dipping  it  in  your  own.;  but  this  would 
not  build  up  my  towns,  nor  bring  to  life  tiie  thousands  who  fell  in 
the  w©ods.  I  will  not  therefore  kill  you  in  cold  bl#bid,  but  I  wHl 
retain  you  as  my  blavc,  until  I  perceive  that  your  presience  in  your 
own  kingdom  will  be  no  longer  dangerous  to  your  neighbours  ;  and 
then  I  will  consider  of  the  proper  way  of  disposing  of  you.'*  Ab- 
dulkader was  accordingly  retained,  and  worked  as  a  slave,  for  three 
months  r  at  the  end  of  which  period,  Damel  listened  to  the  solicit- 
ations  of  the  inhabitants  of  Foota  Torra,  and  restored  to  them  their 
king.  Strange  as  this  story  may  appear,  I  have  no  doubt  of  the 
truth  of  it ;  it  was  told  me  at  Malacotta  by  the  Negroes ;  it  was 
afterwards  related  to  mc  by  the  Europeans  on  the  Gambia  :  by  some 
of  the  Frenclv  at  Goree  ;  and  confirmed  by  nine  blaves,  who  were 
taken  prisoners  along  with  Abdulkader,  by  the  watering  place. in 
the  woods,  and  carried  in  the  same  ship  with  mc  to  the  West 

"WHthout  experiencing  any  extraordinary  hardships,  or  re- 
markable accidents,  the  caravan,  after  a  journey  of  500  mile^ 
on  the  4th  of  June  1797,  arrived  at  Medina,  the  capital  of  the 
King  of  WooUi's  dominions,  which  Mr.  P.  had  left  in  Decem- 
ber 1795.  He  proceeded  hence  to  Pisania,  and  there  met 
with  his  friend  Dr.  Laidlcy,  who  received  him  with  great  joy 
and  satisfaction  as  one  risen  from  the  dead.  He  had  now  an 
opportunity  of  recompensing  his  benefactor  Karfa,  the  kind 
slave-merchant,  who  parted  from  him  with  great  regret.— On 

T  2  the 


«(6  AHenV  Uistorj  efiht  State  »f  Vermont. 

(he  J  7th  of  June,  Mr.  P.  took  his  passage  on  board  an  American 
Ihip  which  had  entered  the  river  Gambia  in  order  to  purchase 
slaves,  and  in  3;  days  arrived  at  Antigua;  which  port  they 
^ere  obliged  to  make  on  account  of  the  leakincss  of  the  vessel. 
On  the  24th  of  November  Mr.  P.  took  his  passage  in  the  Ches- 
terfield  packet,; and  arrived  in  England  on  the. 2 2d  of  Decern* 
ber  1 7^7 ;  after  an  absence  of  two  years  and  seven  months. 

The  Tplume  concludes  with  the  insertion,  entire,  of  the 
Geographical  Illustrations  and  Maps  of  Major  Rennell,  before 
mentioned,  and  noticed  in  our  a6th  volume.  A  portrait  of 
.Mr.  Park,  s^id  several  other  plates,  are  also  introduced.  VJkgiA 

W^mmmmm-m^mmm^^mmmm  iii  ill  i  aiii  ■■  i.»  . 

Ant.  II.  7be  JhOurat  Und  FoUttcMl  History  of  the  State  of  Vermont^ 
one  of  the  United  States  of  America.  To  which  is  added,  an  Ap* 
pcndix,  contafning  Answers  to  sundry  Queries,  addressed  to  the 
Author.  Ej  Ira  Allen,  Esquire,  Major^tycnend  of\he  Militia  in 
the  State  of  Vermont.  8vo.  pp.  500.  6s.  Boards.  West. 

THS  author  of  these  memoirs  was  an  active  agent  in 
most  of  the  political  measures  which  have  been  pursued 
bjr^c  inhabitants  of  Vermont,  towards  their  establishment  a# 
a  free  and  independent  state.  The  professed  design  of  this 
publication  is  *  to  lay  open  the  source  of  contention  between  ' 
Vermont  and  New  York,  and  the  reasons  which  induced  the 
jformer  to  repudiate  both  the  jurisdiction  and  claim  of  the 
htter,  before  and  during  the  American  revolution,  and  also  to 
point  out  the  embarrassments  which  the  people  met  with  in 
Ibunding  and  establishing  the  independence  of  the  State  against 
the  intrigues  and  claims  of  New  Tork>  New  Hampshire,  and 

While  Canada  was  subject  to  France,  very  few  settlements 
had  been  made  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Green  Mountaim^ 
(whence  the  country  derives  its  present  name,  Vermont^  but, 
en  the  reduction  of  Canada  by  the  British  forces,  the  few 
French  who  had  formed  settlements  to  the  east  of  Lake  Cham* 
plain  abandoned  their  plantations,  and  removed  to  Canada, 
with  the  Indiana  who  had  inhabited  thereabout,  and  <  ^o 
had  been  a  heavy  scourgb  to  the  frontiers  of  New  England, 
from  tjie  first  settlement  in  j  620*' 

In  the  year  1759,  the  Governor  of  New  Hampshire,  in  pur- 
fuance  of  orders  and  instructions  from  his  Majesty  and  the 
Privy  Council  in  Great  Britain,  made  grants  of  lands  on  the 
west  side  of  Connecticut  river,  north  of  the  Massachusett  line  of 
boundary.  On  the  conclusion  of  the  war  with  France,  the  coun« 
tsy,  before  almost  a  wiMcmcss,  haying  no  longer  any  enemies 

AllcnV  HtsUry  of  the  State  rfVertmit^  ^hl 

to  apprebendj  was  rapidly  settled,  and  increased  fast  in  popu^ 
lation.  In  1763,  the  government  of  New  York  issued  a  pro* 
clamation,  claiming  the  right  of  jurisdiction  over  the  countrf 
west  of  Connecticut  river,  in  virtue  of  a  grant  made  by  Ktn^ 
Charles  II.  to  the  Duke  of  York.  To  prevent  the  settlers 
from  being  intimidated,  the  Governor  of  New  Hampshire 
made  another  proclamation,  declaring  that  the  grant  to  the 
Duke  of  York  was  obsolete*  The  government  of  New  York^ 
however,  persisted,  and  made  new  grants  of  lands  ah-eadf 
settled  in  right  of  grants  from  the  Governor  of  New  Hampshire* 
The  first  settlers  resisted  the  claimants  under  the  New  York 
grants  *,  and,  for  a  length  of  time,  the  dispute  was  carried  oa 
with  great  eagerness  and  violence  on  both  sides  ;  the  govern- 
ment of  New  York  and  the  people  of  Vermont  being  in  almost 
9  state  of  war  against  each  other  for  several  yeans :  the  go« 
Tcrnment  of  New  York  endeavouring  to  maintain  their  grants 
by  forcibly  seizing  and  driving  out  the  first  settlers;  and  the 
people  of  Vermont,  besides  retaliating  in  like  manner  against 
the  New  York  grants,  inflicting  the  punishment  of  whipping 
(liberally  enough  bestowed)  on  the  sheriff's  officers  sent  trom 
New  York,  and  on  several  otiiers  who  acted  gainst  the  Ver* 
nlont  interest.  Congress,  at  different  times,  during  and  after 
the  American  war,  interfered  i  yet  the  dispute  was  not  finally 
adjusted  till  the  year  1790,  when  it  was  amicably  terminated; 
and,  shortly  afterward,  the  state  of  Vermont  was  acknowleged^ 
and  admitted  into  the  Federal  Union. 

Some  of  the  transactions  exhibit  curious  instances  of  state, 
manceuvre  and  intrigue.  The  Governor  and  a  party  in  the 
Council  of  Vermont,  finding  Congress  not  well  disposed  to 
their  inteiest,  and  thei